/pol/ analyzes a newly posted Ahrar al-Sham (Islamic Front) propaganda video originating out of the 15km wide Eastern Ghouta pocket of Damascus, a rebel strong hold. Ahrar al-sham has killed and captured christians and shiite civilians in areas of their control.
The posters in the thread made a scavenger hunt of it and broke the entire territory up into a grid for participants to claim a quadrant and scour their respective area on satellite map programs to try and connect the surroundings in the video to it’s corresponding overhead view.
Eventually, someone successfully identifies the location and the coordinates are forwarded to Syrian loyalist forces for aerial bombardment.
A bit of a departure from the stuff I’d normally post, but something of an interesting topic; less an obscure weapon, more an obscure person.
Born Titus Cornelius, slave to a John Corlies, in Monmouth County, New Jersey, in around 1753, “Tye” suffered a particularly unpleasant upbringing. Corlies was notorious, even among other slaveowners, for mistreating his slaves. Despite being a Quaker (it was Quaker practice to educate slaves and grant them freedom at age 21), Corlies had no intention of teaching or freeing his slaves, and regularly beat them. His actions eventually cost him his membership to the Quaker Church in 1778.
Titus was largely educated by other people in the region, and learned his way around the land whilst running errands for his master. He became acquainted with many of the families living in Monmouth at the time.
When the Revolutionary War started to break out in 1775, Lord Dunmore, the governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation offering slaves a deal: they would be offered freedom in exchange for service in the British Army. It should be noted that Dunmore’s proclamation, in its original wording, only applied to slaves owned by Patriots who opposed the British government. Dunmore was fierce Loyalist and somewhat of a reactionary figure; notoriously unpopular with the Patriot revolutionaries after threatening to impose martial law in Virginia. His actions no doubt did more damage than good to the Loyalist’s already poor reputation in the colonies, and this proclamation was no exception: wealthy slave owners, who had previously been indifferent to British rule, came to support the Patriot cause because of their fears that Dunmore was attempting to incite a slave rebellion.
As word spread all around of Dunmore’s proclamation, slaves, who were faced with a choice between their current condition or the enticing offer of potential freedom, began to flee their masters en masse. It is said that wherever the British Army marched, escaped slaves followed. The proclamation acted twofold: to bolster the Loyalist fighting force, and to damage the Patriot’s infrastructure by depriving them of their slaves. Dunmore established the “Ethiopian Regiment”, an all-black Loyalist regiment made up entirely of escaped slaves who had answered Dunmore’s call. It had nothing to do with Ethiopia. It was in this regiment that the former slaves would fight for their freedom, and wore their motto “Liberty to Slaves” across the chests of their uniforms.
Undoubtedly, Dunmore’s intensive was purely to undermine the Patriot cause rather than a steadfast opposition to slavery. For slaves, though, it didn’t matter. Many of them were prepared to fight and die for even a chance at freedom. Even if Dunmore was lying, most considered it worth a shot.
Titus was one of the first slaves to take up Dunmore’s offer. He escaped shortly after his 21st birthday and joined the British Army under the pseudonym “Tye”. Over the next few years, he may have gained military experience by participating in several skirmishes, such as Kemp’s Landing and Great Bridge, but there is no exact record of his activities until 1778, when he distinguished himself in battle by capturing Patriot Captain Elisha Shepard during the Battle of Monmouth. His combat initiative and vast knowledge of the New Jersey region singled him out as a particularly valuable asset to the British, and although former slaves could not officially earn a commission, Tye was unofficially promoted to the rank of “Colonel” and given command of his own unit called the “Black Brigade” in 1779.
The Brigade were given assignments by William Franklin, the Loyalist son of Benjamin Franklin and Royal Governor of New Jersey. Most of these assignments boiled down to destabilizing Patriot-controlled areas and destroying their infrastructure via the means of guerrilla warfare. For Tye and the men under his command, it was an opportunity to exact revenge on slave holders; many of the Black Brigade’s targets were their former masters. For every successful assignment, Tye and his men were paid 5 guineas. They also worked in conjunction with the Queen’s Rangers in New York, and also are said to have set up an early form of the Underground Railroad that would escort slaves to freedom in Nova Scotia.
