manganese-oxide

“YInMn blue,” First blue pigment created in over 200 years. 

The pigment was the surprise result of a 2009 chemistry lab experiment at Oregon State University (OSU. 

Graduate student Andrew Smith made the discovery while working with professor Mas Subramanian to test new materials for potential use in electronics.

A mix of manganese oxide, yttrium, and indium, heated to nearly 2,000˚ F, produced the vivid, non-toxic blue

Zircon

Zircon is an important gemstone of many colors, and is an historical gemstone used for thousands of years. Its color diversity is caused by traces of certain impurities, some of which are radioactive. These radioactive forms of Zircon must be heated to stabilize them for use as gems. In fact, many of the gem forms of zircon are heat treated to enhance color and increase transparency. 

Rutile

Rutile is the most common natural form of TiO2. Rutile is well known for its habit of forming needle-like inclusions within other minerals, especially quartz, in the form of long and slender straw-like crystals; hence the term “rutilated quartz”. Rutile inclusions are also responsible for the chatoyancy effects on some gemstones, such as Star Sapphire. 
Twinning is very common, with various forms including sixlings, eightlings, knee-shaped twins, and v-shaped twins.
(conjoined twins?)

Rhodenite

Rhodonite is well known among collectors for its beautiful pink and red color. Rhodonite often has black manganese oxide veins running through a specimen, giving it the distinct appearance of pink with black crisscrossing lines and flower-like formations throughout. These are the forms most commonly used as gemstones, especially in beads and ornamental objects.
(Also, guessing the gems she fused from are Pearl (round top gem); based on the ruffle top and thin arms, and Ruby (the lower red gem); based on her thicker arms and legs, red color, and hair texture.)

Padparadscha



Padparadscha sapphires may be little known to the general public, but they are treasured by gemstone connoisseurs. Points of contention include how pink or how orange these sapphires can be, and whether certain tones are too dark to qualify.  Some padparadscha sapphires are not evenly salmon colored, but rather color zoned with pink and yellow.
–Ironic that she is undervalued on Homeworld but the gem is actually more valuable than normal sapphires.

Flourite

Fluorite makes a beautiful gemstone that comes in all colors, and can often be multicolored with two or more contrasting color within the same gemstone. Multicolored Fluorite gemstones often show banding patterns. Most Fluorite gemstones are from deeply colored stones, but they can also be cut from the less intense color forms. The most popular color for Fluorite is purple, and deep purple Fluorite can closely resemble Amethyst.

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Oregon State University chemist Mas Subramanian was looking for materials with novel magnetic properties to use in advanced computer hard drives. He would mix up likely chemicals and bake them in a furnace at 2,000 degrees Farenheit. But when he added manganese oxide to the recipe, he got a colorful surprise — a pile of bright blue powder.

The discovery is a pretty big deal because blue is a historically difficult color to manufacture. You can read all about it here!

This spring, Subramanian was a finalist in the Golden Mole Awards, a Skunk Bear prize that celebrates moments of accidental brilliance. Read about all dozen finalists here. There are so many happy accidents!

Why did we name it the Golden Mole Award? This video explains:

Tiffany Stone - Utah

(Also known as Opalized Fluorite, Opal Fluorite, Bertrandite, Ice Cream Opalite, Purple Opal)

Tiffany Stone is composed of various  minerals such as bertrandite , beryl, calcite, chalcedony, cobalt, dolomite, fluorite, manganese oxide, rhodonite, quartz, zinc and  white opal potch. The purple color that characterizes Tiffany Stone was created by fluorine gases, while the stricking black-colored veins were caused by manganese oxide; all of which were sealed within the sedimentary layers, becoming opalized over time.

 

ravenbara  asked:

Do you have a list of best to worst pellet brands? My girls are currently on fruit zupreem which I learned is not the best. I have the option of switching them to natural zupreem, lafebar pellets or pretty bird. Do you know which is best?

I don’t have a list of all of them but I get asked this a lot so hold on tight we’re going for a ride! Quick note that I am not a vet or nutritionalist, I’m just collecting information from various sources, if anything is wrong, missed, or misinterpreted please let me know so I can correct it. Ordered from best to worst, I would personally only feed the top 4.

