Growing up, without really even knowing much of what she sang or did, I definitely had an opinion on her. Not that it was really mine. I knew my mom and aunt really quite liked her and thought she was pretty cool, so I decided I liked her and thought she was cool.
When I was able to form my own opinion I decided for myself that I do indeed like her and that she is indeed very cool.
_A Griot (pronounced Gree oh) is a West African storyteller, singer, musician, and oral historian. They train to excel as orators, lyricist and musicians. The griot keep records of ass the births, deaths, marriages, and cultural tradition through the generations of the village or family. The griot legacy stretches back for hundreds of years. A griot is very important since the history of a family may never be written down. At times the griot may be called upon to advise people and even give spiritual counsel. Other names for a griot are “djeli (Bambara and Malinka language) and jeli (Mandinka).
_Africa | "Griot Woman, Cayor, Senegal” | Vintage postcard.
For a Mandinka warrior, one horse is worth 20 men in battle. I know you have been taught to ride by your family, but not a horse like this. He is a king of a royal line that goes back to the great kings of Mali.
Are We Losing Battles Because, We Are Not Aware We Are A War?
I know we are in era of defining or redefining ourselves, in an era of endless debates what we should be called or how we should be defined. Having A Race Or Not Having A Race,Hoteps or not Hoteps, Cis or Non Cis. While we are becoming race neutral, gender neutral or any number of religious affiliations we are claiming and having these endless debates, you have an enemy that is concerned with any of it, and is ready to kill you.
During the capture, when the slave raiders were grabbing people and destroying villages. A village may have been Mandinka, another village Fon. At what point did that fact come to bear when the gun fire cleared? In the dungeons where we lay, in our own excrement, uncertain of our destiny, in Goree, in El-Mina, some where Orisha, some where Muslim, some where Asante, some were Igbo, at what point did those definitions spare the inhumanity? On the ship when they were throwing our people overboard, some cried in the night to Allah, others to Alusi and others to Olodumare. Some where from Sokoto, some where from Gambia. At what point did any of this give us an advantages during the dark voyage, infected with disease and death?
The above quote would serve us well as move forward in 2017 and beyond. At what point of us being race neutral, gender neutral, Hebrews, Moors,Muslims, Christians, practitioners of Vodun or Santeria,etc. etc etc,etc spared us from their brutality? What is the point of these endless debates? Meanwhile your real enemy has declared war on you and are not prepared. They are race first, why aren’t we?
Martin R. Delany, the West African Mandinka-born surgeon, one of the first three blacks admitted to Harvard Medical School and the first black man to coin the phrase “"Africa for Africans” in 1859. Delany was born free in Charles Town, West Virginia (then part of Virginia, a slave state) to Pati and Samuel Delaney. Although his father Samuel was enslaved, his mother was a free woman, and Martin took her status under slave law. Both sets of Martin Delany’s grandparents were African.
Delaney’s paternal grandparents were of Gola ethnicity (from modern-day Liberia), taken captive during warfare and brought as slaves to the Virginia colony. Family oral history said that the grandfather was a chieftain, escaped to Canada for a period, and died resisting slavery abuses.
Pati’s parents were born in the Niger Valley, west Africa, and were of Mandinka ethnicity. Her father was said to have been a prince named Shango, captured with his betrothed Graci and brought to America as slaves. After some time, they were given their freedom in Virginia, perhaps based on their noble birth. Shango returned to Africa. Graci stayed in America with their only daughter Pati. When Delany was just a few years old, attempts were made to enslave him and a sibling. Their mother Pati carried her two youngest children 20 miles to the courthouse in Winchester to argue successfully for her family’s freedom based on her own free birth.
As he was growing up, Delany and his siblings learned to read and write using The New York Primer and Spelling Book, given to them by a peddler. Virginia prohibited education of black people. When the book was discovered in September 1822, Pati took her children out of Virginia to Chambersburg in the free state of Pennsylvania to ensure their continued freedom. They had to leave their father Samuel, but a year later he bought his freedom and rejoined the family in Chambersburg.
