male attire

2

Nohr version HERE

You: “Men were men and women were women in the 17th century”

Me: 

Philippe d’Orleans, brother of Louis XIV, flagrantly gay and dandy, in a long term relationship with the Chevalier de Lorraine, and loved to dress in female clothing too.

Hortense Mancini, royal mistress and female libertine, flagrantly bisexual and enjoyed to dress as a man on the odd occasion. 

Aphra Behn, poet and playwright, general libertine, most probably a lesbian and defied gender roles by managing to make it big in a man’s world some 200 years before feminism was a thing. Also advocated racial equality and denounced slavery.

James I, King of England (and Scotland), VERY VERY GAY. Boyfriends included the 1st Duke of Buckingham and Esme Stewart.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, one of the greatest soldiers in history but also “irresistible to either men or women” 

John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, a poet and libertine who was defying ideas about masculinity anyway but who, on the good authroity of @thepurposeofplaying, was probably not cisgender.

Anne, Queen of Great Britain who was most probably gay and had romantic relationships with Sarah Churchill and Abigail Masham.

It was extremely in vogue for women to dress up as gentlemen, mainly for the pleasure of men, but also because they damn well wanted to because THEY LOOKED GOOD. Here is Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Duchess of Orleans, in her male attire: 

Mary of Modena, Queen of England, in her attire:

And here is Lady Frances Stewart (who, incidentally, was the model for Britannia, the personfication of Great Britain) in her attire: 

Here’s what contemporaries have to say about the fashion styles of the age: 

“A strange effeminate age when men strive to imitate women in their apparell, viz. long periwigs, patches in their faces, painting, short wide breeches like petticoats, muffs, and their clothes highly scented, bedecked with ribbons of all colours. And this apparell was not only used by gentlemen and others of inferior quality, but by souldiers especially those of the Life Guard to the King, who would have spanners hanging on one side and a muff on the other, and when dirty weather some of them would relieve their gards in pattens.

On the other side, women would strive to be like men, viz., when they rode on horseback or in coaches weare plush caps like monteros, whether full of ribbons or feathers, long perwigs which men use to wear, and riding coat of a red colour all bedaubed with lace which they call vests, and this habit was chiefly used by the ladies and maids of honour belonging to the Queen, brought in fashion about anno 1662″

OH AND LET’S NOT FORGET MEN’’S HIGH HEELS:

Both of these belong to King Louis XIV of France.

Also, men didn’t start powdering their wigs until the 1700s which is the 18th century, you troll.

If you’re going to be homophobic and transphobic, try and be accurate next time. You wouldn’t want to be historically inaccurate.

LASTLY, a word from Philippe d’Orleans:

4

[warning for old-school trans terminology and rhetoric, transmisogyny, slurs, and mentions of violence and rape]

this is the article roycevomit discovered; i managed to track it down in the local university library and use their scanner.  bear with me, the text is a little long, but it’s also very interesting and at times a little too close to home.  obviously i don’t agree with everything it says, but i think it’s an important part of our history.

Beyond Two-Genderism
Notes of a Radical Transsexual
by Margo
published in The Second Wave Vol 2.4 (1972)

Over the past few years, both the feminist and gay movements have been challenging some basic assumptions about human sexual identity and expression.  There is a growing group of people who refuse to see women as inferior to men, and who also refuse to see love between people of the same sex as inferior or less “moral” than love between people of different sexes.  More and more questions are being asked about sex roles and relationships, ranging from why there is not equal pay for equal work to why a fulfilling sexual experience cannot involve less or more than two people.  In brief, the feminist movement has challenged male chauvinism, and the gay movement has challenged heterosexual chauvinism.  Of course, these are not separate issues.  As one who views herself as a feminist bisexual woman, I think and feel them to be very intimately related indeed.

Two-Genderism: Unfinished Business

However, if I am to find a life as a full human being, I must challenge yet a third aspect of sexism which has not yet been challenged, at least not on a large scale.  I call this aspect two-genderism, a rather clumsy term upon which I hope someone will improve.

Two-genderism can be summed up in the following assumptions: (1) human beings are divided into two distinct and mutually exclusive biological pigeonholes, male and female, (2) human beings are divided into two distinct and mutually exclusive psychological and social pigeonholes, men and women; (3) biological sex, subjective identity, and social assignment always coincide, and (4) none of these facts can change as a person grows and develops.

