many bird species

Meet everyone.

Story idea. Aliens come to earth and want to meet representatives of earths sapient species.
Twist; they’re surprised (or maybe shocked, offended, or even amused) when only humans turn up, because even by our own science, dolphins and elephants are acknowledged as sentient intelligent beings.
Octopuses, apes like the gorilla and orangutan, and many bird species; like the raven, crow, grey parrot also show the intelligence to be considered conscious sapient beings but it’s not yet acknowledged by all scientists in the field until further testing has concluded.
Will meetings turn into a wild mess of a zoo? will the animals surprise us? are the aliens right or wrong? Will humans or aliens be the ones learning lessons here?
There’s lots of possibilities to explore.

4

Cuba is considered the crossroads of the Caribbean, and the designation is especially true when it comes to migratory birds. Many species use the archipelago’s varied habitats—wetlands, forests, mountains, and even human-dominated areas—as a place to stop, eat, and rest on their long annual journeys between North and South Americas.

“Cuba has long loomed large in the consciousness of bird conservationists,” says ornithologist Leo Douglas, president of BirdsCaribbean, a group dedicated to protecting avian wildlife throughout the region. “The whole of the archipelago is important to migratory birds.” Above are just a few of the many bird species that call Cuba their home away from home.

Read more on the blog.

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Not all animals in national marine sanctuaries live in the water.

This week, we’re celebrating Bird Week, dedicated to the many species of birds that live in and migrate through our national marine sanctuaries.

Birds are among the most visible elements of biodiversity in the marine environment. By tracking bird populations, scientists can better understand the state and health of the marine ecosystems that our communities and economies depend on.

Check out more of the National Marine Sanctuary System’s feathered friends in our video:

angelicuscadere  asked:

For a sentient specie of omnivorous raptors (think feathered dino) with social complexity, technology and population density similar to humans ~300 years ago, what would be the most prominent health issues for the common folk?

I’m using birds and alligators as references for most things anatomy, so what would be avian/crocodilian equivalent to fleas, flu, cholera, measles, or other highly contagious and common ailments? (They have both feathers and scales)  They have had little to no contact with any large mammals over the course of their evolution - upon contact with mammals (including humans), would that make them less or more susceptible to be affected by human illness, or a random mix? I know this is very broad so I’m not expecting a detailed answer - I was just hoping you could give me some pointers as to what kind of diseases to investigate and inspire myself from.   Thank you! I really love your script blog! :)

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Yay raptors! I hope you like info-dumps.

Originally posted by gifovea

If I assume a similar medical scene to the 1700-1800′s, I’d first broadly group the common diseases into parasitic, bacterial, viral and fungal. Most of these species don’t congregate in terribly large numbers, except in farms and fortunately for your writing, both birds and crocodiles are bred on farms in large numbers to give you disease examples that are probably common at high densities with sub-optimal hygiene. I will link to other sites for the most interesting ones.

Parasites are the group that were extremely common before effective medication, and also the most externally obvious. They’re also potential vectors for the other groups, to spread disease from one raptor to another (think about how mosquitoes do this today).

External parasites are your equivalent to fleas. Avians can get fleas, but mites and lice are far more common. Almost all wild birds are harboring some kind of feather lice. Reptiles commonly get ticks. Scaly leg mite might give you inspiration for a suitably interesting looking disease.

Internal parasites get a bit more variable, depending on the internal anatomy of your raptor species. Almost everything can get intestinal worms (because almost everything has intestines). Where exactly in the intestines they live will depend on anatomy, and young won’t get any placental transmission from their mother if they lay eggs. Worms like Heterakis can transmit other diseases to certain species too.

Birds get respiratory parasites, which are quite unique. Air sac mites may be relevant if your raptors have them, and gapeworm is one of my personal favorites. (Yes, I have favorite parasites. I’m not weird.)

Moving onto bacterial diseases, Cholera was a big killer of humans, and poultry have Fowl Cholera of their own. Botulism toxin kills a lot of birds that congregate around waterways, but interestingly birds and reptiles seem very resistant to tetanus.