The exploits of the Black Brigade were seen as disgraceful and barbaric by the Patriots and Tye became something of a boogeyman in New Jersey. By 1780, the Black Brigade were essentially acting as hitmen for the British, assassinating or capturing local high-ranking militiamen. One such target was Joshua Huddy. Huddy was considered something of a hero among Patriots but was notorious among Loyalists; he and his militia had raided and killed many prominent Loyalists. In essence, he was Tye’s Patriot counterpart.
When the Black Brigade came for him, Huddy managed to hold them off for about two hours with the help of his servant girl, before surrendering when his house caught fire. During his arrest, however, the Black Brigade was ambushed by a Patriot militia, and in the ensuing confusion, Huddy managed to escape. Tye was wounded in the wrist by a stray shot. Two days later, he succumbed to gangrene and died, aged 27.
Thus ends Tye’s chapter in history.
Although Tye never achieved the free life he sought, the story did not end with him. As the war came to a close in 1783, the British prepared to evacuate through New York. By this point, tens of thousands of slaves had served with the British. Many of them had since succumbed to disease, been captured and returned to their masters, or died in battle. Many did not expect the British to make good on their promise of freedom, but perhaps surprisingly, they did. Guy Carleton, the temporary commander-in-chief of the British forces, attended negotiations with George Washington following the British surrender, in which Washington was quite adamant that the “human property” of the Patriots be returned to their original owners. Carleton refused to yield. After some discussion, he managed to broker a deal with Washington: the slaves would not be returned, but any slave owners who lost their slaves during the war would be monetarily reimbursed by the British government. Carleton went so far as to compile a book of records relating to every escaped slave and every slave owner who was legally entitled to compensation, which was entitled the “Book of Negroes”.
The escaped slaves were shipped off with the rest of the Loyalist evacuees to Canada, England, and eventually, Sierra Leone. Many were granted land in Nova Scotia, where they built defenses among fears that the Patriots would try and forcibly reclaim their lost slaves.
Joshua Huddy was captured by Loyalists and hanged in a revenge killing. This event disrupted negotiations between Colonial Congress and the British.
Despite Carleton’s promises to Washington, no slave owners were ever reimbursed by the British government.
In M42, its formerly idyllic existence was shattered by a Death Guard invasion led by Mortarian himself. Three systems to the galactic north of Ultramar were corrupted by influence of Nurgle and its planets are turned into staging grounds for the invasion of Guilliman’s mini-Empire.
Espandor was badly sieged, Iax was overrun by daemons of Nurgle after being converted into a hospital world due to a convoluted scheme involving Guardsmen infected with Nurgle bugs, and even Macragge suffered bouts of Chaos-induced rebellion. Adding to the Ultramarines’ misfortune, the invasion force also consisted of Typhus and his Plague Fleet alongside a Great Unclean One named Ku'Gath.
Guilliman eventually returns to Ultramar from his Indomitus Crusade after hearing of this invasion. There, he leads the Ultramarines and their auxilia in a large-scale counterattack against the invaders. He first sets his eyes on Espandor, which serves as the main supply line for the Death Guard invasion. After a brief battle, Espandor was cleansed and the forces of Nurgle were cut off from the Scourge Stars. Several loyalist Ultramarine successors also joined the fight, their fleets engaging the Death Guard and doing their best to keep Ultramar’s shipping lanes safe.
The next great battle took place on Parmenio which saw the largest armored clash between the traitor and loyalist forces during the war. The largest star fort in Ultramar, Galatan, attempted to provide support but was engaged by the Plague Fleet and was boarded by traitor marines, leading to the death of the Novamarines Chapter Master. However, Guilliman kills Ku'Gath’s lieutenant, Septicus and shatters his Plague Guard, after which the loyalists make gains on Parmenio and the Primarch of the Ultramarines leads a relief force to Iax.
The final battle of the war takes place here, with Guilliman and Mortarian fighting each other to a standstill amongst the ruins of Iax. Eventually, Mortarian and the Death Guard are summoned back to the Scourge Stars which had come under threat from the War in the Rift. They withdraw from Iax under the cover of a virus bomb and the forces of Nurgle withdraw from Ultramar.