Harrisons (adult lifetime)

Ingredients: *Ground Yellow Corn, *Ground Hull-less Barley, *Hulled Grey Millet, *Ground Soybeans, *Ground Shelled Peanuts, *Ground Shelled Sunflower Seeds, *Ground Lentils, *Ground Green Peas, *Ground Toasted Oat Groats, *Ground Alfalfa, *Ground Rice, *Chia Seed, Calcium Carbonate, Montmorillonite Clay, Vitamin E Supplement, Ground Dried Sea Kelp, Sea Salt, *Sunflower Oil, Natural Mixed Tocopherols, Lecithin, Rosemary Extract, *Algae Meal, Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement, D-Calcium Pantothenate, Niacin Supplement, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, D-Biotin, Thiamine Mononitrate, Folic Acid, Zinc Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Sodium Selenite, Calcium Carbonate, *Vegetable Oil.*CERTIFIED ORGANIC INGREDIENT

  • Natural soybeans contain toxins (harrisons does state that they roast them to remove toxins, this also removes a lot of nutritional value)
  • Added salt, 19th on the list (lowest of the bunch)
  • Organic ingredients, spoils quickly

Guaranteed Analysis:

Crude protein (min.) 14%

Crude fat (min.) 6%

Crude fiber (max.) 4.5%

Moisture (max.) 10%.


Totally Organics

Ingredients: Rice, barley, corn, sunflower seed hulled, alfalfa leaf, sesame seeds unhulled, amaranth whole, quinoa whole, buckwheat hulled, millet hulled, dandelion leaf powder, carrot powder, spinach leaf powder, purple dulse, rose hips powder, rose hips crushed, orange peel powder, lemon peel powder, rosemary whole leaf, cayenne ground, crushed red chili peppers, wheat grass powder, barley grass powder.

  • a lot of powdered ingredients, generally dehydrated or lacking more nutrients than their raw counterparts
  • no added sweeteners or fillers

Guaranteed Analysis:

Protein 15% Max.

Fat 6% Min.

Crude Fiber 6% Max.


Roudybush (maintainence)

Ingredients: Ground Corn, Ground Wheat, Peanut Meal, Soy Oil, Soy Meal, Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate, Yucca schidigen Extract,Salt, Calcium Carbonate, L-Lysine, DL-Methionine, Mixed Tocopherols, Rosemary Extract, Ascorbic Acid, Citric Acid, Lecithin, Silicon Dioxide (carrier for liquid antioxidants), Sodium Selenite (on Calcium Carbonate), Niacin, Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate (Source of Vitamin E), Biotin, Manganese Sulfate, Calcium Pantothenate, Zinc Oxide, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Vit. A Acetate, Thiamine, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex (Vit K), Cyanocobalamin (VitB12), Vit D3 Sup. Folic Acid, Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Propionic Acid, Ammonium Hydroxide, Acetic Acid, Sorbic Acid, Tartaric Acid, and natural apple flavoring.

  • Added salt, 9th on the list
  • Menadione sodium bisulfite (source of vitamin K), a man-made synthetic vitamin K3 which has caused Liver problems, allergic reactions, and anemia in mammals
  • Natural flavouring - These are obtained from plants, meat, fish, fungi and even wood.
  • Chemical compounds of nutrients, guaranteed nutrient value, covers it’s nutritional bases, lasts a long time

Guaranteed Analysis:

Crude Protein Minimum 11.0%
Crude Fat Minimum 7.0%
Crude Fiber Maximum 3.5%
Moisture Maximum 12.0%


Lafeber (parakeet diet)

Ingredients: Ground corn, soybean meal, wheat flour, oat groats, cane molasses, dried whole egg, canola oil, dicalcium phosphate, ground limestone, iodized salt, citric acid, dl-methionine (an essential amino acid), l-lysine (an essential amino acid), vitamin A supplement, vitamin D3 supplement, vitamin E supplement, ascorbic acid, menadione sodium bisulfite complex (source of vitamin K activity), niacin supplement, calcium pantothenate, riboflavin supplement, thiamine mononitrate, pyridoxine hydrochloride, vitamin B12 supplement, folic acid, copper lysine, choline chloride, zinc oxide, manganese oxide, mixed tocopherols (a preservative), biotin, sodium selenite.

