Blood lines part 2

Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“E3b” redirects here. For the Pennsylvania Railroad locomotive, see



Haplogroup E-M215

Possible time of originapprox 22,400 years BP


Possible place of origin

North Africa


Horn of Africa





DescendantsHaplogroup E-M35 and E-M281

Defining mutationsM215, most often found in conjunction with M35

In human genetics, Y Haplogroup E-M215, also referred to in the literature by other names such as E1b1b and E3b (see further discussion below), is a major Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is a division of the macrohaplogroup E-M96, which is defined by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation M215.[4][5][6] In other words it is one of the major paternal lines of humanity, linking from father-to-son back to acommon male-line ancestor. It is a subject of discussion and study ingenetics as well as genetic genealogy, archaeology, and historical linguistics.

E-M215 has two ancient branches that contain all known modern E-M215 men, E-M35 and E-M281. Of these two, the only branch that has been confirmed in a native population outside of Ethiopia is E-M35, which in turn has two known branches, E-V68, E-Z827.E-V68 and E-Z827 contain by far the majority of all modern E-M215 men. E-V68 and E-V257 have been found in highest numbers in North Africa and the Horn of Africa; but also in lower numbers in parts of the Middle East andEurope, and in isolated populations of Southern Africa.