A neat little summary I thought I’d make for Nurgle’s invasion of Ultramar. I’ve posted this on 1d4chan as well.
Because I know Tumblr likes to be politically aware but doesn’t always know where to look to find injustice outside the US:
In Northern Ireland, there are 2 main parties. The DUP (Democratic Unionist Party) represent the loyalists, those who identify as British only. Then there’s Sinn Féin (translation: We Ourselves) representing the republicans, those who identify as Ireland.
The DUP and their supporters believe Northern Ireland should remain forever a part of the United Kingdom. Sinn Féin and republicans hope one day to see the 6 counties returned to Ireland to unite the island.
Why should you care?
Care because of what these parties stand for beyond their front-office policy. If you are not from these parts, you probably don’t spare much thought for whether we feel Irish or British. I’d wager you do care about the rights of the LGBT community; about whether politicians accept evolution as a theory as opposed to not believing dinosaurs ever existed at all; about the handling of taxpayer money by the First Minister and her party.
Most of all, I’d hope you’d care about hypocrisy.
Simon Hamilton, MLA for the DUP, has said his party “will not accept cultural supremacy for one section of our community” while discussing Sinn Féin’s request to see the Irish language given the same support in NI as Welsh is in Wales.
Let that sink in.
Simon Hamilton - who supports British ownership of the 6 counties in which English is spoken by 99.9% of the population - thinks allowing for a state-sponsored Irish language TV channel and some Irish painted onto road signs will somehow threaten the existence of the English language there.
The DUP are taking to the British media to paint Sinn Féin as enemies of the political process over this act, as well as Sinn Féin’s request for the First Minister to stand down for the duration of an enquiry into her conduct during a major financial scandal. It’s the Irish Language Act that’s getting the most abuse though, and has throughout my teenage life.
Seriously lads, all the Irish Act wants is protection for those in NI who still want to learn and practice the language of their ancestors and their relatives in the Republic. It doesn’t want to dominate English. It doesn’t even want to force loyalist children to learn any non-English language at all if their parents lean that way. It wants a position on official documentation that’s granted the same respect as Britain grants its other kingdom’s tongues.
I come from a Gaeltacht, so maybe I’m biased, but is it really too much to ask of a government not to deliberately mislead the public so as to maintain strong divisions?
This is as far as I’ll take this piece. I had worked on some detail sketches of her chainfists and other wargear but I don’t like how they’re turning out.
Anyway, this is…
Gorsk led a small frontier force of World Eaters in the Pre-Heresy era, often deployed far from the main body of World Eaters, tasked instead alongside a Mechanicus effort to reclaim artifacts from the dark age of technology. Gorsk’s Battalion, known as the Hounds of Gore, was only united with Angron’s World Eaters at Bodt, and after that returned to their mission alongside the Mechanicus, avoiding the legion-wide installation of the Nails.
The Hounds of Gore did not get word of the Heresy until relatively late in the civil war, but quickly rushed to purge loyalist elements from their ranks and from their Mechanicus allies. The warhost arrived just in time to lend aid to Horus’ forces at the siege of Terra. Gorsk found her World Eater peers twisted and warped beyond recognition by the nails and Angron’s influence, and chose to deploy her forces far from the main force of World Eaters, acting instead as a direct interdiction force against Loyalist Titan formations.
Badly Mauled by the fighting with the Titans and having lost all faith in her fellow World Eaters, Gorsk took the remains of her detachment and fled to the Ultima Segmentum after Chaos’ defeat on Terra. There they found purpose as a mercenary force until eventually alloying with an Iron Warriors Warband. Gorsk now serves as one of that Warband’s chief leaders, though she has never shed her Pre-Heresy World Eaters livery.
Heavily modified Cataphractii Pattern Tactical Dreadnought Armor. Gorsk’s armor is reinforced with additional layers of ablative ceramite casing to protect against energy weapons and to enable her to fight for long periods of time without support. The armor also houses a much larger reactor than is standard, both to increase the armor’s operational time and to power the many exotic and high powered weapons Gorsk is fond of using.