  • Added salt, 11th on the list
  • Menadione sodium bisulfite (source of vitamin K), a man-made synthetic vitamin K3 which has caused Liver problems, allergic reactions, and anemia in mammals
  • Ground limestone - a common soluble grit, while good for nutrients it may cause issues in the crop
  • Cane molasses - some health benefits but very high in sugar, 5th on the ingredient list,

Guaranteed Analysis: 

Crude protein not less than 15.5%

Crude fat not less than 5%

Crude fibre not more than 3%

Moisture not more than 10.5%


Zupreem (Naturals)

Ingredients: Ground corn, Soybean meal, Ground millet, Ground oat groats, Ground barley, Ground wheat, Wheat germ meal, Sugar, Vegetable oil (preserved with mixed tocopherols), Ground flaxseed, Calcium carbonate, Dicalcium phosphate, Iodized salt, DL-Methionine, Dried carrots, Dried celery, Dried beets, Dried parsley, Dried cranberries, Dried blueberries, Choline chloride, L-Lysine, Vitamins (Vitamin E supplement, Niacin, Calcium pantothenate, Vitamin A supplement, Biotin, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine hydrochloride, Thiamine mononitrate, Menadione sodium bisulfite complex (source of Vitamin K activity), Vitamin B12 supplement, Vitamin D3 supplement, Folic acid), preserved with Mixed tocopherols and Citric acid, Hydrolyzed yeast, L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (a source of Vitamin C), Minerals (Manganous oxide, Zinc oxide, Copper sulfate, Sodium selenite, Calcium iodate), Rosemary extract

  • Menadione sodium bisulfite (source of vitamin K), a man-made synthetic vitamin K3 which has caused Liver problems, allergic reactions, and anemia in mammals
  • Added Sugar, 8th on the list
  • Added salt, 13th on the list
  • dried/dehydrated foods
  • most nutritional value is obtained from supplements

Guaranteed Analysis:

Crude Protein (min.)14.0%
Crude Fat (min.)4.0%
Crude Fiber (max.)5.0%
Moisture (max.)10.0%

Higgins (InTune Natural)

Ingredients: Ground Yellow Corn, Brown Rice, Soybean Meal, Ground Wheat, Oatmeal, Cane Sugar, Canola Oil (preserved with mixed Tocopherols, a source of Vitamin E), Dicalcium Phosphate, Dried Egg Product, Flaxseed, Calcium Carbonate, Alfalfa Nutrient Concentrate, Sea Salt, Cranberries, Apples, Blueberries, Celery, Beets, Parsley, Lettuce, Spinach, Watercress, Brewer’s Dried Yeast, DL-Methionine, L-Lysine, Choline Chloride, Algae Meal, Mixed Tocopherols (a natural preservative), Rosemary Extract, Potassium Chloride, Yeast Extract, Iron Oxide, L-Carnitine, Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Vitamin E Supplement, L-Ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (Source of Vitamin C), Zinc Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate, Niacin, Folic Acid, Biotin, Manganese Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Calcium Pantothenate, Thiamine Mononitrate, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Riboflavin Supplement, Zinc Proteinate, Manganese Proteinate, Copper Proteinate, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex (Source of Vitamin K), Calcium Iodate, Sodium Selenite, Cobalt Carbonate, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Turmeric, Natural Annatto Coloring, Beet Juice, Natural Citrus Flavor, Natural Banana Flavor, Natural Pineapple Flavor, Dried Enterococcus Faecium Fermentation Product, Dried Lactobacillus Acidophilus Fermentation Product, Dried Lactobacillus Casei Fermentation Product.

