The Rise and Fall of the Wassoulou (Mandinka) Empire, West Africa
Wassoulou Empire was an African Empire that existed between 1294 and 1315
AH (1878-1898 CE) in modern Mali, Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone.
story of the rise and fall of the Wassoulou state is also the story of the rise
and fall of its first and only ruler, a remarkable man named Samori Touré. Born
to a Dyula Mandé family in the town of Mayambaladugu, in the year 1245 AH (1830
CE), he was the son of a fairly well-to-do merchant. Touré grew up in an
African world that had long been aware of the European presence. Slave trading
on the coasts had been going on for generations, though Europeans were yet to
penetrate too far inland, and many still relied on their protectorates for
extracting the wealth of Africa. Touré’s father probably had significant
relationships with a variety of Europeans, both officials and civilians, as a
merchant, and as a result, Touré had a familiarity with their ways of life, and
particularly, their ways of bureaucracy, organization, and martial tradition,
since many of the outposts and expeditions in the area would have been armed
and defended by troops brought in from overseas.
AH (1848 CE), an event happened that would change his life forever. At the time,
Mayambaladugu and most of the surrounding Mandé and Fulani groups had just been
subjugated by the authority of the Tocouleur Empire, often as client chiefdoms
or states, and these vassal entities continued to fight intermittent wars with
one another, often for loot, including slaves, and access to natural resources
that could buy guns and equipment from Europeans, or influence at the new
Tocouleur court. When he was eighteen, a man and probably taking some
responsibility in his family’s mercantile business, his mother was seized in
one of these raids by the powerful Cissé, another Mandé group. Determined to get
her back, Samori Touré traveled deep into Cissé territory, to confront a man
tradition names Séré-Burlay. In return for his mother’s safety, he struck an
agreement with his mother’s captor: he would serve the Cissé as a warrior, so
long as she remained safe. It is unkown how long Touré served in this capacity,
though some traditions say for more than seven years, but however long he did,
he was most likely an experienced veteran by the time he ended his service to
the Cissé by escaping with his mother.
safety from the roused and potentially vengeful Cissé, Touré traveled to the
towns of the Bérété Mandé, a group who had been longtime rivals of his former
masters. There, again, he became a warrior, though now he began to rise through
the ranks, charismatic and brave as he was, and with an extensive knowledge of
his enemies and years of combat experience under his belt. By 1280 AH (1864
CE), he had a significant amount of men under his command, and was fighting for
the Bérété somewhere along one of the Niger’s tributaries, probably the Milo
note on Touré’s early life, before the founding of the Wassoulou Empire is
discussed: Touré was not born a Muslim, but converted sometime as a young man,
possibly during his time with the Cissé, but it is impossible to be sure. Even
African sources disagree on the exact dates, or how/why he converted.
Regardless, by 1280 AH (1864 CE), he was a devout Sunni Muslim, and possibly a
member of a Sufi brotherhood.
AH (1864 CE), the Tocouleur Empire, which had conquered and subsumed the Mandé
and Fulani states of Touré’s youth the year his mother had been kidnapped,
collapsed. El Hadj Omar Tal, the Fulani founder and only ruler of the Tocouleur
state, died, and though his heirs managed to hold onto some of the territory,
their subjects proved entirely too powerful and eager for the potential spoils
left by the great man’s death for their control. Dozens of factions broke off,
and the region dissolved into chaos. As mentioned above, Touré was on what was
probably the Milo River, and, as the Empire disintegrated around him, Touré
took advantage of the situation to accomplish two things. The first was the
testing of his warriors in serious battle. Trained with his own version of
European military standards, adapted from the experiences and memories of his
youth, and armed with firearms and the skill to use them, Touré was eager to
see if his own theories about war would hold up in a conflict so much larger
and more intense than the small-scale strife of his youth. The second goal was
the creation of a new Sunni Muslim state, with Touré as the ruler.
quickly won victories. His men were well-disciplined, and, as the war
progressed, more and more heavily armed. In addition to captured weapons and a
variety of improvised and locally-manufactured equipment, Touré also began to
deal with the British in Sierra Leone, where they refused to offer him status as
a full protectorate kingdom, but agreed to supply him with weapons in exchange
for a promise not to deal with other colonial powers, particularly the French.