Gut pathogens like salmonella are common in reptiles and birds, and are not species specific. These things can get into just about anything, but they are often host adapted. This means the usual species they infect doesn’t get as severe pathology as a new species. This may be relevant for your mammals who encounter this species, as it’s commonly spread by poor hygiene practices.

Psittacosis is a bacterial disease that you should definitely look into. It can affect both humans and parrots, and can be lethal in both. It was historically something of a mystery disease for a while, and worth reading about.

Most species (honestly, probably all species but we haven’t bothered to look) have a poxvirus of their own. Some of these poxviruses will cross species (eg goats and sheep) and will vary in how virulent they are (smallpox vs chickenpox). They hang around in the environment for a really long time and are difficult to exterminate. Your species probably has one, but despite the name not all poxviruses present with pox on the skin.

If your species is feathered, then Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease is simply fascinating and visually dramatic. It’s a chronic disease and may fill a similar social role as leprosy

Influenza viruses commonly affect many species of birds and will also potentially cross over to humans or other mammals. Human and mammal influenza can also cross over into birds. When you get an influenza type into a ‘new’ species, death rates are typically higher.

Most concerning, however, is when you have two different influenza strains infect the same individual, recombine by infecting the same cell, and then by chance produce a totally new strain of influenza which may then infect any species that could have been infected by either parent virus. Immunity to on strain of influenza offers little protection against another.  This is why bird flu outbreaks are such a concern.

I noticed you said no contact with large mammals over their evolution. If they’re farming, what’s eating their stored food? Rats are common and disease vectors to boot, if they have no rats, what do they have instead? Something will be taking advantage of food stores, and will be relevant to the diseases in the population.

And I don’t know if you considered it, but crocodillians tend to be cannibalistic. If they are, then you could potentially have a tapeworm species that spends it’s entire life cycle within this species. It matures and drops cysts in the intestine of one individual, those cysts are eaten by a second individual (faecal contamination of food most likely), then forming cysts in muscle or meat tissue, and when the 2nd individual is eaten by a 3rd individual, those cysts mature into the adult tapeworm to live inside their intestine, and the cycle begins again. There may also be a prion disease, though they are rare.

anonymous asked:

Hello! I am currently trying to tackle the opening couple chapters of my fantasy novel set in a fictional world. I'm struggling to introduce the ideas of the world to the reader without being too abrupt while accommodating for the fact that they don't know the world like I do, seeing as I've been living with it for a while. Do you have any tips or suggestions for avoiding the dreaded "info-dump" while still providing the reader with enough information and context for the rest of story? Thanks!

Hey nonnie, I’m really sorry it took me a few days to get around to answering this for you! I’m right in the middle of exams and job interviews at the moment and busy starting off my own fantasy novel so as I’m sure you can imagine its pretty hectic. I really hope this is still in time to help you out though! 

For those of you who don’t know, info-dumping is a form of telling rather than showing that goes on for a while - sometimes for pages at a time. Usually they occur in narration but it can happen in dialogue too. Rather than introducing your world smoothly it just dumps everything in the reader’s lap and it can be a huge turn off to read in fantasy and sci-fi.

So what can you do about it?

  1. Make sure everything you are telling the reader is necessary for them to know. You might know the entire history of your world and how many kinds of bird species there are or whatever but unless it is needed for the plot, your reader doesn’t need to know. 

  2. Even better, after checking that this is something they need to know make sure they need to know it at that specific point in the novel. You can foreshadow of course, but don’t tell them stuff at random moments - only when it is needed. 

  3. If it works for your story a good thing to do can be what I call the Harry Potter vs. Ron Weasley. For Harry everything in the wizarding world is as new and alien to him as it is to the reader so we explore and learn together making it feel like part of the narrative. Ron acts as the teacher or guide for this. But this won’t work for all stories of course. 

  4. You could try using epistolary texts. This is when you have chunks of books or newspapers or text books or something like that that only exist in the world of your book. These are sort of an info-dump but a more interesting format of them. 

  5. If in doubt, less is probably better. Your reader will be able to make connections a lot better than you think - your job is simply to act as a guide to them. 