In Chambersburg, the young Delany continued learning. Occasionally he left school to work when his family could not afford for his education to continue. In 1831, at the age of 19, he journeyed west to the growing city of Pittsburgh, where he became a barber and laborer. Having heard stories about his parents’ ancestors, he wanted to visit Africa, which he considered his spiritual home.
Delany became a student . of the Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church on Wylie Avenue. Shortly after, he began attending Jefferson College, where he was taught classics, Latin and Greek by Molliston M. Clark.
During the national cholera epidemic in , Delany became apprenticed to Dr. Andrew N. McDowell, where he learned contemporary techniques of fire cupping and leeching, then considered the primary techniques to treat disease. He continued to study medicine under the mentorship of Dr. McDowell and other abolitionist doctors, such as Dr. F. Julius LeMoyne and Dr. Joseph P. Gazzam of Pittsburgh.
Delany became more active in political matters. In 1835 he attended his first National Negro Convention, held in Philadelphia since 1831. He was inspired to conceive a plan to set up a ‘Black Israel’ on the east coast of Africa. He also became involved in the temperance movement and organizations caring for fugitive slaves who had escaped to Pennsylvania, a free state.
While in Pittsburgh, Delany began writing on public issues. In 1843 he began publishing The Mystery, a black-controlled newspaper. His articles and other writings were often reprinted in other venues, such as in abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator. It must be noted that whilst Delany was living in Pittsburgh, in 1843 he met and married Catherine A. Richards. She was the daughter of a successful food provisioner, said to be one of the wealthiest families in the city. The couple had eleven children, seven of whom survived into adulthood. The parents stressed education and some of their children graduated from college.
Delany was a an intelligent and gifted orator. A eulogy which Delany delivered for Rev. Fayette Davis in 1847 was widely redistributed. His activities brought controversy in 1846, when he was sued for libel by “Fiddler” Johnson, a black man he accused in The Mystery of being a slave catcher. Delany was convicted and fined $650 — a huge amount at the time. His white supporters in the newspaper business paid the fine for him.
While Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison were in Pittsburgh in 1847 on an anti-slavery tour, they met with Delany. Together the men conceived the newspaper that became the North Star. It was first published later that year in Rochester, New York. The business was handled by Douglass, while Delany traveled to lecture, report, and obtain subscriptions. During these travels, he was frequently confronted by mobs opposing his views, sometimes violently.
In July 1848 Delany reported in the North Star that U.S District Court Justice John McLean had instructed the jury in the Crosswait trial to consider it a punishable offense for a citizen to thwart white persons’ trying to “repossess” an alleged runaway slave. His coverage influenced abolitionist Salmon P. Chase to lead a successful drive to remove McLean as a candidate of the Free Soil Party for the Presidency later that summer.
While living in Pittsburgh, Delany studied the basics of medicine under doctors and maintained his own cupping and leeching practice. In 1849 he began to study more seriously to prepare to apply to medical school. In 1850 he failed to be accepted to several institutions before being accepted to Harvard Medical School, after presenting letters of support from seventeen physicians. He was one of the first three black men to be admitted there.
The month after his arrival, however, a group of white students wrote to the faculty, complaining that “the admission of blacks to the medical lectures highly detrimental to the interests, and welfare of the Institution of which we are members.” They stated they had “no objection to the education and elevation of blacks but do decidedly remonstrate against their presence in College with us.” Within three weeks, Delany and his two fellow black students, Daniel Laing, Jr. and Isaac H. Snowden, were dismissed, despite dissenting opinion among students and staff at the medical school. Furious, Delany returned to Pittsburgh.
He became convinced that the white ruling class would not allow deserving persons of color to become leaders in society, and his opinions became more extreme. His book, The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States, Politically Considered (1852) argued that blacks had no future in the United States. He suggested they should leave and found a new nation elsewhere, perhaps in the West Indies or South America.
