That text about "Moin" was rather interesting. Are there other typical regional greetings as well?
Yes, there are, and, as with many things, it’s mostly a North/South split. Very roughly, for greetings, the “Hochdeutsch” (standard German) versions around the country are:
Guten Morgen (good morning)
Guten Tag (good day, midday/afternoon)
Guten Abend (good evening)
Gute Nacht (good night, but we only say that before going to sleep)
or just the informal Hallo or Hi all day
In the North, you will hear the dialect Moin and Tach all day, along with just Hallo and Hi and the more formal versions above.
In the Middle such as parts of Hessen, informal dialect is (Ei) Gude.
Around parts of Germany you may hear Mahlzeit around midday/lunch time, but it’s usually connected to meals in work settings, something like coworkers saying to each other “enjoy your meal”.
In the South, mostly Bavaria (and also Austria) informal dialect is Servus, more formal Grüß Gott. Towards Switzerland and in Switzerland it’s Grüzi. You may also encounter the informal Grüß dich! around the South.
Someone made this map on Reddit on what people say in the different German-speaking regions when entering a shop in the afternoon, which I found quite interesting.
Confused yet? :D Don’t worry. If you stick with the first 5 Hochdeutsch versions listed above, you’ll be fine all over the country at any time of day.