Perhaps these assumptions become clearer when we see exactly who gets hurt by them.  While it is true that everyone is affected to some extent, and that without these assumptions it would be much harder to maintain or justify a sexist society, still there are two overlapping groups that are particularly damaged by two-genderism.  First, there are intersexuals, people who combine some elements of both sexes in their bodies.  Secondly, there are transsexuals, people who develop gender identities which are preponderantly opposite to the ones which society demands.

Most transsexuals have perfectly “normal” female or male bodies, as the case may be.  Most intersexuals tend to adopt whatever sex they are reared to be, no matter how confusing from a two-sex viewpoint their biological condition is.  And there are some people who combine aspects of both these groups.  I am one of them.

A Personal Account

As I have learned from the feminist and gay movements, theory is not enough.  Now women are beginning to feel free to discuss their rapes without shame or euphemism, and gay people openly discuss the joys and terrors of coming out.  In the same way, I feel that an account of my past may give a better picture of what two-genderism means.

I am a genitally male person who has wanted to be female since about the age of four and a half.  I have some female breast development and gonads which produce virtually no sperm for a reason which has not yet been medically determined.  At present, I am taking female hormones and look forward to eventual sex reassignment surgery to make me as biologically female as possible.  At the same time, I must admit that 21 years of living as a male, however unrelished a role it has been, has made my sense of femaleness different than it is for someone born into that status.

Rather than write an autobiographical case history, I would like to relate moments which may give a better feeling of what my transsexuality has meant in my life.  My technique is borrowed directly from an article entitled “Barbaric Rituals,” which is in Sisterhood is Powerful.

Excerpts From A Diary

I am walking around in male clothing, and a child refers to me as a “funny-looking lady."  Teenagers ask me if I am a boy or a girl.  I am not sure if they are affirming my female identity or merely considering me as a hippy.  I think of many replies, respond with silence, and walk on.

In a crowd watching a building a building demolition (do I see the bring-down of a sixteen-story building as symbolic transsexuality?), being asked by some teenage boys if I use silicone, and being warned by a hardhat not to lift my sweatshirt lest I be "lewd and luscious."  Being told by one boy that I would probably be busted for "impersonating a chick” even though I am in male attire.

Being told by a feminist friend that I am masculine in being more idea-oriented than people-oriented, and wondering when people would ever give me a chance to be my real self to them.

Openly cross-dressing, wearing women’s clothing to a university campus, and being correctly associated with the gay movement but incorrectly identified as a male homosexual rather than as what I consider myself, a female bisexual.

Being called a faggot by some fraternity types at school.  The humor was that a faggot is the derogatory term for a male who enjoys sleeping with males, while I was and am in a situation where I can go to bed only with myself.

Finding some genuine beauty and humanness in my own subjectively female sexuality, in spite of all the confusion and ambivalence, but being unable to express a shadow of it to anyone else.

Talking to a friendly gay male who tells me, “I’m a very tolerant faggot, but I can’t understand you.  You’ve gone three steps beyond me and another two in reverse.”

Talking to a gay sister who can understand me as a “cross-gender Lesbian” but cannot understand why I find myself talking in a very different tone of voice, an affirmation of my emerging identity.

Being excluded from feminist groups because of my genitals and required male social role, and being excluded from male society because of almost everything else.

Talking with some genuinely kind organizers of a women’s center at my undergraduate school who has tried to comfort me by telling me that what with nonsexist child rearing I should have company in fifteen or twenty years.

After a demonstration against fraternity prostitution, going to a local newspaper and saying “Women’s liberation frees men too,” rather than, “I am what i feel, a woman who supports both her sisters and her brothers in ending dehumanization.”

Going to a campus meeting for a feminist organization where it is proposed to hold a women’s party, hearing that there can also be a men’s party, and realizing that I can fit into neither; going outside and having a good cry.

Having a radical male friend question whether my transsexuality is a personal distraction from “worthwhile” political work because “how many transsexuals are there, anyway?”

Leaving early from a radical literature distribution meeting and hearing that I had missed an excellent discussion of the unity of the personal and the political.  Later the same night being asked, at a party of the same people, not to discuss my intersexuality since I might be overheard.  Knowing that natural-born women could discuss birth control or abortion at this party without fear.

Telling myself that I am where a female was in 1950 or a gay person in 1960.  Then thinking about a woman or gay person raped, murdered, or driven to suicide, and feeling guilty fro playing the game of “more oppressed than thou.”

Reading about a woman’s project in Vietnam, and getting my priorities straight by hoping that the war will be over before I will be eligible to join.

