march 1914

General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck (20 March 1870 – 9 March 1964).

Starting in 1914, he led a relentless guerrilla campaign in German East Africa that is considered  one of the most effective in military history.

With a force that never exceeded 14.000 men (many of whom were non-front line units and local porters), he managed to keep in check a force of over 300.000 British soldiers.

In November 1918, still oblivious to the Armistice that had been signed 2 days before, he captured the town of Kasama and kept advancing towards Katanga, to the south-west of his position. On the way he met a local British magistrate, who informed him of the Armistice. He then decided to surrender.

He had virtually never been defeated on the field since the beginning of the war.

5

Another beautiful part of Guernsey:

“A work of art and a labour of love, the Little Chapel is possibly the smallest chapel in the world. It was built by Brother Déodat who started work in March 1914. His plan was to create a miniature version of the famous grotto and basilica at Lourdes in France. Guardianship of the Little Chapel now rests with Blanchelande Girls College which is run by a Charitable Trust. The Little Chapel is beautifully decorated with seashells, pebbles and colourful pieces of broken china and the College has an ongoing programme of repairs and improvements.”

If anyone ever visits, this is a must see. The detail and dedication is shown throughout, something always catches your eye.

anonymous asked:

It's a joke, but was dyeing hair blue actually a thing back then?

I can’t find much on blue hair dye that isn’t referring to blue-black, however…

The Montana Post, Virginia City, Montana, June 4, 1869

The Weekly Republican, Plymouth, Indiana, April 28, 1870

Interior Journal, Stanford, Kentucky, February 23, 1883

Pine Bluff Daily Graphic, Arkansas, January 22, 1901

The Pickens Sentinel, South Carolina, April 30, 1914

The Evening World, New York, January 21, 1914

The Salt Lake Tribune, Utah, February 1, 1914

The Lima News, Ohio, February 2, 1914

The Washington Times, Washington DC, February 26, 1914

The Washington Times, Washington DC, March 22, 1914

Suburbanite Economist, Chicago, February 27, 1914

The Sun, New York, December 14, 1913

The Evening News, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, February 7, 1922

6

Polish poets killed in the Warsaw Uprising

1. Krystyna Krahelska (24 March 1914 – 2 August 1944)
2. Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński (22 January 1921 – 4 August 1944)
3. Leon Zdzisław Stroiński (29 November 1921 – 16 August 1944)
4. Tadeusz Gajcy (8 February 1922 – 16 August 1944)
5. Józef Szczepański (30 November 1922 – 10 September 1944)
6. Jan Romocki (17 April 1925 – 18 August 1944)

(Two other soldier poets, Andrzej Trzebiński and Wacław Bojarski, were killed in 1943).

*

Apparently, the Polish nation is destined to shoot at the enemy with diamonds…
(Stanisław Pigoń)

*

I loved like you now but I was given
a heart too small for futile loving
because my time that you give names to
was marred by raging death and crippling terror.

(…)

A mossy wall stands guard nearby
over the peace of those with honest faces
who measured love with blades of weapons,
trusting their hands, and who have died.
Their simple names will cast a shadow
on mocking tombstones; one still can hear
the sounds of marching, swinging bullets –
the graves and cradles of the fallen.

(from “To You in the Future” [„Do potomnego”] by Tadeusz Gajcy)

(the quote and excerpts translated by me)

The ruggedness of aircraft produced by Grumman’s “Iron Works” is demonstrated by this late production F6F-F3 Hellcat, witch was returned to the plant for workers to see. It had more than 200 bullet holes in it from combat. According to information on the reverse of the photo, this Hellcat had been flown by Butch O'Hare. (Grumman photograph from the Detail & Scale Collection)

Lieutenant Commander Edward Henry “Butch” O’Hare (March 13, 1914 – November 26, 1943) was an American naval aviator of the United States Navy, who on February 20, 1942, became the Navy’s first flying ace when he single-handedly attacked a formation of nine heavy bombers approaching his aircraft carrier. Even though he had a limited amount of ammunition, he managed to shoot down or damage several enemy bombers. On April 21, 1942, he became the first naval recipient of the Medal of Honor in World War II.

Swedish Government Resigns

Hjalmar Hammarskjöld (1862-1953), Swedish Prime Minister 1914-1917.

March 29 1917, Stockholm–Sweden had remained neutral during the war, but had been very friendly to Germany.   Swedish diplomats helped Germany circumvent the cutting of Germany’s international telegraph lines.  The Swedes had mined the Øresund to prevent British submarines from entering the Baltic. They were one of Germany’s last foreign trading partners, as the Baltic Sea was one of the few routes not closed by the British blockade.  This had not gone unnoticed by the Allies, however, who from August 1916 had essentially included Sweden in the blockade of Germany until the Swedes could sufficiently guarantee that no goods exported to them would be re-exported to Germany.

This had severe consequences in the winter of 1917, which hit Sweden almost as hard as it hit the Central Powers.  Food supplies dwindled, and prices skyrocketed.  The Swedish foreign minister negotiated a deal with the British to allow more food to be imported, provided the Swedes reduced their exports to Germany.  The Swedish Prime Minister, Hjalmar Hammarskjöld (father to UN Secretary General Dag), rejected the agreement.  This caused a political crisis, and Hammarskjöld was forced to resign on March 29.  This did not repair relations with Britain; an adequate trade agreement was not reached for over a year.

Today in 1916: Fierce Fighting on Extreme Left at Verdun
Today in 1915:  First German Gas Regiment Formed

Prussian guard infantry in new field gray uniforms leave Berlin, Germany to entrain for the front, August 1914 during World War I. Girls and women along the the way showered them with flowers and affection.

