Grace Brewster Murray Hopper (December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy Rear Admiral. She was one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer in 1944, invented the first compiler for a computer programming language, and was one of those who popularized the idea of machine-independent programming languages which led to the development of COBOL, one of the first high-level programming languages. Owing to her accomplishments and her naval rank, she is sometimes referred to as “Amazing Grace”. [x]
Rear Admiral Dr. Grace "Amazing Grace" Hopper, PhD.
Navy Officer, Computer Engineer, Scientist, Professor, World War II Veteran.
Bachelor’s in Mathematics and Physics (Vassar). Masters in Mathematics (Yale). PhD in Mathematics from Yale. Honorary Doctor of Science, Marquette University.
Associate Professor at Vassar College.
Served as a Navy WAVE (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) during World War II.
Graduated first in her class at the Naval Reserve Midshipmen’s School at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts.
Designed and invented supercomputer hardware and programming for the US military and private sector.
Invented the first compiler for computer programming language.
Popularized the idea of machine-independent programming languages.
She is credited with popularizing the term “debugging” for fixing computer glitches (inspired by an actual moth removed from a computer).
Military awards include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, National Defense Service Medal, Armed Forces Reserve Medal, Naval Reserve Medal.
hi do u think u could do a bit of explaining for that video you posted? I would like to better understand it's importance
Essentially, there were audits of some of the voting machines. An independent group was comparing the paper ballot counts to the machine counts. Obviously, the paper ballot count is the correct one, because the machine is reading the information from those ballots. Under pressure from election officials, they reported the machine count as official, even though the machines changed results and reported more ballots than were submitted and so on. In one precinct, for example, the machine count took twenty-one votes from Bernie and added forty-nine to Hillary, which meant Bernie lost that precinct at 48% instead of winning at 57%.
Hillary also did better in precincts with machine counts in MA and NY. Machines we know can be opened with a minibar key and whose data can be changed using Microsoft Excel. Machines made by a company whose owner promised in ‘04 that he and his company were dedicated to delivering Ohio to George W. Bush.
The Code Book by Simon Singh is like the short history of nearly everything, cryptographically speaking. There is so much history packed into this book that it is nothing short of amazing. And that all of this can be related to cryptography is even more remarkable. My interest in cryptography and the interesting and secret existence of code breakers and the techniques got piqued after I watched the movie The Imitation Game. Despite having read about the genius of Alan Turing and the superiority of the Enigma machine independently, the movie led me to search for works that would give me a windows into the surreptitious world of cryptography. Thanks to the power of the internet, the search ended quickly at The Code Book.