Though the British did not supply him with heavy weapons or artillery, they did
provide breach-loading weapons, and the know-how to repair them, as well as an
enormous supply of ammunition. So armed and now with a veteran army at his
back, Touré seized the Buré gold mines, on the Malian border, and with the hard
currency and extensive territory his victories had won him, proclaimed himself Faama
(Emir, roughly), of a new Wassoulou Empire, named after region on the
modern Guinea-Mali border. The capitol was moved to the large town of
Bissandugu in 1294 AH (1878 CE).
chapter of the Wassoulou Empire was marked by wars of conquest against weaker
neighbors, rather than the earlier wars for survival in the cutthroat political
climate left behind by the Tocouleur collapse. A major success came in 1297 AH
(1881 CE), when Kankan, a major Dyula trading post on the Milo River fell, and
the Empire reached its geographical zenith. Smaller states, particularly
animist/indigenous African states, fell as well in the same period, and though,
like many African rulers, Touré allowed many indigenous civil customs to
continue unmolested, he began to style himself with Islamic titles, and likely
sought out more formal religious training from Sufi’s and Marabouts,
local Sunni leaders, during this period. Finally, he managed to secure
alliances, with himself as the power-brokering party, with the Fulani states to
the North, where Islam was the state religion.
AH (1882 CE), Samori Touré launched a new campaign, this time dispatching his
troops South, toward Cote d’Ivoire. There, they besieged the city of Keriera, hoping
to use it as the launching point for a campaign as far as the coast. However,
another major imperial power was operating to the south, and moving northwards
from the Ivory Coast: France. In fact, the first contact between the Wassoulou Empire and the French was a brief engagement outside of Keriera,
where a French force drove off Touré’s surprised troops, and then effectively
replaced them, occupying the city. Touré, concerned but not desperate, renewed
relations with the British and sent new emissaries to Liberia, where he hoped
to strike another arms deal. He got what he was looking for in 1300 AH (1882-3
CE), purchasing repeating rifles from the British and Liberians, and setting up
a corridor on which to move supplies between the coast and his interior centers
of power, should the emerging conflict with the French escalate.
escalate. Skirmishes and Wassoulou raiding colored the next few years, and
French colonial authorities, disturbed by what they perceived as a grave threat
to ventures in the area, dispatched a Colonel Combes with an expeditionary
force to take Buré, one of the main sources of cash for Touré and his Empire.
However, the force was too small, and Combés was unfamiliar with the terrain
and his enemy, and they were soundly defeated by the crack African forces, many
of the leaders veterans of decades of campaigning. In Shawwal, 1308 AH (1891
CE), another French force was dispatched, this time to Kankan and lead by Louis
Archinárd, another French Colonel. Touré, realizing he could not hold the walls
against heavy French artillery, abandoned the city, but took his men into the
field, hoping to defeat the French in the open. Though Touré managed to drive a
few French columns back in 1308 AH (1891 CE), he was unable to significantly
halt their advances, especially as more and more French troops were assigned to
the region, transferred for the campaigns organized to destroy Touré and his
neighbors. Another blow had come with the signing of the Brussels Conference
Act of 1890, in which Europeans agreed to stop selling weapons to African
rulers or armies, cutting Touré off from a valuable source of weapons.
AH (1892 CE), French Colonel Húmbért attacked, seized and occupied Bissandugu
and Buré, though Touré and his troops were, again, in the field, and, though defeated,
the Faama was able to keep his troops intact, retreating across the
Niger. Along the path of his retreat, Touré burned crops and destroyed as much
of the infrastructure as he could, hoping to stall the French and possibly
allow African disease to have some weakining effect on the advancing columns,
though this strategy only bought a few seasons. The clashes with the French,
from the first engagement with Colonel Combés to the seizure of Buré and Touré’s
capital at Bissandugu, constitute what is now known as the First and Second
Mandingo Wars. The third, and the deciding moment for the Wassoulou Empire,
loomed, though it was delayed by the French conflicts with rulers in Mali and
back along their tenuous zones of control to the coast.
by 1315 AH (1898 CE), Babemba Traoré, the ruler of the collapsing Kénédougou
Empire to the North in Mali proper, was defeated by the French, who proceeded
to incorporate most of Mali into the expanding territory of French West Africa.
Touré, cut off from supplies in Liberia and Sierra Leone, now found himself
virtually alone against the French, who moved their victorious armies back
toward Wassoulou and the border, preparing for a final offensive, across the
Niger and into what had once been the far Eastern edge of Touré’s Empire, now its
only remaining area. Within a few months of the outbreak of hostilities in the
Third Mandingo War, Touré was captured when a French unit attacked his troops,
and was imprisoned. The French quickly moved in to the remaining Wassoulou
towns, and formally dissolved the Empire in the ensuing months. Touré remained
imprisoned by local French troops until the 23rd of Jumada al-Ula, 1317 CE (29
September 1899), when he was moved to exile in Gabon. He died of pneumonia
there, at 70, in Safar, 1318 AH (June 1900 CE), and was buried at the Grand
Masjid in Conakry, Guinea.