Weirdboy Totems. Many small totems hang from Gorsk’s pauldrons and belt, carved into strange little symbols and faces. Gorsk recovered these when her warband interrupted a fight between Craftworld Eldar and Orks during their flight from terra and slaughtered the xenos to the last soul. She found a chain of these hung from the Ork Weirdboss’ Choppa, carved from stolen wraithbone. THe Little totems called to her and she had them bronzed and hung from her armor as a good luck charm. They seem to help ward off psychic attacks.
Daemon Skulls. While Gorsk considers herself allied with Khorne, she rejects any mastery or influence the dark gods hold over her, and actively resists daemonic mutation in her warband. On four different occasions Khorne has sent his servants to humble her, and each time she has defeated them. She has kept their skulls as trophies to mock their failure.
Plasma Blaster Chainfists. During her time working closely with the Mechanicus before the Heresy Gorsk grew fond of prototyping experimental or highly modified weaponry in battle. She’s kept up this habit, maintaining an extensive armory of highly destructive weapons. Her paired Plasma Blaster Chainfists are her favored weapon in tight confines against heavily armored opponents such as other Astartes. The Chunky Chainfists function normally, a rending chainblade fastened to a power fist, but this pair can be triggered to spew hot plasma between the teeth to blast any small wound in an foe’s armor into a smoking crater.
This is a painting of Abigail Dolbeare Hinman. On September 6, 1781 a combined force of 1700 British, Hessian, and Loyalist forces attacked the town of New London and Fort Griswold (which was across the river). According to legend Abigail Hinman participated in the defense by attempting to shoot Benedict Arnold as he ordered the town burnt.
Kurdish led SDF break hard right and now push up the length of highway N-7 enroute to al-Shuwar on the eastern end of the vast oil fields, preempting the SAA advance as loyalist forces get bogged down in the more densely populated shores of the Euphrates
Meanwhile, the SAA extend control north, on their side of the Euphrates between Raqqa and Deir Ezzor, now that ISIS power has completely collapsed in the region.
while loyalist social media accounts celebrate this minor victory, Hohol maps produces more banter toward loyalists stealing his maps lmao
Echoing imagery of the First Gulf War, the Islamic State has begun setting fire to oil wells ahead of the SDF and SAA advance
And nearby where the oil fields were set ablaze, there were reports of helicopters east of the frontline with the SAA where troops were dropped near the Tabieh gas plant, because of this proximity, the assumption were that it was a Syrian airborne operation
Later it was confirmed that it was actually an American special operations unit, probably dropped to secure the gas plant and be a deterrent to Russian and Syrian offensive
Even with Vaylin’s defeat and the neutralizing of Zakuul, the Force had not led Satele Shan back to the Jedi Order. She had lingered on Coruscant for a time to aid in the relief efforts after the Fleet’s attack, and Jace had tried to convince her to stay around- him, the Chancellor, and most of the surviving Council. But her call led her away from the Republic after only a few months and back into the wilderness.
Now she lingered on Dantooine, with Darth Marr for company as per usual. The quietness of the planet was peaceful and calm, even with the old echoes of the Enclave ruins a few kilometres away. In the shadow of her old ship, Satele sat cross-legged in the grass, the weather too pleasant to bother with rebuilding her campfire. After a lifetime of service to the Order, this retirement was peaceful.
The peace was broken by the whine of a ship entering the atmosphere. Satele looked up and frowned when she saw a sleek vessel break through the clouds and make straight for her location. The ship looked to have been Imperial in origin, a little old but well maintained. The former Grand Master rose to her feet as the ship landed near her, far too close to be a coincidence. Who would have found her out here, much less have come hunting?
* Badab War: The Betrayal at Grief - Lord High Commander Verant Ortys of the Red Scorpions is killed under an attack by unknown forces during a meet between the Loyalist and Secessionist forces. The Chapter Master of the Mantis Warriors Sartaq is also killed. Lufgt Huron is later blamed for this incident.
November 11, 1917 - Kerensky Marches on Petrograd, Junker Uprising
Pictured - Alexander Kerensky and the terrible day.