  6. Make sure to give things like character backstories in smaller parts rather than all at once. This makes it feel more natural and flow better but it also builds suspense because the reader doesn’t know the whole story yet.

  7. Something that George RR Martin did that I found really interesting was to have different idioms. So instead of saying “We’ll cross that bridge when we come to it” a character says “I’d rather face that enemy when he enters the battlefield.” This means the exact same thing and so the reader is able to understand it through context but it also reveals more about the world and the importance of war in that society. Context is everything - you can give tiny bits of information but with the right context you will stay tonnes.

  8. To double check, when you’ve finished your story get beta readers and make sure to ask them about this. If they have any questions about the world, make that clearer but if chunks were boring, make sure to rewrite them.

That’s what I can think off of the top of my head so I really hope this helps! I might make a more detailed post about this when I have the time though so keep an eye out for that. And happy writing!

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(Boiga irregularis) brown tree snake
Mainly nocturnal, arboreal, rests in leaf clumps, tree hollows etc., during the day. Feeds on birds, rodents or lizards. Tends to flatten its neck laterally when threatened. Has driven many bird species extinct in places where it has been introduced but has no natural predators. Enters homes, sometimes bites people. Has caused significant power outages on Guam. 

Nature & action of venom not well studied. Effects in bitten small mammal pets & human children have included: drooping eyelids, lowered muscle tone near bite, poor coordination, depressed heart rate, respiratory distress, tissue swelling & discoloration significant distances from bite. Rapidly repeated bites by threatened snakes are common. Reported fatalities not well documented & may have been by misidentified kraits (Bungarus spp).

anonymous asked:

"Two or three genders" ? Theres only two biological ones though.. What do you mean by three? ._.

gender and sex are two different things! they’re often used interchangeably, but they’re actually separate.

sex is what your Bits are - what’s between your legs, whether you have XX or XY chromosomes. that’s what people commonly believe there are only two of, but even that’s not the case! biological sex, like everything in nature, exists on a spectrum; people who don’t have the common XY or XX chromosomes are called intersex, and can have different genitals like ovaries plus internal testes, among other things. people can have XXY, XXX, YY, and all sorts of other chromosomes. 

this goes for all species. for example, birds don’t even have X and Y chromosomes - they have Z and W instead! cool, huh? it’s also common for fish to switch biological sex, and for many species like birds, butterflies and fish being born a gynandromorph isn’t uncommon - that means they’re split clean down the middle with characteristics commonly associated with “males” and “females”. if you look up gynandromorph butterflies you’ll see some cool pictures.

gender, too, exists on a really broad spectrum. it has nothing to do with physical makeup - it’s all in your head, like a feeling more than anything. that’s why trans men, trans women and nonbinary people, who don’t consider themselves men or women, exist.  nonbinary people, like frisk, monster kid and chara, as well as a whole lot of my close friends, often use pronouns like “they” instead of “he” or “she”. some use neopronouns to describe themselves, like xe, ze, ey, ni and shi, among others. those are less common than “they”, though. neopronouns have been around for decades. many cultures throughout history have also believed in three or more genders, so being nonbinary is nothing new!

unfortunately, nonbinary genders are considered far outside the norm nowadays in western culture, so they face a lot of discrimination and oppression. it’s important to educate ourselves and support them as much as we can! 

so yeah, that’s how someone can be attracted to three or more genders. B)
-mod mel 

3

A lot of people join the national parks service to pursue what they think is their dream job– after all, they get to spend every day surrounded by nature and wildlife in the most beautiful places on earth. And for the overwatch crew, it is the ideal job–but only if you’re prepared for the weird phenomena that’s bound to happen when you’re miles and miles out of the way of civilization. It’s almost like reality is somehow altered in the forests; even the most skeptical rangers can tell you some bone-chilling tales about their rookie days while they lead you on night hikes through the endless pines and valleys:


• lúcio and tracer were leading a group of families on a hike through one of the more scenic valleys about a month ago, and it wasn’t going quite as well as they expected; there were a lot of young kids in the party, so they were forced to move at a painfully slow pace down the trail. It ended up with tracer determining that they wouldn’t be able to make it back to camp before sunset, so she decided to stay with the party while lucio would hike back to headquarters to get the rangers’ van and drive everyone back to the campground.