More moderate abolitionists were alienated by his position, and they resented his criticism of those who failed to hire colored men in their own businesses. Delany also criticized racial segregation among Freemasons, a fraternal organization.
As a response to Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, in 1859 and 1862, Delany published parts of Blake: Or The Huts of America in serialized form. His novel portrayed an insurrectionist’s travels through slave communities. He believed that Stowe had portrayed slaves as too passive, although he praised her highlighting the cruelty of Southern slave owners. Modern scholars have praised Delany’s novel as an accurate interpretation of black culture. The first half of Part One was serialized in The Anglo-African Magazine, January to July 1859. The rest of Part One was included in serial form in the Weekly Anglo African Magazine from 1861-1862. This was the first novel by a black man to be published in the United States.
Delany worked for a brief period as principal of a colored school before going into practice as a physician. During another cholera outbreak in 1854, most doctors abandoned the city, as did many residents who could leave, as no one knew how the disease was caused nor how to control the epidemic. With a small group of nurses, Delany remained and cared for the victims.
In August 1854 Delany led the National Emigration Convention in Cleveland, Ohio. Delany advanced his emigrationist argument in his manifesto “Political Destiny of the Colored Race on the American Continent”. The convention approved a resolution stating, “[A]s men and equals, we demand every political right, privilege and position to which the whites are eligible in the United States, and we will either attain to these, or accept nothing.” There were a significant number of women attendees who also voted for the resolution, considered the foundation of black nationalism.
In May 1859 Delany sailed from New York for Liberia, to investigate the possibility of a new black nation in the region. He traveled in the region for nine months. He signed an agreement with eight chiefs in the Abeokuta region that would permit settlers to live on “unused land” in return for using their skills for the community’s good. It is a question whether Delany and the chiefs shared the same concepts of land use. The treaty was later dissolved due to warfare in the region, opposition by white missionaries, and the advent of the American Civil War.
In April 1860 Delany left Liberia for England, where he was honored by the International Statistical Congress. One American delegate walked out in protest. At the end of 1860, Delany returned to the United States. The next year, he began planning settlement of Abeokuta. He gathered a group of potential settlers and funding. When Delany decided to remain in the United States to work for emancipation of slaves, the pioneer plans fell apart.
In 1863 after Abraham Lincoln had called for a military draft, Delany began recruiting black men for the Union Army. His efforts in Rhode Island, Connecticut, and later Ohio raised thousands of enlistees, many of whom joined the newly formed United States Colored Troops. He wrote to the Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, requesting that he make efforts “to command all of the effective black men as Agents of the United States,” but the request was ignored.
In early 1865 Delany was granted an audience with Lincoln. He proposed a corps of black men led by black officers who could serve to win over Southern blacks. Although a similar appeal by Frederick Douglass had already been rejected, Lincoln was impressed by Delany and described him as “a most extraordinary and intelligent man.”
Delany was commissioned as a major a few weeks later, becoming the first black line field officer in the U.S. Army and achieving the highest rank an African American would reach during the Civil War. After the war, he remained with the Army and served under General Rufus Saxton in the 52nd U.S. Colored Troops. He was later transferred to the Freedmen’s Bureau, serving on Hilton Head. He shocked white officers with his strong call for the right of freed blacks to own land. Later in 1865, he was mustered out of the Freedmen’s Bureau and shortly afterward resigned from the Army.
Following the war, Delany continued to be politically active. He worked to help black cotton farmers improve their business and negotiating skills to get a better price for their product. He also argued against blacks, when he saw fit. For instance, he opposed the vice presidential candidacy of J. J. Wright on the grounds of inexperience, and he opposed the candidacy of another black man for the mayor of Charleston, South Carolina.
