macedonian

HOW TO IDENTIFY A SLAVIC LANGUAGE AT A GLANCE?

■ Broadly speaking, Slavic languages can be divided into those using the Cyrillic alphabet and those using the Latin alphabet, but in truth each language has developed its own modified alphabet. These language-specific letters and diacritic signs can serve as surefire clues, but unfortunately the task is much harder with speech, since accents and dialects tend to confuse even the most skilled listeners.

So how do you tell Slavic languages apart?

The Cyrillic alphabet:

BELARUSIAN – ў

■ Belarusian is the only language which uses the letter ў. It sounds similar to an English ‘w’, and the Latin transcription is ‘ŭ’. It is most often encountered in word endings equivalent to the Russian -ov or –ev suffixes, e.g., last names like Быкаў (Bykaŭ) or Някляеў (Nyaklyayeŭ).

UKRAINIAN – ї and є

■ ıf you see an ï amidst Cyrillic letters, you’re most likely reading Ukrainian. This letter is pronounced /ji/, and should not be confused with ‘i’ (/i/), or with ‘й’ (/j/) and ‘и’ (/ɪ/), which all look and sound slightly different.

Ukrainian is also the only language with the letter є ‒ in Russian the corresponding ‘э’ character faces the other way…

BULGARIAN – ъ

■ Ъ is a solid hint that you’re looking at Bulgarian ‒ it even pops up in the name of the country: България.  Though this letter (called ‘yer golyam’/‘ер голям’) also appears in Russian and other Slavic languages, it is not used frequently, whereas it appears regularly in Bulgarian. This is perhaps because it is silent in other Slavic languages, but in Bulgarian it symbolises a schwa sound (like the ‘u’ in ‘turn’). Make sure you don’t confuse it with the soft sign, ‘ь’.

Additional hint: ата is a frequent grammatical ending in Bulgarian.

SERBIAN – ђ and ћ

■ The similar ђ (dzhe) and ћ (tshe) are evidence you’re dealing with Serbian. Serbian Cyrillic doesn’t have many of the letters used in Russian Cyrillic; forget about ‘ё’, ‘й’, ‘щ’, ‘ъ’, ‘ы’, ‘ь’, ‘э’, ‘ю’, and ‘я’. If you want to tell Serbian apart from Russian, you can also look for љ (ly’) њ (ny’) and џ (dʒ), but these are also present in Macedonian.  

MACEDONIAN – Ѓ and Ќ  

■ Macedonian is the only language with the letters Ѓ and Ќ. The little accents over these Cyrillic letters are a surefire way to tell Macedonian apart from Serbian. The letters stand for sounds similar to the English [dʒ] and [t͡ʃ] – the latter sounding really Chinese.

Additionally, Macedonian features the letter ‘s’ [d͡z], which otherwise does not occur in the Cyrillic alphabet.

RUSSIAN

■ Famous for its inverted letters, Russian is probably the most recognizable Slavic language out there. On the other hand it is quite easy to confuse it with Ukrainian, Bulgarian or Serbian, so if you have a full sentence on your hands, it’s best to proceed by elimination using all the tips mentioned above.

The Latin alphabet:

POLISH – ł

■ If you see the letter ł with the characteristic slash through it, you’re looking at Polish. Ą and ę (which are nasal consonants) are also giveaways but be careful, both letters are also in the Lithuanian alphabet (which is not a Slavic language). Digraphs like ‘sz’, ‘cz’, and ‘dz’, sometimes combined into consonant clusters like ‘prz’, ‘trz’, and ‘szcz’, are clues, but watch out for Hungarian, which has similar consonant clusters.

SLOVAK – ä

■ Slovak is the only Slavic language to use ä, or ‘a s dvoma bodkami’ as the Slovaks call it. It comes up in words like ‘mäso’, ‘sôvä’, ‘rýbä’ (meat, owl, fish) and is pronounced like the English ‘a’ sound in ‘bad’. The same goes for ŕ, which is not used in any other Slavic language.