Before he left, one of the kids kept asking him about the “weird whistles” that were following them throughout the hike. Confused, lucio had smiled cheerfully and assured him it was just one of the many species of bird that live on the park grounds–nothing to be afraid of–but as he was trekking back to base alone, he heard a high-pitched warble coming from behind him once every few minutes. It was faint, but as time passed and the sky darkened, its volume increased steadily, as if whatever was making that noise was getting closer and closer.

When lúcio turned around for the last time, shining his flashlight on the path behind him, he swears on his life he saw a freakishly tall man–or at least a creature that looked like a man–with dark eyes, staring directly at him, making that same warbling noise, only he wasn’t puckering his lips like most people would when they whistle. instead, his mouth was wide open, like the noise was coming from his throat. lúcio didn’t even stop to question him as per protocol, he just turned around and made an olympic, land speed record-breaking dash for headquarters, managing to sprint from Bear Cliff to the main road in about two minutes, faster than anyone had ever done before him. (the previous record was held by mccree, who was able to run that path in about five and a half minutes. No one knows how the hell lúcio was able to run that fast without breaking the sound barrier.) Mercy thinks he just saw a lost camper and was experiencing an auditory hallucination due to dehydration or exhaustion, but to this day lucio insists he knows it was real. He wasn’t even tired at the time, being a seasoned hiker, and after all–how would that kid have heard the whistling too?


• if you’re looking for a particularly gory tale, just go strike up a conversation with hanzo or mercy. being the most experienced search and rescue rangers still on duty, they’ve seen their fair share of mauling victims, murdered campers, or people who just died of exposure–all horrible things, but ultimately things that still have a rational explanation. no one, however, can seem to explain one case that happened a little over ten years ago, when mercy was new to the team and still receiving training from hanzo.

They got a call one morning from a frantic young woman insisting that her parents were missing when she woke up that day. Sure enough, when they assembled a team and got to her campsite, one of the family’s two tents was shredded open, clothes and supplies strewn all over the place. Strangely, the daughter’s tent was untouched. Suspecting a bear attack, hanzo instructed mercy to treat the young woman for shock while he assembled a search team and some dogs to set out looking for the missing couple. The dogs were able to pick up a scent, but the trail only lasted about a quarter of a mile before it literally stopped cold. It was almost as if the couple had been walking, and just vanished on the spot in the middle of a mossy clearing.

Weeks passed, and no one ever found them; at least, until mercy spotted something flesh-colored at the base of a pine one day while leading woefully unprepared hikers back to headquarters to stock up on supplies. When she got closer, she saw the remains of a single human arm, which turned out to belong to the girl’s father. This finding seemed to confirm the bear attack theory, but when hanzo came to investigate, he realized the arm was miles away from the spot where the dogs lost the scent trail. furthermore, he noticed some strange soot markings on the fingertips– the same soot that covers the huge stone megalith everyone was so wary of. “See?” he had said to her. “This is what happens when you touch it.“


• mccree vows that he once saw a throng of startlingly bright lights spinning rapidly and making huge arcing paths back and forth across the sky while stargazing on a mountain summit with hanzo. He thinks they were extraterrestrial spaceships, or forest spirits or something. People would probably believe him if hanzo would corroborate this story, but that would first require that he willingly admit to stargazing with mccree.

anonymous asked:

Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.[1] Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white), and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes. The most popular choice for egg consumption are chicken eggs. Other popular choices for egg consumption are duck, quail, roe, and caviar. Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant a

w

Nugget Point- New Zealand

 Nugget Point is one of the most iconic natural landmarks on the Otago coast. With a lighthouse at its tip, this headland is surrounded by rocky islets. The area is home to many species of bird, including penguins, and is a breeding ground for fur seals. 

2

On many of our skulls, you might notice there are small rings of bone in the eye sockets. These are sclerotic rings, and they’re found in many species of bird. It’s thought that these rings, which are also found in many species of reptiles, amphibians, and fish, can help stabilize an animal’s eyeballs. They may also help to keep particularly large eyeballs from straining themselves while the animal is trying to focus its sight on something.

