macedonian history

7

Tomb of Anthemia

Naoussa, Greece

3rd century BCE

This is a graceful, two-chamber monument with an Ionic facade of four semi-columns which support the entablature and the pediment. In the pediment’s hollow, a semi-declining couple is depicted in fresco. The three fleuron points which decorate the pediment retain their intense red and blue colours untouched, while the whole vaulted roof of the antechamber is painted with water lilies and fleuron (anthemia) in white and violet tones on a light blue background. The tomb gets its conventional name from these flowers.

The facade’s entrance was blocked by simple stone plinths, while the passageway from the first to the second chamber used to close with a monumental two-leaved marble door, which today we see fallen to the chamber floor. Inside the main death chamber, a four-sided stone base is preserved which contained some kind of metal vessel or reliquary with the bones of the dead.

Alexander The Great in front of the tomb of Achilles.

This painting in the Louvre Museum is a work of Hubert Robert (1733 -1808) done around 1754.

The subject taken from the Greek rhetorician Claudius Aelianius or Aelian (Varia Historia, XII, 7), writing in the second century CE, and shows the Macedonian king having the tomb of Achilles opened in order to pay a homage to the Greek hero of the Trojan War.

Achilles’ relationship with Patroclus is a key aspect of his myth. Its exact nature has been a subject of dispute in both the classical period and modern times. Thus in 5th-century BCE Athens, the relationship was commonly interpreted as pederastic. Nowadays some see it as a love relationship of an egalitarian homosexual couple. It is the same case as the relationship between Alexander the Great and Hephaestion. The relationship between the Macedonian king and his dearest and closest friend and confidant, lasted their whole lives, and was compared, by others as well as themselves, to that of Achilles and Patroclus. Hephaestion and Alexander grew up in a time and place where homosexual affairs were seen as perfectly normal. Roman and later writers, taking the Athenian pattern as their example, have tended to assume either, that their sexual relationship belonged to their adolescence, after which they left it behind, or that one of them was older, the lover (erastes) and the other was the beloved (eromenos). Claudius Aelianus takes the latter view when he uses just such an expression when describing the visit to Troy: “Alexander laid a garland on Achilles’ tomb and Hephaestion on Patroclus’, indicating that he was Alexander’s eromenos, as Patroclus was of Achilles.” No other circumstance shows better the nature and length of their relationship than Alexander’s overwhelming grief at Hephaestion’s death. The many and varied ways, both spontaneous and planned, by which Alexander poured out his grief are overwhelming. In the context of the nature of their relationship however, one stands out as remarkable. Lucius Flavius Arrianus “Xenophon” (Arrian of Nicomedia, ca. 86 – 160), in his work Ἀλεξάνδρου ἀνάβασις says that Alexander “… flung himself on the body of his friend and lay there nearly all day long in tears, and refused to be parted from him until he was dragged away by force by his Companions.

This painting by Robert (known as Robert des Ruines) is close to Panini, who was his teacher during his long stay of 11 years in Rome, and it is considered to be one of the first productions of the French artist in that city. In the painting by the French vedutista, an architectural fantasy, we see a pyramid similar to that of Caius Cestius in Rome, the ruins of a temple with Ionic columns inspired by the temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum and a round temple, after the Roman temple of Vesta, or the temple of the Sybile in Tivoli. The statue standing at the left-hand side of the canvas is the so-called Antinous of the Belvedere, or Antinous Admirandus, the famous statue in the Pio-Clementino Museum of the Vatican. This statue, correctly identified as a Hermes in the 19th century, was long taken to be a depiction of the beautiful Bythinian lover of Emperor Hadrian, one of the great “eromenos-erastes” relationship of the antiquity.

2

Macedonian Gold Myrtle Funerary Wreath, 4th Century BC

This wreath, with filigreed and enameled flowers, was looted from a royal Macedonian tomb in Northern Greece and may have belonged to one of Alexander the Great’s relatives. It was returned to Greece by the Getty Museum, who called it a “lavish miniature garden.”

3

August 26th 1910: Mother Teresa born

On this day in 1910, Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (now best known as Mother Teresa) was born to an Albanian family in Skopje, Macedonia which was then part of the Ottoman Empire. She became a nun when she was 18 and joined the Sisters of Loreto. In 1946 she claimed that she had a vision of God telling her to leave the convent and help the poor. She obeyed and lived among the poor in India and it was during this time that she went from Sister Teresa to Mother Teresa. In 1950 she established Missionaries of Charity, a Catholic congregation which helps the poor, the ill and the homeless. Members of the order, which still continues to do good works, make four vows, the last of which is to give “Wholehearted and Free service to the poorest of the poor”. Her work drew great international attention and in 1979 she received the Nobel Peace Prize. While being praised by many she was also a figure of controversy partly due to her opposition to contraception and for the large donations from disreputable sources her organisation accepted. Towards the end of her life Mother Teresa began to feel doubts about her religious convictions, and died in Calcutta on 5th September 1997, aged 87.