  • Added Sugar
  • Cane Sugar - pure sugar, birds may become addicted, may refuse fresh fruits and vegetables, may lead to obesity, heart conditions, high doses of sugar can be toxic
  • Added salt, 15th on the list
  • “natural” flavourings - These are obtained from plants, meat, fish, fungi and even wood.
  • Menadione sodium bisulfite (source of vitamin K), a man-made synthetic vitamin K3 which has caused Liver problems, allergic reactions, and anemia in mammals

Guaranteed Analysis

Crude protein (min.) 15%

Crude fat (min.) 5%

Crude fiber (max.) 5%

Moisture (max.) 11%,


Zupreem (veggie blend)

Ingredients: Ground corn, Soybean meal, Ground wheat, Wheat germ meal, Sugar, Vegetable oil (preserved with mixed tocopherols), Celery, Green beans, Carrots, Parsley, Beets, Peas, Calcium carbonate, Dicalcium phosphate, Iodized salt, Natural carrot flavor, DL-Methionine, Choline chloride, Vitamins (Vitamin E supplement, Niacin, Calcium pantothenate, Vitamin A supplement, Biotin, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine hydrochloride, Thiamine mononitrate, Menadione sodium bisulfite complex (source of Vitamin K activity), Vitamin B12 supplement, Vitamin D3 supplement, Folic acid), L-Lysine monohydrochloride, preserved with Citric acid and Mixed tocopherols, Yellow 5, L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (a source of Vitamin C), Yellow 6, Minerals (Manganous oxide, Zinc oxide, Copper sulfate, Sodium selenite, Calcium iodate), Blue 1, Color added, Rosemary extract.

  • Dyes are high in sugar
  • Sugar - birds may become addicted, may refuse fresh fruits and vegetables, may lead to obesity, heart conditions, high doses of sugar can be toxic
  • Coloured pellets can cause birds to pick favourites and not eat the other colours, wasting the bag
  • Added salt, 15th on the list
  • Menadione sodium bisulfite (source of vitamin K), a man-made synthetic vitamin K3 which has caused Liver problems, allergic reactions, and anemia in mammals
  • Natural flavours - These are obtained from plants, meat, fish, fungi and even wood.


Guaranteed Analysis:

Crude Protein (min.)14%
Crude Fat (min.)4.0%
Crude Fiber (max.)3.5%
Moisture (max.)10%


Pretty Bird (daily select)

Ingredients: Corn, Wheat, Oat Groats, Corn Gluten Meal, Potato Protein, Soya Oil, Coconut Oil, Calcium Carbonate, Dicalcium Phosphate, L-Lysine, Choline Chloride, Natural and Artificial Flavors, DL Methionine, Isoleucine, L-Threonine, L-Tryptophan, Vitamin E Supplement, Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C), Ferrous Sulfate, D-Biotin, Yucca Schidigera Extract, Zinc Oxide, Manganous Oxide, Niacinamide, Magnesium Oxide,Vitamin B12 Supplement,BHT (as a preservative), Copper Sulfate, Calcium Iodate, Calcium Pantothenate, Vitamin A Supplement, Sodium Selenite, Folic Acid, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, Natural and Artificial Colors, Menadione Dimethylpyrimidinol Bisulfite (source of Vitamin K3), Vitamin D3 Supplement, Cobalt Sulfate.

  • Sugary artificial colours
  • Corn Gluten Meal - little nutritional value, not toxic but just a pointless filler
  • Coloured pellets can cause birds to choose favourites and refuse other colours, wasting the bag
  • Birds have been known to develop sensitivities to food colourings
  • Menadione dimethylpyrimidinol (source of vitamin K), a man-made synthetic vitamin K3 which has caused Liver problems, allergic reactions, and anemia in mammals
  • BHT (as a preservative), banned in Japan, Australia, Romania, and Sweden. America has banned it in infant food. Debated in the veterinary field, may cause cancer
  • artificial flavours
  • Natural flavours - These are obtained from plants, meat, fish, fungi and even wood.