Photo credit: Mary Margaret Ferraro

based on this from @junkpilestuff http://junkpilestuff.tumblr.com/post/133990938680/asgore-and-sans-went-on-a-vacation-they-were

Doodle that went too far again i need to stop procastinating and work on MBTI. New style sans worked far better. Will draw him in this style from now on

P.S sans use a proper bag don’t be so fucking lazy to just cram your belongings in cloth

Also in case anyone wonders why Asgore isn’t covered in bird shit, birds don’t poop all over the place if they’re happy/calm. (DON’T JUDGE ME)

Story from the original OP

Asgore and sans went on a vacation !they were buying gifts n toys for xmas together cos they both are santas, but their purchase ended up getting a lucky draw- a free vacation to bali for two! others are unable/not willing to go, and they couldn’t transfer the names to other ppl anywayso why not?

anonymous asked:

How many bird species can truly be called marine (i.e. they regularly swim & feed in saltwater)?

Even given your criteria, this is not a simple question to answer. For instance, many scolopacid shorebirds will dive underwater to avoid predators and usually feed from marine food webs, but they rarely forage on submerged mudflats, so can they be considered “truly marine”? There’s always some personal judgment involved, especially given the diversity of ways in which birds have adapted to aquatic habitats.

I have combined your two criteria for the following list, restricting it to birds that forage while swimming in marine environments, whether swimming on the water’s surface or beneath it. For birds that hunt by plunge diving, I’ve only included those that are known to continue pursuing prey underwater after the initial dive. In other words, birds that usually feed only on the shore or at wading depth (such as herons and most scolopacids) are omitted, as are plunge-diving birds that typically only apprehend their prey at shallow depths and immediately exit the water afterward (such as ospreys and some kingfishers).

  • Some ducks (most also found in freshwater environments)
  • Some grebes (also found in freshwater environments)
  • Red and red-necked phalaropes (also found in freshwater and inland saline environments)
  • Most gulls (some also found in freshwater and terrestrial environments)
  • Many terns (some also found in freshwater environments)
  • Auks
  • Loons (also found in freshwater environments)
  • Penguins
  • Most procellariiforms
  • Some pelicans (also found in freshwater environments)
  • Sulids
  • Most cormorants (some also found in freshwater environments)

Honorable mentions: these birds rarely swim while foraging (some of them rarely swim at all), but they are found almost exclusively in marine habitats, in many cases often far from shore. In this sense, they are arguably more specialized for a marine existence than many of the birds in the previous list, so I think it would be perverse to exclude them.

  • Tropicbirds
  • Some terns (especially the sooty tern)
  • Some procellariiforms (e.g.: storm petrels and gadfly petrels)
  • Frigatebirds
  • Brown and Peruvian pelicans

Lastly, there are a few borderline examples of birds that fit the behavioral criteria outlined above, but are only rarely found in marine habitats.

  • Flamingos (yes, they’re known to feed while swimming)
  • Coots (very borderline example, considering that they lack adaptations for living in saltwater long term)
  • Anhingas
Pokémon in our Biomes pt. 13: Prairies

“I’ve recently decided to make a series of posts with hypotheticalthinking and analyzing of what Pokémon species could potentially be found inthe world’s biomes. Not at all relative to the games, I will be focusing primarily of the elements, design, and relativity to real life flora and fauna of Pokémon to depict where different species would roam on our big blue marble.” 

Like I mentioned in the last post on beaches and coasts, a lot of major biomes have already been covered, so the rest may be pretty similar to each other and a lot more concentrated. For example, although deserts were already covered I may need to make further posts dividing them into semiarid and coastal deserts, as each are distinct biomes.

This post will focus on prairies. Prairies are actually considered to be part of the temperate grassland, savanna, and shrubland biomes based on their similarity in climates, and composition of grasses. This is where the Pokémon in our Biomes posts gets fuzzy, because all of the mentioned biomes are individual biomes, and because they are so similar it makes it a challenge to distinguish possible Pokémon between them. Prairies are however, a type of grassland, much like there are different types of deserts. Prairies are generally considered to be the huge rolling grasslands of the central United States and Canada, and in South America, Eurasia, and Africa they are all technically called different things but all more or less utilize the same characteristics.