Ahmed Sékou Touré, would later become Guinea’s first President, when the country became independent of France more than half a century later.
On this day in music history: November 4, 1987 - “The Lion And The Cobra”, the debut album by Sinead O'Connor is released. Produced by Sinead O'Connor and Kevin Moloney, it is recorded at Oasis Studio in London from Late 1986 - Mid 1987. The first album by the then twenty year-old Irish singer and songwriter features musical support from Adam & The Ants guitarist Marco Pirroni and singer Enya. It spins off three singles including “Mandinka”, whose video receives heavy airplay on MTV, and “I Want Your (Hands On Me)” (duet with MC Lyte on the remixed version). The latter appears in the film “Nightmare On Elm Street 4: The Dream Master”. O'Connor receives a Grammy nomination for “Mandinka” in 1989, performing the song on the live Grammy telecast. The albums cover photo (taken by Kate Garner of the band Haysi Fantayzee) features different photos of the singer. The original European release uses a shot of O'Connor with her arms crossed in mid-scream. The US cover uses similar shot with her in a more subdued and pensive pose. Out of print on vinyl since the early 90’s, the album is remastered and reissued as a 180 gram LP by Music On Vinyl in 2015, featuring the original European cover photo. “The Lion And The Cobra” peaks at number thirty six on the Billboard Top 200, and is certified Gold in the US by the RIAA.
The Mandinka is an ethnic group that live in West Africa, primarily Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea-Conakry but some also live in Mali, Cote d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. They are famous for being griots and praise singers.
Just gonna put this out there. Dont come at me. (even tho I know you all will)
For anyone dragging Jackson for wearing dreads and accusing him of cultural appropriation, you better do some research. They go back to ancient times and have been worn by many cultures through out history.
Some of the earliest depictions of dreadlocks date back as far as 3600 years to the Minoan Civilization, one of Europe’s earliest civilizations centred in Crete (modern Greece). Frescoes discovered on the Aegean island of Thera (modern Santorini, Greece), depict individuals with braided hair styled in long dreadlocks.
In ancient Egypt examples of Egyptians wearing locked hairstyles and wigs have appeared on bas-reliefs, statuary and other artifacts. Mummified remains of ancient Egyptians with locked wigs, have also been recovered from archaeological sites.
During the Bronze Age and Iron Age many peoples in the Near East, Asia Minor, Caucasus, East Mediterranean and North Africa such as the Sumerians, Elamites, Ancient Egyptians, Ancient Greeks, Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Hittites, Amorites, Mitanni, Hattians, Hurrians, Arameans, Eblaites, Israelites, Phrygians, Lydians, Persians, Medes, Parthians, Chaldeans, Armenians, Georgians, Cilicians and Canaanites/Phoenicians/ Carthaginians are depicted in art with braided or platted hair and beards.Over half of surviving Ancient Greek kouros sculptures (from c. 615 – 485 BC) are found wearing dreadlocks.A Spartan officer depicted with locked hair. Sartori Plica polonica
In Ancient Greece, kouros sculptures from the Archaic period depict men wearing dreadlocks while Spartan hoplites (generally described as fair-haired) wore formal locks as part of their battle dress. Spartan magistrates known as Ephors also wore their hair braided in long locks, an Archaic Greek tradition that was steadily abandoned in other Greek kingdoms. The style was worn by Ancient Christian Ascetics in the Middle East and Mediterranean, and the Dervishes of Islam, among others. Some of the very earliest adherents of Christianity in the Middle East may have worn this hairstyle; there are descriptions of James the Just, first Bishop of Jerusalem, who is said to have worn them to his ankles.
Pre-Columbian Aztec priests were described in Aztec codices (including the Durán Codex, the Codex Tudela and the Codex Mendoza) as wearing their hair untouched, allowing it to grow long and matted.
In Senegal, the Baye Fall, followers of the Mouride movement, a Sufi movement of Islam founded in 1887 AD by Shaykh Aamadu. Bàmba Mbàkke, are famous for growing locks and wearing multi-colored gowns. Cheikh Ibra Fall, founder of the Baye Fall school of the Mouride Brotherhood, popularized the style by adding a mystic touch to it. Warriors among the Fulani, Wolof and Serer in Mauritania, and Mandinka in Mali and Niger were known for centuries to have worn cornrows when young and dreadlocks when old.
By culture Locks have been worn for various reasons in each culture: as an expression of deep religious or spiritual convictions, ethnic pride, as a political statement and in more modern times, as a representation of a free, alternative or natural spirit. Another name for the style is locks (sometimes spelled “locs”).
Credit to girl that posted this, forgot her name, if you know let me know.