CZECH – ů

■ The Czech and Slovak alphabets are really similar. To tell them apart, look for the tiny difference in the diacritic sign over the letter r – where Slovak uses ‘ŕ’, the Czech letter has a tiny hook: ř. Also, if you see the letter ů, it’s Czech.

CROATIAN – đ

■ Written Croatian can appear hardly discernible from Slovenian, Czech or Slovak, with which it shares the letters as ‘č’, ‘š’, and ‘ž’, it has an easy distinctive feature ‒ the so-called crossed đ. [dʑ]

BOSNIAN

■ The Bosnian alphabet is indistinguishable from Croatian. To identify the language you would have to dig much deeper and look for differences in vocabulary since Bosnian has some unique words, mostly of Persian and Arabic origin.

SLOVENIAN

■ Slovenian, which is the westernmost Slavic language, is also the most discrete in terms of alphabet. In fact, it has only three special characters, ‘č’, ‘š’, and ‘ž’, which also appear in Czech, Slovak and Croatian. Again, your best bet is to proceed by elimination. (culture.pl)

anonymous asked:

wait i thought cleopatra seduced antony at cilicia not humiliated him?????? did hollywood lie

hahaha fuck

i love this story

so 

first you have to know that antony and cleopatra had known each other at this point for like…. shit almost 15 years? and had had a correspondence on and off throughout that time. they’d known each other through her exile, through his campaigns, through her first child, through his (failed) interim consulship. it’s conjectural to say they were on good terms but… i don’t know why they wouldn’t be. 

so when antony found out that cleopatra had funded cassius and brutus during the civil war? he was like, what the fuck. what theFUCK! (yells out window) OCTAVIAN DID YOU HEAR THIS! WHAT THE FUCK!  

so antony issues a summons: cleopatra is to come to him so she can Explain Her Self. to this cleopatra replies: what the fuck did you just say to me? 

(and you might be like, wait, why is that an issue? and i’ll tell you why, it’s because cleopatra, despite essentially being a (very tenuous) client king to rome at this point, vulnerable to invasion and just barely out of the woods re her connection with caesar, was a macedonian through and through: from language to looks to, you guessed it, ego. and she was fucking. insulted. HOW DARE HE! she probably yelled to charmian. I AM BLOOD! OF! PTOLEMY! NOBODY SUMMONS ME! charmian: i understand that your majesty can you please eat your dinner now)  

antony summons her twice more. finally cleopatra, personification of the upside down smile emoji, says, okay! i’ll come. see you soon!! (: 

now. cleopatra knew two things: 

One: that she was richer than antony, and antony wouldn’t be able to afford a reciprocal feast if she went all out, which would be hugely embarrassing for him

and Two: that a lot of people liked to say antony was a dumb hoe, impressed only by material goods and lavishness, and that he didn’t like when people said this.

so naturally cleopatra proceeds to sail up the river to tarsus in an huge fuck-off ship, plus her entire waitstaff, 12 dining tables, a feast that was lavish beyond belief, entertainment, probably some peacocks or whatever, all decked out in pearls and jewels.

antony: wtf! why are you being so mean rn!
cleopatra: mocking baby voice: why are you being so mean rn??? (normal voice) FUCK you 

antony didn’t ask her why she had supported cassius ever again. and that was the beginning of the most famous love affair in history  

Spring in Slavic languages

East Slavic
Russian: весна / vesna
Ukrainian: весна / vesna
Belarusian: вясна / viasna

West Slavic
Polish: wiosna
Czech: jaro
Slovak: jar

South Slavic
Bulgarian: пролет / prolet
Macedonian: пролет / prolet
Serbian: пролећe / proleće
Bosnian: proljeće
Croatian: proljeće
Slovene: pomlad

7

Tomb of Anthemia

Naoussa, Greece

3rd century BCE

This is a graceful, two-chamber monument with an Ionic facade of four semi-columns which support the entablature and the pediment. In the pediment’s hollow, a semi-declining couple is depicted in fresco. The three fleuron points which decorate the pediment retain their intense red and blue colours untouched, while the whole vaulted roof of the antechamber is painted with water lilies and fleuron (anthemia) in white and violet tones on a light blue background. The tomb gets its conventional name from these flowers.