For many in Petrograd, the Bolshevik coup had come as a sudden nightmare. The bourgeoisie reacted with horror, and the even the working class split. The transfer of power to the Petrograd Soviet overwhelmingly favored the Bolsheviks, and so many Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks stormed out of the Winter Palace. Trotsky harangued them as they left: “You are pitiful isolated individuals; you are bankrupts; your role is
played out. Go where you belong from now on — into the dustbin of
Those who feared the Bolshevik revolt and those who regretted it had reason to hope for a restoration of the Provisional Government, however, as on the 11th, a Sunday, a substantial army of loyalist forces arrived within shelling distance of the capital. Kerensky had gone to Pskov, and rallied Cossack forces under General Pyotr Krasnov.
Counter-revolution stirred within Petrograd. Anti-Bolsheviks (calling themselves, ironically, the Committee of Public Safety,) organized a rebellion of officer-cadets (junkers) against the soviet. An imprisoned Tsarist general in the Astoria Hotel imprisoned his captors. But things went off to a bad start. By the afternoon, Bolshevik militiamen, soldiers, and sailors, drove the junkers from their strongholds and seized the Astoria. The captured junkers were hauled off to Peter-Paul fortress.
Nurgle’s Invasion of Ultramar in 8th Edition (MASSIVE SPOILERS)
I was able to glean some info from the fluff segments regarding Mortarian and the Death Guard’s invasion of Ultramar. HEAVY spoilers below. I’ll basically be summarizing the main points.
-Three systems to the galactic north of Ultramar are fully corrupted by Nurgle, becoming the Scourge Stars which will serve as the staging area for the invasion of Ultramar by the forces of Nurgle. Note that these systems are NOT part of Ultramar but are simply to the north of it. This will be an important distinction later in the story.
-The Invasion is led by Mortarian and Typhus who leads the entire Plague Fleet on this offensive as well. There is a Great Unclean one named Ka'Gash who joins their forces as well.
-Initially the forces of Mortarian grind down the Ultramarines and their auxilia, making progress in their invasion. They even launch swift, probing, hit and run attacks against Maccrage as well.
-However, Guilliman returns with his Primaris Marines and the Ultramarines regain the initiative, bringing the invasion to a grinding halt and allowing the fronts to stabilize.
-Several Ultramarine successors also arrive, defending the shipping lanes of Ultramar against the attacks from the Plague Fleet.
-A huge battle takes place on the world of Parmenio, where there is the largest armored clash between the traitor and loyalist forces. The Ultramarines space fort Galatan tries to provide support but gets boarded by the Plague fleet and the Chapter Master of the Novamarines is killed. Eventually the loyalists gain the upper hand with Roboute Guilliman killing Ka'gashs’ lieutenant and shattering his Plague Guard (unique formation?).
-Guilliman leads a relief force to Iax which was being invaded by the Death Guard. The final battle takes place here and the Primarchs fight each other to a standstill.
-After this battle, the Death Guard withdraw from Ultramar as their Scourge Stars (mentioned earlier) had become threatened by the “War in the Rift” (no idea what that is).
There is a short blurb in the Primaris Marines datasheet, where Captain Acheron of the Ultramarines proclaims that the forces of Nurgle were “driven off” from Ultramar and has him saying that they would beat them several times over if they desired to return. By his upbeat tone, I’m guessing the whole affair ended in a loyalist/Imperium victory.
TURN, Hewlett, and Why He (& Characters Like Him) Matters
It’s no secret that I love Edmund Hewlett. That’s basically the opposite of a secret, as is the fact that I’ll be pretty crushed if season 4 reveals that, yepp, he really did sail back to Britain and will not return.
But the thing is: my dread is not just about him, per se. I’ve weathered the loss of a favorite character many times before. Who hasn’t? In Hewlett’s case, however, I think the show itself stands to suffer without him — or at least, without the narrative role that he plays so well.