“I was to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them. It was an order. To fail would have been to break the faith.”
- Mother Teresa on her message from God

10

Palace of Phillip II

Aigai (todays Vergina), Macedonia

336 BCE

length 78 m, height 13.60 m. 


At the foot of the hill of the Acropolis, in a raised terrace that dominates the area and is marked by an ancient oak tree, the impressive remains of the palace lay. 

The floor plan of the ancient housewas of a peristyle courtyard with rooms surrounding it.  The house coudl accomosdate 4,000 residents and 500 guests.

The palace is organized around a large colonnaded courtyard and includes a temple dedicated to Hercules Patroos and luxurious banquet rooms for the king and his officials. In one of them the mosaic floor was preserved beautifully.

The  architect was famous Pytheas, who designed the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (355-350 BC), one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and the temple of Athena Polias in Priene in Asia Minor. This important monument, dating back to the second half of the 4th century BC, was a major attraction of the building program of Philip II. It should have been completed in 336 BC, when King to excuse the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra to the king of Molossos Alexander of Epirus.

Gold Ivy and Fruit Wreath found in Chalkidike, Macedonia, Greece, late 4th century BC

From the era of Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great’s father. It consists of 30 gold leaves and two sets of fruit. Archaeologists have unearthed only two similar Macedonian wreaths. They claim that they were used by priests during Dionysus’ feast.

anonymous asked:

In plane field , how would a fight beetween roman legions and hellenistic phalanxes go ?

Well, I think Cynoscephalae and Beneventum are good examples of how that goes. Pyrrhus showed the Romans that the phalangite army was no small trifle, but to the Romans eternal credit (and one of the reasons why Rome lasted as long as they did) was that Rome learned from their mistakes.

Thanks for the question, Anon.

SomethingLikeALawyer, Hand of the King

Altdorfer’s The Battle of Alexander at Issus.

Battle of Issus, (333 bce), conflict early in Alexander the Great’s invasion of Asia in which he defeated a Persian army under King Darius III. This was one of the decisive victories by which Alexander conquered the Achaemenian Empire. Issus is a plain on the coast of the Gulf of İskenderun, in present-day southern Turkey.

The Macedonian forces, with an infantry phalanx in the centre and cavalry on the sides, approached the army of Darius, which was drawn up on the opposite bank of the Pinarus River (possibly present-day Yakacık Çayı or Deli Çayı). Alexander led the charge across the river, shattering the Persian left wing before turning against the Greek mercenaries who formed the Persian centre.

His army in confusion, Darius escaped, but his family was captured. Arrian, Alexander’s biographer (2nd century ce), claimed the Macedonians lost only 450 men, with Alexander himself being wounded. Most of the Persians retreated to safety while the Macedonians sacked Darius’s camp.

A Strange Celtic Coin Illustrating Zeus Without A Chin

This is a 2nd century BC silver tetradrachm from the central Carpathian region in Eastern Europe, imitating the coins of Philip II of Macedon. This particular type is called a Kinnlos (chinless) type. The obverse shows a peculiar Celticized head of Zeus without a chin while the reverse shows a Celticized horseman.

The issues of Philip II of Macedon were one of the primary coinages circulating in the Thraco-Macedonian region from the late 4th century BC. It was such an integral coinage to the area that official Macedonian issues of Philip II type continued for decades after his death in 336 BC. Naturally, this coinage was imitated by various tribes in the Danube region, probably to facilitate trade with cities where the type was a recognized medium of exchange, down to the first century BC. The earliest types were reasonably faithful copies of the obverse and reverse types, but over time the various tribes “morphed” them, often into abstract designs that only vaguely resembled the originals, such as this oddly amusing chinless Zeus coin.

An Unpublished and Possibly Unique Macedonian Coin

This silver tetradrachm was struck in Salamis circa 300-295 BC during the reign of Demetrios I Poliorketes of Macedon. The obverse shows Nike blowing a trumpet and holding a stylis, alighting to left on a left-facing galley prow. The reverse shows the inscription ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ and Poseidon, nude except for a wreath of reeds and a chlamys wrapped around his left arm. He is striding left while hurling a trident from his upraised right hand; monogram of AYN to left, Σ to right. Unpublished in the Standard References, including Newell, possibly unique. This coin is extremely fine, well struck and centered; engraved in very fine style and very well preserved for the type.