The facade’s entrance was blocked by simple stone plinths, while the passageway from the first to the second chamber used to close with a monumental two-leaved marble door, which today we see fallen to the chamber floor. Inside the main death chamber, a four-sided stone base is preserved which contained some kind of metal vessel or reliquary with the bones of the dead.

Summer in Slavic languages

East Slavic
Russian: лето (lyeta)
Ukrainian: літо (lito)
Belarusian: летa (lieta)

West Slavic
Polish: lato
Czech: léto
Slovak: leto

South Slavic
Bulgarian: лято (lyato)
Macedonian: лето (leto)
Serbian: лето (leto)
Bosnian: ljeto
Croatian: ljeto
Slovene: poletje

2

Macedonian Gold Myrtle Funerary Wreath, 4th Century BC

This wreath, with filigreed and enameled flowers, was looted from a royal Macedonian tomb in Northern Greece and may have belonged to one of Alexander the Great’s relatives. It was returned to Greece by the Getty Museum, who called it a “lavish miniature garden.”

List of gender neutral names with meanings and origins:

So, I was going to send this as a message to @oabuckvu, but instead I thought I’d post this here since others may also find it helpful!

A:

Addison- child of Adam- English
Adina- slender- Hebrew
Alby- from Alba- Latin
Ally- friend- English
Ash- ash tree clearing- English
Azra- pure- Israeli
Asa- physician- Hebrew
Arin- enlightened- Hebrew
Arlo- army, hill- old English or barberry tree- Spanish
Avery- elf ruler- English
Alex- defender of mankind- Greek
Arlen- promise, oath- Irish
Ambrose- immortal- Latin
Aspen- tree- English
August- dignity, vulnerable- German

B:

Blaine- yellow- Scottish
Blake- blonde, dark- English
Bryce- swift- Celtic
Brooklyn- broken land- English
Bradley- clearing in a woods- English
Bailey- bailiff- English
Beck- brook, stream- Norse

C:

Chyler- beloved- English
Cody- child of cuidightheach- English
Charlie- charles- English
Chris- christ- English
Coby- supplanter- Latin
Casey- brave- Gaelic
Corin- spear bearer- Irish
Cameron- crooked nose- Scottish
Colby- town, dark- Norse

D:

Dakota- friend- Native American
Devon- poet- Irish
Delaney- descendent of the challenger- Irish
Drew- manly- English
Denham- habitation- English
Dael- knowledge of God- Hebrew
Danny- God has judged- Scottish

E:

Ellis- Jehova is God- Greek
Ellery- from the elder tree island- English
Evan- youth warrior- Irish
Emery- brave, powerful- German
Eden- delight- Hebrew
Ellison- child of elder- English

F:

Farron- iron grey- Anglo Saxon
Freddie- peaceful ruler- German
Frankie- free one- French
Fynn- river in Ghana- African
Finch- bird- English
Flynn- child of red hair- Irish

G:

Gene- well born- English
Gale- cheerful, pleasant- English
Glade- shining- English
Glen- valley- Gaelic

H:

Hollis- Holly tree dweller- English
Harlow- rock, army, hill- English
Halley- lived near a grove- English
Hadley- Heather field- English

I:

Isa- devoted to God- Teutonic
Ives- archers bow- English
Iggy- firey one- English

J:

Juniper- youth producing, evergreen- Latin
Jesse- gift- Hebrew
Jo- God is gracious- English/German/French
Joey- may Jehova add- Hebrew
Jordan- river flow- Macedonian
Jet- black gemstone- German

K:

Kellam- at the ridges- Norse
Kelsey- from the ships island- English
Kendall- royal valley- English
Kai- sea- Hawaii

L:

Logan- hollow- Scottish
Leslie- garden of holly- Scottish
Lee- dweller near the wood- English
Lane- path- English
Luca- bringer of light- Italy
Lirit- poetic- Hebrew
Lex- defender- Greek
Lakota- friends- Siouan