Wondering if I will ever be able to pass as a female, and deciding that if not, I would rather live in a body and wear clothes that I can enjoy, even if it is on a desert island.

Reading feminist literature which claims that “men sure of their masculinity support equality” and gay literature which says that those who cross-identify or cross-dress are expressing masochism, are a small minority of the upright homophile world, and should not make you doubt that “you can be gay and normal too."  As a Lesbian who considers female transsexuals her sisters, experiencing the special pain of seeing these people apologized for and put down.

Arranging for hormone tests, and wondering what they can really prove.  Realizing that to learn I "really” have breasts, that I “really” am partly female, would make me feel much more legitimate.

Enjoying medieval music, which has scales in between major and minor.  Reflecting that even in classical music you are permitted to modulate, to change key.

Conclusion

This article is intended neither as a scholarly discussion of transsexual and intersexual states nor as a blueprint for ideal societies.  There are a number of articles now available on transsexuals and intersexuals, although many have a sexist bias.  As far as utopias are concerned, many anti-sexist people have shown a great interest in writing about androgynous societies yet small tolerance for actual androgynous people.  I can, however, make some suggestions to both the feminist and gay movements.

To The Feminist Movement:

1.  Do not assume that people who are confident about their sexual identities are for equality.  many people are either confident sexists or unsure people who question the old givens.  It is also an insult to all who do not fit the stereotype of a confident person of any sex.

2.  Understand that because of psychological and social pressures many transsexuals seek extreme versions of their desired sex roles.  Feminism can best reach these people by example and by understanding the uncertainty which sex identity shift can bring and which extreme role-playing can mark.

3.  In writing, recognize that there are intersexuals and transsexuals who may be trapped in a no-person’s-land and who need solidarity from anti-sexist people.  Literature which insists that there are only women and men is conspiring unconsciously with sexist forces to crush those in between.

4.  In exclusively female groups, redefine what it means to be female so that male transsexuals may have at least partial membership before surgery.  It is just at this transitional point, when the transsexual is beginning to live in her new identity, that communication with wher sisters may be important in shaping her life-style and in getting a wider perspective on what it means to be a woman.

5.  Become involved in current gender research and treatment programs so that the feminist view may be represented.

To The Gay Movement:

1.  Do not put down transsexuals, intersexuals, or other unusual people (e.g., transvestites) for apologize or express condescending pity for them.

2.  Explain that gay people are those who wish to love a member of their own sex, while transsexuals wish to change sex.  This is the difference between sexual preference and gender identity, and it should be known in order to confront the confusion and needless conflict between transsexuals and gay people.

3.  Recognize that some female transsexuals will have male homosexual feelings and some male transsexuals will have female homosexual feelings.  Such people should be welcomed to their respective groups.

In general:

Although transsexuals and intersexuals can organize themselves, they cannot make progress without help since they are such a small minority.  Recognizing the problems of intermediate people would be a humane step for anti-sexist groups and a move toward a freer view of sex and gender for everyone.  It would help bring to an end the two-genderism which is being challenged in genetic research but not yet in social reality.

I should say something about my obligations as a transsexual to the larger movement.  First of all, I feel committed to such issues as child-care and abortion, even though I shall never be able to bear or father a child.  I shall always try to be sensitive to the ways in which I have profited by male status, however much I have lost emotionally: for school and job simply being male was an automatic bonus.  Of course, I will be renouncing this status, but I cannot renounce the very unjust benefits I have received and which are now unerasable history.  I shall join with the Lesbian movement, while as a bisexual female I shall try to have the strict dichotomy between gay and straight removed (as Kate Millett has tried to do).  My main feeling is that I want to love human beings; sex and gender should not be determining factors.  At the same time, I do not put down those who happen to prefer one sex or the other.  It is a question of taste, becoming a problem when one taste is almost forced and another is repressed.


The goth and fantasy fashion aesthetics are fucking beautiful, but they’re coming up short. 

  1. There is a serious lack of POC in gothic attire. 
  2. There is a serious lack of POC in fantasy attire. 
  3. There is a serious lack of male POC in gothic or fantasy attire. 
  4. There is a serious lack of males in fantasy attire, period. 
  5. Why are there so few genderfluid fantasy costumes and concepts?

Come on.  Step it up, people.

9

The Phantom of the Opera, by Gaston Leroux, illustrated by Rachel Perkins.

These illustrations come from the Barnes and Noble Classics Edition of Phantom.