Austrian Parliament Meets for First Time in the War

František Staněk (1867-1936), chair of the Czech Union of parties in the Austrian parliament.

May 30 1917, Vienna–Emperor Charles had decided to embrace his reforming side lately, sacking Tisza as Hungarian PM due to his opposition to an expansion of the franchise there.  On May 30, the Austrian parliament re-opened for the first time since March of 1914.  Charles hoped that a democratic trend would increase support for his rule, quell some dissent, and also perhaps spread the blame for any future hardships more widely.  He simultaneously lifted some of the draconian wartime restrictions–what had amounted to martial law in provinces anywhere near both fronts–that had been in place for over two years now.

Much had changed since 1914; the country was now several years into the war, the former PM had been assassinated, and over 40 of the 516 members of parliament were in prison or exile (or, in one case, executed).  The fundamental reason for the proroguing of Parliament–Czech opposition to and continued filibustering of the government–had not gone away, and if anything had grown worse.  By re-opening Parliament without addressing any Czech concerns directly, Charles had given a platform to some of his fiercest critics.  The Chairman of the Czech Union of parties read out a statement, decidedly more ambitious than any in recent decades:

…It is necessary to transform the Habsburg…monarchy into a federal union of free and equal national states.

Basing ourselves at this historic moment on the natural right of nations to self-determination and free development, reinforced moreover in our case by inalienable historic rights, we shall demand the unification of all branches of the Czechoslovak nation in one democratic state, including the Slovak branch living in a unit contiguous to its Czech motherland.

Using language clearly inspired by Wilson and the Americans (who were, it should be stressed, not at war with Austria), the Czechs barely mentioned the role that the Habsburg crown would play in the future.  The desire to unite themselves with the Slovaks, currently under Hungarian rule, would be a major shakeup to the current system (and force Charles to violate his coronation oath).  The Slovenes and Croats also expressed a similar desire for a south Slavic state encompassing the Serbs as well, while the Poles explicitly demanded independence, as had been promised.  The Germans, fearful of being displaced, and for the fate of German minorities in the Sudeten and elsewhere, began to panic.

The next day, Charles spoke to Parliament in an attempt to appease all sides.  As a result, he was far too vague to be helpful, and only earned mistrust by refusing to swear an oath to the Austrian constitution (in an attempt to not be bound by further constricting oaths as in Hungary).

Today in 1916: Jutland: The Day Before
Today in 1915: King’s African Rifles Attack Across Lake Nyasa

Sources include: Alexander Watson, Ring of Steel.

Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998)

Mexican poet and diplomat.

For his body of work, he was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature. (Wikipedia)

From our stacks: Dust jacket detail from Alternating Current. Octavio Paz. Translated from the Spanish by Helen R. Lane. A Richard Seaver Book. New York: The Viking Press, 1973. Jacket design by Roy Kuhlman.

10 things you didn't know about Donald Duck

If you weren’t aware, today is Donald Duck Day. No, it’s not his birthday, but June 9 marks the first time Donald appeared on the big screen. It was on this day, in 1934, that Donald co-starred in Disney’s ‘Silly Symphonies’ short ‘The Wise Little Hen’.

Bet you didn’t know that about one of the most popular and beloved cartoon characters, did you?

So how much do you know about his sailor suit-wearing, pants-less, short-tempered little duck? Do yourself a favor and up your knowledge of the iconic cartoon character with ten interesting facts and fun gifs.

– Gifs sourced from: Giphy

10 things you didn’t know about Donald Duck

His birthday is March 13, 1914. Traditionally, a character’s first appearance in a cartoon marks its birthday—but in a late ‘40s cartoon, it was revealed that Donald was born on March 13th. In his authorized biography published in 1941, we find out he was born on Friday the 13th.

Source: Yahoo India Lifestyle

Donald’s first voice was performed by Clarence Nash, who voiced him for 50 years. Nash voiced Donald for the last time in  Mickey’s Christmas Carol  in 1983. Since Nash’s death in 1985, Donald’s voice has been performed by Disney animator, Tony Anselmo, who was mentored by Nash for the role.

Source: Yahoo India Lifestyle

Donald was a wartime screen star. The famed duck starred in a series of shorts during World War II that involved the positive-thinking duck developing deep appreciation for the American troops and a hefty dislike of Nazi Germany.

Source: Yahoo India Lifestyle

Donald has an asteroid named after him. Asteroid 12410 was named in 1995 and is located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

Source: Yahoo India Lifestyle

Donald has appeared in more films than any other Disney character. He has 225 films to his name.

Source: Yahoo India Lifestyle

Donald doesn’t don pants with his sailor shirt, but does wear swimming trunks when he goes for a swim.

Source: Yahoo India Lifestyle

In the 1940s, Donald was so popular that he starred in more cartoons than Mickey Mouse.

Source: Yahoo India Lifestyle

Donald suffers from a form of color blindness.

Source: Yahoo India Lifestyle

In the 1930s, he typically appeared as part of a comic trio with Mickey and Goofy and was given his own film series in 1937 starting with  Don Donald . These films introduced Donald’s love interest, Daisy Duck and often included his three nephews, Huey, Dewey, and Louie.

Source: Yahoo India Lifestyle

In 2005, Donald received his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, joining other fictional characters such as Mickey Mouse, Bugs Bunny, Woody Woodpecker, The Simpsons, Winnie the Pooh, Kermit the Frog, Big Bird, Godzilla and Snow White.

Source: Yahoo India Lifestyle