Delany unsuccessfully sought various positions, such as the appointment as Consul General in Liberia and nomination for lieutenant governor of South Carolina. In 1874, Delany ran and lost an election for Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina to Richard Howell Gleaves. He was appointed as a Trial Justice in Charleston. In 1875 charges of “defrauding a church” were brought against him. He was convicted, forced to resign, and served some time in jail. Although pardoned by the Republican governor, Delany was not allowed to return to his former position.
Delany supported the Democratic candidate Wade Hampton in the 1876 gubernatorial election. Partly as a result of black swing votes encouraged by Delany, Hampton was elected. Much more significant to his victory was the intimidation and violence practiced by “rifle clubs” and the Red Shirts, a paramilitary group of mostly white men, who worked to suppress black voting at the polls. Historian George C. Rable described them as acting as “the military arm of the Democratic Party.” By 1876, there were estimated to be 20,000 white men who were members of rifle clubs in the state. More than 150 blacks were killed in violence related to the election. Hampton reappointed Delany as Trial Justice.
White Democrats soon replaced Delany as Justice. In 1877 the federal government withdrew its troops from the South, marking an end to the Reconstruction era. Paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts continued to suppress black voting in the Carolinas, especially in the upland counties.
In reaction to whites’ regaining power and the suppression of black voting, Charleston-based blacks started planning again for emigration to Africa. In 1877, they formed the 'Liberia Exodus Joint Stock Steamship Company’, with Delany as chairman of the finance committee. A year later, the company purchased a ship, the Azor, for the voyage. Delany worked as president of the board to organize the voyage.
In 1880, Delany withdrew from the project to serve his family. Two of his children were students at Wilberforce College in Ohio and required money for tuition fees. His wife had been working as a seamstress to make ends meet. Delany began practicing medicine again in Charleston. On 24 January 1885, he died of tuberculosis in Wilberforce, Ohio.
In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Martin R. Delany as among the 100 Greatest African Americans.
In 1991, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission installed a historical marker near 5 PPG Place in Pittsburgh, near to where published 'The Mystery, that commemorated Delany’s historic importance. In 2003, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission installed a second historical marker on Main Street in Chambersburg, noting Delany’s historic importance.
Delany’s unfinished novel Blake: or, the Huts of America advocated black activism and rebellion. In it Delany reworked several of Stephen Foster’s sentimental “plantation songs”. Thus he reappropriated material for his own purposes, to express black resistance and independence. Songs had been used in minstrel shows, in part to show slave contentment or lack of resistance to slavery. For example, Foster’s “Old Uncle Ned” mourned the passing of a slave:
Den lay down de shubble and de hoe
Hang up de fiddle and de bow:
No more hard work for poor old Ned
He’s gone whar de good darkeys go.
Delany turned this into a song of rebellion about the death of a master:
Hang up the shovel and thee hoe-o-o-o!
I don’t care whether I work or no!
Old master’s gone to the slaveholders’
Samory Touré (1830-1900) of the emergent Mandinka Empire in Guinea/Mali/Sierra Leone and northern Côte d'Ivoire was born in Guinea. As his new empire was taking off, Touré began to forge a new political order and ran up against the French imperialists who were also trying to extend their territories inland from their base in Dakar, Senegal.
“I took this photo during the first rain of the rainy season, marking the beginning of crop planting. I looked out of my hut to see all the children of my 70-person Mandinka compound dancing and playing in the rain. This was the first rain after our six month dry season. There was much to celebrate! - @peacecorps Senegal Volunteer Amanda Landry.