Of particular note is Rachel Perkins’ Leroux-accurate depiction of Erik and Christine’s journey to the lair, featuring Christine still dressed in her male attire from Faust, Erik in his rowboat wearing his black mask, and the white form of César the horse fleeing in the background.

1) Erik kisses Christine (cover art)

2) Ballerina’s invade La Sorelli’s dressing room

3) Skulls roll in the graveyard at Perros

4) The chandelier crashes down

5) Erik appears at the masked ball dressed as Red Death

6) Erik takes Christine across the lake to his lair

7) The Managers keep watch over the envelope with their 20,000 francs

8) The Persian and Raoul meet the Rat-Catcher

9) The torture chamber floods with water

"Trans women are women" is a lie that is as dangerous to transwomen as it is to women

When I grew up in the seventies and eighties in the north of England, transgender wasn’t a thing. Men were men, and women were women. Heteronormativity was king. In fact it wasn’t just king, it was everything. It didn’t even need a name back then.

Where I grew up, nobody was gay. Faggots, puffters, bum-boys, up-hill gardeners, queers, trannies, gender-benders, dykes, lesbos and their ilk would not have been welcome or tolerated.

These things were shameful. Unacceptable. Wrong. Unnatural.

I’d seen cross dressing on the TV. I’d seen “that perverted faggot” Danny La Rue. I’d seen Kenny Everett’s ‘hilarious’ bearded lady ‘Cupid Stunt’. Being a ‘tranny’ was not a good thing. It was not something I wanted to be. It was something to hide and deny. I lived in fear. I was afraid. I was scared to be a tranny. Society had instilled in me a deep-rooted, intense internalised transphobia.

I lived with this for many years. I lived with opposing forces that tried to tear me apart. On one hand I needed to feel accepted by society. I had to be a ‘man’. I had to appear to meet society’s strict rules of what it is to be a man. On the other hand, I despised male company and pretty much everything it meant to be a man. Why did men have to be strong, authoritative, have ‘presence’ and treat women as sex objects and domestic servants? Why was I told these things? Why did my managers coach me to be ‘more manly’? Because this was what was required to be successful as a man in society.

When I asked questions about the impacts of commercial decisions on the lives of real people I was quickly cut down as being either a “lefty” or for being “such a girl”. So my need to fit in and be accepted, and more importantly, to pay the bills, became the dominant force.

I complied. I adopted a persona. I learnt from my mentors. But I still despised it. I was terrified of exposing my real personality so to protect myself I put up invisible walls. I censored my interactions with others. I found myself unable to interact in a personal or intimate way.

People say life begins at forty. It seems like this is a time when many of us find ourselves able to rediscover ourselves. To become more self-aware. To see the distinction between what society has made us and who we really are. I was about 38 when I started to do this.

The world had changed a lot in those 25 years. Cupid Stunt and La Rue were figures from a bygone age. Gay pride was so big it had become a commercial venture. My god, we even have Internet! People who were formerly isolated could find each other and share experiences.

Guilt and shame were being replaced with compassion and support.

I found online forums where I learnt that “trans women are women”. That we have always been women. We have women’s brains in men’s bodies. Of course! This was it! It made perfect sense. In fact my whole life suddenly started to make sense. It explained why I could never fit in with men. Why I always felt more comfortable in the presence of women. Why I’d always been acutely aware of the misogyny of so many men. Why I preferred women’s clothes. It made complete sense that for some unchosen, unavoidable reason my brain was more female than male.

This would mean it wasn’t my fault. I didn’t need to be ashamed!

I became aware of the concept of transition. Of the things I could do to attempt to eliminate the masculinity I had grown to despise. Hair removal. Hormones. Surgery. These thoughts totally overwhelmed me. They consumed me and debilitated me. I was suffering from the sex dysphoria I had read about.

But I had responsibilities and I desperately needed not to be this. I fought it, and fought it, and wanted it to go away. I NEEDED it to go away. But it doesn’t go away. It never does. It has always been part of me. After a couple of years I became deeply depressed and couldn’t fight any more. I needed professional help.

This was when I encountered the medical profession. I saw an NHS psychosexual counsellor. I was told that the person she saw in front of her (and I presented in male attire) did not seem like a man. She saw a woman. I felt so validated. This was a healthcare professional who sees people with gender issues all the time. She confirmed that I’m a woman. I was so relieved.  