M:

Mattie- strength in battle- German
Morgan- sea defender- English
Misha- God live- Russia
Max- greatest- Latin
Mattise- gift of god- French
Monroe- from the mouth of the river Roe- Irish

N:

Newlyn- from the new spring- Celtic
Noel- Christmas- French
Nicky- victory- English
Nat- gift of god- English
Nova- chases butterfly- Native American

O:

Oakley- from the oak tree meadow- English
Oak- tree- English

P:

Perry- dwells by the pear tree- English
Piper- one who plays the pipe- Scandinavian
Pema- lotus- Tibetan
Puck- unknown meaning- Dutch
Parker- park keeper- English

Q:

Quinn- fifth- Irish
Quinta- fifth- Spanish

R:

Reese- firey- Welsh
Rey- king- Spanish
Reed- red, clearing- English
Rune- secret- Norse
Rue- herb, regret- English
Rain- blessings- American
Riley- dweller by the Rye field- English
River- river- English
Rowan- red- Gaelic
Rory- red king- Gaelic
Ronson- child of ron- English

S:

Sawyer- cuts timber- Celtic
Stevie- crown- English
Shiloh- owner- Hebrew
Sage- wise one- French
Saxon- knife- Teutonic
Sammy- bright sun- Finnish
Scout- to listen- French
Shane- gift from God- Irish

T:

Tex- texas- American
Toni- worthy of praise- Latin
Theo- God given- Greek
Taylor- to cut- French
Tyne- a river in england- English
Tyler- maker of tiles- English
Terry- powerful ruler- English

U:

Umber- shade- French

W:

Wyatt- guide- English
Willow- graceful- English
Wynne- fair- English
Wren- song bird- English

X:

Xen- religious- Japanese

Y:

Yael- mountain goat- Hebrew

Z:

Zen- meditative state- Japanese

How to say ‘I love you’ in different languages

Albanian - Të dua

Belarusian - Я люблю цябе (Ya lyublyu ciabie)

Bosnian - Volim te

Bulgarian - Обичам те (Obicham te)

Croatian - Volim te

Czech - Miluji tě

Danish - Jeg elsker dig

Dutch - Ik hou van je

English - I love you

Esperanto - Mi amas Vin

Estonian - Ma armastan sind

Finnish - Rakastan sinua

French - Je t’aime

German - Ich liebe dich

Greek - Σ ‘αγαπώ ( S ‘agapo)

Hungarian - Szeretlek

Icelandic - Ég elska þig

Italian - Ti amo

Japanese -  愛して (Aishiteru)

Latvian - Es tevi mīlu

Lithuanian - Aš tave myliu

Luxembourgish - Ech hunn dech gär

Macedonian - Те сакам (Te sakam)

Montenegrin - Volim te

Norwegian - Jeg elsker deg

Polish - Kocham cię

Romanian - te iubesc

Russian - Я люблю тебя (Ya lyublyu tebya)

Serbian - Волим те (Volim te)

Slovak - Milujem t’a

Slovenian - Ljubim te

Spanish - Te amo

Swedish - Jag älskar dig

Turkish - Seni seviyorum

Ukrainian - Я люблю тебе (Ya lyublyu tebe)

(Please correct me if any of these are wrong :) danke!)

Slavic time!

Days of the week series - Wednesday

Origin of the word - The word Wednesday comes from proto-slavic word serdà meaning middle, therefore Wednesday in all slavic languages has a meaning of “middle of the week”.

Russian -  Среда (sreda)
Ukrainian -  Cереда (sereda)
Belarusian -  Cерада (serada)

Bulgarian -   Cряда (sryada)
Macedonian -  Среда (sreda)
Serbian - Среда (sreda)
Slovene - Sreda
Bosnian - Srijeda
Croatian - Srijeda

Polish -  Środa
Slovak - Streda
Czech -  Středa

+  Lower Sorbian - Srjoda
Upper Sorbian -  Srjeda
Kashubian - Strzoda