#peacecorps #africa #senegal #culture #rain #children #celebrate http://bit.ly/1HfjVCM
Contrary to popular belief, many Latin Americans do not have surnames that are of Castilian (Spanish) or Portuguese origin, just as many people from the United States do not posses surnames that are of English origin. [Part ll]
Above: Celebrities from Latin America with surnames that are not of Castilian or Portuguese origin [from left to right]:
1. Dilma Rousseff, Brazilian with a Bulgarian surname;
2. Rigoberta Menchú Tum, Guatemalan with an Indigenous Mayan surname;
3. Yumileidi Cumbá, Cuban with a surname that originates with the Mandinka people of West Africa;
4.Bruce Kastulo Chen, Panamanian with a Chinese surname;
5. David Nalbandian, Argentine with an Armenian surname;
6.Juan Soler Valls Quiroga, Argentine with a Catalan surname;
7. Montserrat Oliver, Mexican with a French surname;
8. Armando Cooper, Panamanian with English surname;
9. Karin Roepke, Brazilian with German surname;
10. Catharina Choi Nunes, Brazilian with Korean surname.
When the Iberians colonized Latin America, they began to force conversion to Catholicism onto the Indigenous populations of the areas they conquered. After an Indigenous person was baptized, they were assigned a Castilian or Portuguese surname, to signify a new life distanced from their pagan roots. The same fate befell the enslaved Africans that were brought to the Americas by the Spaniards and Portuguese. After the colonial era many Latin American countries started to receive a myriad of immigrants; mostly from Europe, but also from Asia, the West Indies, and the United States. Countless of these immigrants would Iberianize their surnames in order to assimilate smoothly, examples of this can be seen with the German immigrants who came to Brazil; names such as Birnbaum, Löwe, Zimmermann, Frazen were changed to Pereira, Leão, Simão, and França. For all the reasons mentioned above, the majority of Latin Americans (not including the Francophone regions) these days have Castilian or Portuguese surnames.
However, a significant number of Latin Americans have managed to resist the adoption of Portuguese and Castilian surnames.
Indigenous surnames can be frequently found in countries with large unmixed Amerindian populations, an example of this is Peru where surnames such as Quispe, Huamán, Mamani are some of the most frequent. In southern Mexico and Guatemala names of Mayan origin such as: Tecú, Tuyub, Zum, Xuluc, Tun, Canché, Tuyuc, Curruchich, Choc, and Xicara; are also commonly found.
West and Central African originated surnames can be found in areas of the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador where the African-descended populations have been historically isolated. They can also be found in the Caribbean regions of Colombia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean islands. Cuba is an example of this as it was the last nation in the Caribbean region to abolish slavery, and many of the enslaved Africans brought in the latter parts of the colonial era were not strictly enforced to accept their Christian surnames, so they would adopt ones that signified the tribe or region they descended from such as Boni, Carabalí, Biafara, and Cumbá.
Nonetheless, the most common surnames that aren’t Castilian or Portuguese in origin, are those belonging to the descendants of post colonial immigrants. Although many immigrants Iberianized their surnames, others chose not to. The first wave of immigrants came from regions of Spain that weren’t traditionally part of the colonizing Castilian-speaking areas (which includes Castile/Andalusia/Extramdura) such as the Basque, Catalan, and Galician lands. Surnames from these sub-ethnic groups can be found throughout Latin America in abundance, but especially in Cuba, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Venezuela, Mexico, Colombia and even Brazil the countries which received the most post-colonial immigrants from Spain. Furthermore, immigrants from outside of Spain(and Portugual) began to migrate to Latin America in latter waves, most coming from Europe: mainly Italy, Germany, France, and Eastern Europe and most settling in the countries mentioned previously. In Argentina, Southern Brazil, and Uruguay; Italian, German, and Slavic surnames are almost as common as Iberian ones and in some areas even more common. Immigrants also came from Western and East Asia, namely Christian Arabs from Lebanon/Syria and Japanese people. Indentured laborers were brought to places like Peru and Cuba, most of them being of Chinese background. West Indian migrants to Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala (when these nations Caribbean coasts were British protectorate’s) and Panama (during the building of the Panama Canal) brought with them a multitude of British and Irish surnames as well. For this reason, many of the descendants of all these migrants mentioned above, still bear the surnames of their ancestors, despite historical pressures to assimilate/change them.