This post is kind of rambling and naturally a bit verbose, but take it, I suppose, as a justification of my sorrow at the possibility of a sans-Hewlett season 4 by way of an exploration of his thematic role in TURN’s narrative and a defense of that role’s importance to the heart of the show. Because for as much love as Hewlett gets, he’s got plenty of detractors as well: critics and fans alike who don’t see the point of the Anna/Hewlett plotline or understand Hewlett’s purpose beyond “local obstructive bureaucrat.” To which criticism I humbly submit the argument that Hewlett & his plotlines absolutely have a point, thank you very much, and that he has in fact proven to be among easily the most moving and successful articulations of a theme TURN has continually tried to reinforce:
That neither the audience nor the characters can side wholeheartedly with only one side of the war, because there have always been sympathetic and admirable characters on both sides, muddying the moral waters and forcing the characters to grapple with loyalty to ideals vs. loyalty to people.
In other words: although TURN ultimately portrays the patriots as the protagonists, it’s also increasingly made a point of forcing its patriots to confront the
fact that they do not have any kind of exclusive claim to decency, morality, or sympathy. Quite
the opposite, in fact.
And Hewlett is not the only permutation on this theme, but he’s a pretty dang significant one.
While the colonies of New
France and British America were warring in the French and Indian War (1754–63
CE), a young Mohawk Native named Thayendangea or Joseph Brant began
his risefrom obscurity. During this war Joseph Brant, still in his
early teens, was involved in conflicts at Fort Niagara and Lake George.
being the first action at which I was present I was seized with such a tremor
when the firing began that I was obliged to take hold of a small sapling to
steady myself; but after the discharge of a few volleys, I recovered the use of
my limbs and the composure of my mind so as to support the character of a brave
man, of which I was especially ambitious.” – Joseph Brant, around
the age of 12.
^ French (blue) and British
territories (red) c.1750 CE.
There was an influential,
rich and Native-friendly man named William Johnson who was a Freemason Charter
Master, the Superintendent of Northern Indian Affairs and was Joseph Brant’s
brother-in-law. This youth had potential, believing so, William Johnson sent
him to Eleazar Wheelock’s “Moor’s Indian Charity School” in Lebanon,
Connecticut (a predecessor of the famed Dartmouth College) where he was given a
Christian education and converted to the Anglican church. Joseph Brant was also
known for acting as a translator and aiding Anglican Reverend John Stuart in
translating Christian works into Mohawk.
After William Johnson’s death Joseph
Brant visited London alongside Guy Johnson (William Johnson’s nephew and
son-in-law) in 1755 with the intent of negotiating a deal. If the
Iroquois Confederacy were given a tract of land in Quebec, Canada, then the
Iroquois Confederacy would aid the British in the American Revolutionary War
(1775-83). While there Joseph Brant was enrolled as a Freemason and given a
ritual apron, he was the first native American to be accepted as a mason.
^ Portrait of Joseph
Brant. Brant was visiting England with Guy Johnson at age 33 or 34 when Romney
painted him in his London studio.
There are some mentions of
Joseph Brant sparing the lives of fellow Freemasons despite them being on the
side of the Patriots. One such occurrence mentioned was one following the Battle
of the Cedars (May 18–27, 1776) in which the American POWs were about to be
executed but a captain named John McKinstry, who was a member of the Hudson
Lodge No.13 of New York, recalled that Joseph Brant was a Freemason. Captain
John McKinstry gave Joseph Brant a ‘Masonic sign of appeal’ in the hopes
of being saved from his fate of being burned at the stake; the two became and
remained friends from that point on. In 1779 this is again repeated
as a Patriot scout by the name of Lt. Boyd was ambushed along with Private
Parker and taken captive, Lt. Boyd asked to speak to Joseph Brant himself and
gave him the ‘Masonic sign of appeal’. Joseph Brant assured them their freedom
and safety but in his absence Colonel Butler had them interrogated, tortured
and then beheaded.
Battle of Long Island August 27, 1776
George Washington understood
that the New York Harbor would be an advantageous place for the British to use
as a naval base, because of its significant location, he thought it to be the
next likely point that the British would attack so he brought the Continental
Army to defend it. This was the largest battle of the American Revolutionary
War, with about ten thousand on the side of the Continental Patriots and twenty
thousand on that of the British in Long Island. The British decided to use
their center and right forces to both assault and distract the front while a
large force was sent to assault the weak American left flank. Joseph Brant is
believed to have been involved with the aforementioned, flanking maneuver.