Guaranteed Analysis:
Crude Protein (min) 14%

Crude Fat/Oil (min) 5 %

Crude Fiber (max) 4%

Moisture (max) 10 %


Nutribird (P15 tropical)

Ingredients: Grains, seeds (at least 10% peanut kernels), fruit (at least 5% fresh fruit), vegetable protein extracts, vegetable by-products, sugar, minerals, L-lysine, methionine, extr. Yucca schidigera, fructo-oligosaccharides, vitamins, trace elements.

  • Sugary artificial colours
  • Sugar -  birds may become addicted, may refuse fresh fruits and vegetables,
  • fructo-oligosaccharides - another sweetener, vegetable-based, used in medicines, high doses may cause digestive upsets, may lead to obesity, heart conditions, high doses of sugar can be toxic
  • Coloured pellets can cause birds to choose favourites and refuse other colours, wasting the bag
  • Birds have been known to develop sensitivities to food colourings
  • Limited real ingredients
  • Very high in fats
  • very limited nutritional value

Guaranteed Analysis

Protein 15%
Fat 16%
Fibre 3.5%

Kaytee (exact rainbow)

Ingredients: Ground Corn, Ground Wheat, Ground Oat Groats, Corn Gluten Meal, Wheat Middlings, Ground Flax Seed, Soybean Meal, Dried Whole Egg, Dried Beet Pulp, Soy Oil, Calcium Carbonate, Wheat Germ Meal, Dicalcium Phosphate, L-Lysine, Salt, Algae Meal (source of DHA), Fructooligosaccharide, Corn Sugar, Brewers Dried Yeast, Vitamin A Supplement, Choline Chloride, Titanium Dioxide, Mixed Tocopherols (a preservative), Yeast Extract, DL-Methionine, Yucca Schidigera Extract, Propionic Acid (a preservative), Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement, Manganese Proteinate, Copper Proteinate, Ferrous Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Manganous Oxide, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex (source of vitamin K activity), Niacin, Rosemary Extract, Citric Acid, Calcium Pantothenate, Copper Sulfate, Thiamine Mononitrate, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Cholecalciferol (source of vitamin D3), Beta-Carotene, Canthaxanthin, Folic Acid, Calcium Iodate, Biotin, Cobalt Carbonate, Sodium Selenite, Dried Bacillus subtilis Fermentation Product, Dried Bacillus licheniformis Fermentation Product, Artificial Colors, Natural and Artificial Flavors. Allergen information: Manufactured in a facility that processes peanuts and other tree nuts.

  • Dehydrated fruits and vegetables
  • Sugary artificial colours
  • Coloured pellets can cause birds to choose favourites and refuse other colours, wasting the bag
  • Fructooligosaccharide - another sweetener, vegetable-based, used in medicines, high doses may cause digestive upsets
  • Birds have been known to develop sensitivities to food colourings causing illness, behavioural changes, or neurological health conditions
  • Corn Gluten Meal - little nutritional value, not toxic but just a pointless filler
  • Added salt, 16th on the list
  • Menadione sodium bisulfite (source of vitamin K), a man-made synthetic vitamin K3 which has caused Liver problems, allergic reactions, and anemia in mammals
  • Corn Sugar - pure sugar, birds may become addicted, may refuse fresh fruits and vegetables, may lead to obesity, heart conditions, high doses of sugar can be toxic
  • artificial flavours
  • Natural flavours - These are obtained from plants, meat, fish, fungi and even wood

Guaranteed Analysis

Crude Protein (min.) 14.0% 

Crude Fat (min.)5.0% 

Crude Fiber (max.) 5.0% 

Moisture (max.) 12.0%


Menadione - banned in human foods

BHT

Fructo-oligosaccharides

Corn Gluten Meal

“Natural” flavourings

Soybeans

Lovely geode

These balls of quartzy rock record the shape of bubbles in long frozen basaltic lava. They were deposited after the flow had cooled by silica rich waters, possibly driven in a convection cell by the heat of cooling lava. What I love about them is the element of surprise; no one knows what marvellous landscapes hide within until the diamond tipped saw is sent a whirring. In the lovely example in the photo (sorry no scale available) layers of agate started to fill the ex bubble from the outside in. A layer of jelly like colloidal silica probably precipitated to create the horizontal banding, while crystals of lovely pink chalcedony (coloured by traces of iron oxide or manganese) and drusy points of water clear quartz grew inwards into the cavity.