Prairies have one feature I found quite interesting, is that unlike the Asian steppes, and South American pampas, prairies have considerably tall grasses, some areas having grasses as high as 9 feet. This feature is usually specified by the amount of rainfall. As you move away from the mountains near the west coast, the climate generally becomes drier as there isn’t a huge body of water to provide rainfall, and even when there is rainfall, there isn’t enough to support tree life, hence why the main type of plant species will be a grass or flower species. Due to this, the animals that live in the prairies have to either burrow to hide from predators, or herd together.

Let’s get started!

Keep reading

Entry 33: Guadalupe Caracara (Caracara lutosa)

Once inhabiting the Guadalupe Island of Mexico, the Guadalupe Caracara was a common bird that helped to populate the uniquely diverse and isolated island that rested 150 miles west of Baja, California. 

The beginning of the end for this species was the practice of dropping off goats upon the island by seafarers in the early 19th century.  This was done to provide fresh meat for long voyages passing by the island.  Unfortunately, the goats quickly destroyed the vegetation of an island that had gone thousands of years without any large herbivores.  This caused a chain effect, in which this vegetation - which once created condensation surfaces for sea fog - would lead to a more arid island, destroying the habitat.

With the habitat decimated, curious ornithologists flocked to the island to observe and collect the many rare bird species that inhabited it.  Their skins were collected for the profitable market of museum, university, and private collections. The Guadalupe Caracara’s brave nature made it unafraid of humans, furthering making it a target.

Sadly, pressure from prior attempts at killing off the species by goat farmers and the added pressure of skin collectors would lead to their doom. On December 1st, 1900, Rollo Beck, ironically an American ornithologist who has other bird species named after him, shot at 11 individuals of the bird, killing 9.  He was likely the last person to see the Caracara alive.

Extinction Date According to the IUCN List: 1900 or 1903

anonymous asked:

did you know that there's a stray cat for every housecat worldwide? there's so many cats!! (it's actually kind of a problem, many bird species have gone extinct from cats hunting them down...) how many do you see daily, if you had to estimate?

air-everywhere  asked:

(Animal Ask) Burung Cendrawasih

In Indonesian, birds of paradise are called “cendrawasih.” These are birds from the family Paradisaeidae.

These rare, beautiful birds can only be found in Eastern Indonesia, particularly Papua, Papua New Guinea, and parts of East Australia. Indonesia has the largest population of birds of paradise. Only males have the attractive feathers, like peacocks.

Usually, when people bring up birds of paradise, the bird on the upper picture is what comes to mind first. The iconic image of a brown-green-yellow bird with long, fluffy, white-yellow tail-feathers. However, the bird above is just one of the many birds of paradise species. That one is the Lesser Bird-of-Paradise. There are many species of these birds!

Remember this thing? Truly a memorable proposal.

That is the Superb Bird-of-Paradise. When not doing its superb mating dance, it looks like this.

Below I’m going to list some popular species of these birds. Not all of them, though, because that’ll be too long.

Wilson’s Bird-of-Paradise, it has a distinctive twin curled tail.

When there’s a lesser, there’s a greater. This is the Greater Bird-of-Paradise. It has a similar colouring to its lesser counterpart, but unlike the Lesser Bird-of-Paradise, its tail seems to spread out like a magnificent feather fountain instead of flowing elegantly down.

This is the Magnificent Riflebird.

Below is the Twelve-Wired Bird-of-Paradise. Take a look at those tails.

Ribbon-Tailed Bird-of-Paradise

Blue Bird-of-Paradise

King-of-Saxony Bird-of-Paradise. Look at those sweet feathers.

Red Bird-of-Paradise. Unlike the Lesser and Greater birds, it has no fluffy yellow-white tail.

And finally, this is the Western Parotia.

Check out this Indonesian legend about the origin of birds-of-paradise.
In English In Indonesian