I had lots of counselling and this was aimed at repairing my self-loathing that I had developed. It was to keep me safe. I learnt that there was nothing wrong with me. I did not need to feel shame. I should be proud of who I am. That if anyone had a problem with that, it was their problem not mine. This probably saved my life.

And so I began the process of transition. A difficult decision which I still believe was the least bad option for everyone involved.

So I was set up to face the world armed with “I’m a woman born in the wrong body and if anybody doesn’t like that it’s because of their own issues.” I started to meet other transsexuals through support groups. It seemed the world was a tough place, full of bigots and transphobes. Full of people who thought that if we looked, sounded or acted like males we mustn’t be women. It became so important to pass. The more we looked, sounded and acted like women the less likely we were to get “violently misgendered” by others. I heard tales of transwomen being called “guys” and the transwomen involved being deeply hurt by this. My friends were being hurt all of the time and this took an enormous toll on their validity and their ability to see themselves as worthy members of society. It seemed that those people closest, wives, partners and parents found it the hardest to accept that the person they knew is actually a woman. Being told you’re a man by the people you love hurts the most.

I was told that some people, who were known as TERFs* thought it didn’t matter how much we pass or integrate, it doesn’t make us women. Despite what we’d been told by medical professionals. Despite what it said in official NHS literature. Despite what is said by every trans support group out there. It’s so easy to see why the words “transwomen are not women” are so hurtful and triggering. They cut at the very foundations of everything that has helped to build a level of self-worth and to finally deal with the shame.

I couldn’t understand it. Why would these so called TERFs do this? Why would they think it’s OK to be so hurtful? So, I engaged with these women who think that transwomen aren’t women. I was ready to expect the worst.

I was shocked by what I found. Yes, I found a small handful of people who would instantly shut me down, call me a man and block me but what actually shocked me was the number of intelligent and compassionate women who were being labelled TERFs and receiving abuse after abuse from people claiming the protection of the transgender umbrella. What on earth was happening here?

And so I engaged, and challenged others, and challenged my own beliefs. I listened to the women who were being abused. I listened with open ears and an open heart. And slowly, I started to understand what gender is. We live in a society where we are all constrained by gender.

The rules for what men are allowed to be and what women are allowed to be are reinforced from birth.

These behaviours are rewarded from an early age at home, in school, in what we see all around us on TV, in the shops and so on. Behaviours from the wrong side of this are punished.

To many this is silent, unseen, occult even. Many are not even aware that this is exacerbated by socialisation and truly believe that this is the true natural order of things. I don’t know, but I suspect that even without socialisation there would be innate differences between the distribution curves of some of these traits in the male and female populations. But our socialisation restricts those of us whose traits deviate from the norm for our sex.

So, what does it mean to identify as a woman? I think for many of us it is that the personality traits that we identify with are on the wrong side of the line. They are the ones that we associate with being female. So this further supports our belief that we are actually female.

But this is a lie, it’s a vicious lie that is as dangerous for transwomen as it is for women. It’s a lie that sets us up to be triggered every time we are called he, or “guys” or somebody dares to suggest that we have male biology. Even a cursory glance from a stranger can cut to our very core. The very foundations of our self-worth are fragile.

You see, males don’t naturally all fit on the right hand side of the line, and females don’t naturally all fit on the left hand side of the line. We are all unique valuable human beings.

It’s not *because* we are actually women that makes it OK to be who we are. We are all valid and worthy and perfect however we are regardless of our sex. Our personality, our choices, our empathies and our identities are worthy even if they are on the wrong side of the line. The line is made up. It’s not the natural order. Men can be anything. Women can be anything.

I’ve come to regard myself as a gender non-conforming male. That doesn’t mean I’ve gone back to being what society expects of men. In fact other than the way I understand things and interact with others I haven’t changed. But now my foundations are solid. I’m able to have honest, open respectful conversation and debate about things that are important without taking things as a personal assault on my validity.

I don’t claim to be right. I see things through the filter of my experience. But I desperately want the world to be a better place. I want transwomen, or gender non-conforming males to be happy. To have solid self-worth and self-love. I want women to be respected and listened to. I want women, and men to be free to be whoever they want. There is no need to think transwomen are women for this to be true.

I have found peace and I wish that on others

*I now reject the use of the word TERF. It’s not meaningful and I only ever see it used as a slur, an insult and a silencing tool.