Loz

Image credit: Captain Tenneal

Manganese(II) sulfate tetrahydrate, MnSO4·4 H2O. I synthesized it by reducing a suspension of crude, battery manganese(IV) oxide in sulfuric acid with hydrogen peroxide. Although hydrogen peroxide is usually thought of as an oxidizing agent, in warm, acidic solution, it actually can work as a reducing agent. 

MnO2(s) + H2O2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → MnSO4(aq) + 2 H2O(I) + O2(g)

Normally, this should give you a brownish solution due to the iron impurity going into solution as Fe3+ ions, and possibly some dark-red Mn3+ (although that ion is rather unstable). This happened to me at first. However, I found that if you add just the right amount of H2O2 - you have to add it very slowly anyway, due to the vigorous bubbling that results - you can get it to form a pale pink solution indicative of the Mn2+ ion. This was totally by accident and not intentional, but I’ve been able to perform it twice now, so it’s not totally a fluke.

Cleanup of a contaminated solution is possible using a selective precipitation method, but given the choice between this and that, I strongly prefer doing it a little more slowly. Nurdrage has previously released a video discussing how to use oxalic acid or sulfur dioxide as reducing agents, with the cleanup method included, but hydrogen peroxide is much more easily accessible and cheaper.

Paint Making

Why?
Our quest for color began with an innate desire to communicate. Prehistoric people were resourceful with natural earth pigments (like red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide and charcoal), and used them to illustrate beautiful stories. Today paints are mass-produced, but the art of paint making is one some artists can’t resist doing themselves. Pigment is combined with a binder of oil or water as a base, packaged in a tube and voilà – paint! Each color has a story to tell, so be sure to choose your pigments wisely. 

What else?
Pick a color and explore its origin. There’s so much to learn from natural pigments. You can examine their chemical composition or research their historical impact. More curriculum connectors can be found here

Workup of the oxidation with potassium permanganate. 

Since the oxidizing reagent was used in a 3 molar excess a lot of it remained in the solution what causes this purple-pink color, but most of it reacted to give that brown-black mass (manganese dioxide). At the top of the sintered glass funnel that white ting is a magnetic stirring bar what I used to stir the reaction.

The next step of the workup is to acidify the resulting solution with hydrochloric acid, so I would leave the MnO2 and the non reacted KMnO4 in the reaction mixture it would generate a LOT more chlorine gas than the minimum lethal dose : 

MnO2 + 4 HCl —>  MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2 H2O

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The rocks on Mars suggest it used to look like Earth. What happened?

For years now, scientists have been building a body of evidence that Mars looked very different in its distant past. There are features on the Martian surface that can only form in the presence of large bodies of water. Sarah Kaplan finds out more.

A vast shallow sea shimmered beneath oxygen-rich skies. The rocky crests of cliffs and hills reflected in the still water below. The landscape would have been familiar, except for its eerie desolation; nothing on the entire planet moved but the sands shifting in the wind.

This was Mars, circa maybe 4 billion years ago. Or at least, it’s one vision of Mars painted by Nina Lanza, a researcher at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. In a study published last week in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, she and her colleagues argue that the discovery of manganese oxide (which forms in wet, oxygen-rich conditions) on the Martian surface suggests that the planet was once much more Earth-like.

Now, of course, Mars is a frozen, barren wasteland, covered in dull red rock that’s been bombarded and twisted into strange formations. Another study of the geology of Mars (also published last week in the journal Science) suggests that a particular kind of formation – a ripple in the sand that forms only in Mars’ current thin, arid atmosphere – can be found in fossilized form going back 3.7 billion years.

These two studies seem to bracket an important and confusing period in Mars’ history: the period when the planet started losing its atmosphere, and thus its ability to hold onto liquid water.

“Really the question again comes back to, ‘How fast did it get thin, when did it get thin, and why?'” said planetary scientist Christopher Edwards of the US Geological Survey. These studies “are placing a constraint on that, which is great.”

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