Postscript: I should also add that we have to live, survive and navigate our way in a gendered world and as such I support transition. I support the need to live *as* women as long as we understand and respect our differences. I also support medicalised treatment including surgery to deal with true dysphoria. Whether dysphoria is innate or a result of childhood experiences is irrelevant to the fact that it exists and needs to be treated compassionately.

Please don’t like or reblog this if you think it supports an anti-trans viewpoint.

Mrs Jordan as Hypolita in ‘She Would and She Would Not’ (exh.1791). John Hoppner (English, 1758-1810). Oil paint on canvas. Tate.

Dorothea Bland, later known as Mrs Jordan, made her mark on the London stage from 1785. She specialised in ‘breeches’ and comedy parts, performing chiefly at Drury Lane. Her role as Hypolita in Colley Cibber’s She would and she would not, where the heroine follows her lover to Madrid disguised as a young gentleman of fashion and wears male attire throughout the five acts, was a great success.

Feel free to repost and reblog so Jeffrey loses control who sees this picture and he will fear being recognized

This picture of JEFFREY ROSSMAN, who lives in CONNECTICUT, shows him as the sissy faggot he really is wearing a short plaid skirt, dark blouse, pantyhose and heels. Jeffrey admits to being attracted to boys but fears family and friends finding out the truth about him. He enjoys shaving his legs in the bath, wearing nail polish, using perfume, and shopping for feminine things and seeing the reactions of the salesladies when he buys bras, panties, etc. Jeffrey needs to be exposed so he can no longer hide the fact he wants to be a girl and have boys be around him.  People who know him have no idea Jeffrey is a crossdressing faggot and enjoys pleasing boys and enjoys seeing them when they are naked and hard. As it is, Jeffrey often wears panties and pantyhose underneath his male attire, although he dresses as a girl when he is at home. People who know him will learn Jeffrey Rossman really is a sissy faggot.

harboson-c  asked:

Dear Penny, I was wondering if you could put together some men-based attire; I see fancy dresses and such all the time and they are so cool - but I personally would love to see some different economical levels of attire for males! Elstine for example wears leather boots, black slacks, a frilly-white dress shirt, with a silvered breastplate to cover the vitals. I went off a late 1500s -1600s style, wjere mobility was becoming the focus.

(Yup can do will post some up and tag you

4

“Clothing that’s altogether less interesting than Womenswear. The design of Female attire is vastly more creative and daring. I don’t think that’ll change any time soon. It’s understandable: In the realm of Art, the female figure is so much more pleasing; it lends itself to the splendor of artistic expression in a way the Male form can’t. There have been significant shifts in the recent decade, however. I’ve never enjoyed buying and exploring the world of Male attire more than I do now. Contemporary Men’s Fashion owes so much more to the influence and vision of Homosexual culture than it will ever know.”

7

Kuba Nyim (ruler) Kot a Mbweeky III photos by  Eliot Elisofon, Daniel Lainé and Angelo Turconi

His name: Kwεt áMbwε'ky René (III): aka Køt áMbwε'ky. Most full names consist of three successive personal names: the king’s own name, the name of his mother and the name of his mother’s mother connected by particles meaning “of.” Only this ruler has a Christian name. The aka names are often used.

The first image depicts Nyim Kot a Mbweeky III wearing abacost, which is the name for the male attire favored by Mobutu and promoted as part of the authenticity campaign, consisting of a short-sleeved suit worn without a tie. The word abacost is derived from the French a bas le costume, or “down with the suit.” Second image depicts depicts wives of Nyim Kot a-Mbweeky III reciting ‘Ncyeem Ingesh’, songs of the nature spirits, praising the monarchy. Third image depicts him wearing a royal dress called ‘Bwaantshy’; royal headdress known as ‘Ntshuum Aniym’. The fourth image depicts him wearing a royal dress called 'labot latwool’ and royal headdress known as 'Shody’; necklace 'Lashyaash’ made of leopard teeth; sword 'Mbombaam’, lance 'Mbwoom Ambady’. Each Kuba king owns two royal dresses called ‘Bwaantshy’, one of which is always buried with him Only the king is permitted to wear them. The sword and the scepter are the marks of supreme authority and the headdresses represents the “house of the king” 

anonymous asked:

i recommend googling The Issue of Joan of Arc's Cross-dressing by: Allen Williamson

that was long so i didn’t read it all but i read summaries of that essay and all I got was that she wore male attire because it kept her safe from getting raped and that the voices she heard have not given her orders to take off the male attire?

https://archive.joan-of-arc.org/joanofarc_male_clothing.html here if anyone wants to read it too