The Fracturing Of the Iroquoian Confederacy (Mohawk,
Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Tuscarora)
During the American
Revolutionary War all sides, “Whites” and Natives alike, wished to keep the
Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy) neutral but in time the “whites” on both
sides were desperate to win over the neighboring tribes to their cause. The
Haudenosaunee were confused as they were allied with the British which were now
two factions, the British Loyalists and the Continentals Patriots, which should
they back? The Haudenosaunee began to fracture; the nations and tribes that
were once unified were now divided between the two warring powers.
had long opposed the British by continuing to trespass on and settle in Native
American territories. Many of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquoian Confederacy) that
favored the British did so because they feared, rightfully, that without the
British to hold back the settlers the frontier would be swarming with settlers
in much larger scale. Joseph Brant was able to gather four of the six
Haudenosaunee nations together, the conference took place at Irondequoit on the
13th of July 1777, and here the Haudenosaunee were showered with
gifts of rum and other provisions.
^ Joseph Brant, painted
in London by Gilbert Stuart in 1786.
Despite Seneca (Iroquois) leaders
like Guyasuta and Cornplanter wishing to continue their policy of neutrality,
the majority of the other Haudenosaunee (Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga) voted to
side with the British – because of this the Seneca respected their decision and
followed suit. Only the Oneida and Tuscarora refused to join the council and
instead sided with the rebels, since they had long lived beside them they had
grown accustomed to the colonists. There was also a Presbyterian missionary
named Samuel Kirkland who baptized and educated the Oneida and Tuscarora, with
the outbreak of war he swayed them over to the side of the American
St. Leger’s Expedition: Siege of Fort Stanwix and
Battle of Oriskany (August 1777)
The British planned a three-pronged
offensive aimed at crippling any chance for the Patriots (Continental rebels)
to invade Canada while also separating New England and the middle colonies.
Since George Washington’s army was so limited he would then be forced to choose
which to defend or to divide up his forces. One of these prongs was an
expedition led by Barry St. Leger. While the British were laying siege to Fort
Stanwix, Molly Brant sent word to Joseph Brant that a Patriot militia of 800
men from Fort Dayton in New York along with sixty Iroquoian Oneida warriors
marched westward toward Fort Stanwix seeking to relieve the besieged fort and
get revenge for the slaying of an innocent woman named Jane McCrea.
^ Treetop Advantage by Doug
Subsequently Barry St. Leger
sent Joseph Brant and John Johnson to cut the Patriot reinforcements off. With Joseph
Brant was his newly formed ranger corps called ‘Brant’s Volunteers’ which
were made up of about 20% Loyalist Natives and 80% white Loyalist New Yorkers
of English, Irish and Scottish descent. The Loyalists set an ambush about
six miles from Fort Stanwix, near the Oneida village of Oriskany (Battle of
Oriskany). In this dark ravine they laid in wait, deciding to assault the
Patriot militia once they were surrounded but the British-allied
Natives were too impatient and excited so they chose to leap out from
behind the cover of foliage and assault the Patriot rebels. The Patriots at the
rear fled and were then pursued by Joseph Brant and his Mohawk allies, armed
with tomahawks and spears. After the initial clash, the conflict slowed in pace
as both sides engaged in close combat or fired at each other from behind the
cover of trees.
This was truly a battle
where brother fought brother, sons and fathers clashed; as the Iroquoian
Mohawks and Oneidas fought for each side respectively, as well as many “whites”
– with many on both sides knowing their “enemies” personally. The leader of the
Patriot (rebel) force was General Nicholas Herkimer, during the conflict his
horse was shot and his leg was wounded, despite his injuries he sat beneath a
tree and smoked his pipe while continuing to issue commands and orders –after
the battle he would later die from complications after a leg amputation.
the British (Loyalists) inflicted far more casualties on the Patriots (rebels),
the latter still held the field and after hearing of a skirmish by Fort
Stanwix, the British (Loyalists) fell back. Most of the losses on the British
side were that of the allied Native Mohawks and Senecas so in revenge these
Natives slaughtered as many prisoners as they could and even retaliated against
an Oneida village, which would eventually strike back by burning Mohawk
villages. This conflict also marked a shift within the Iroquois Confederacy as
the pact made long ago to half hostilities amongst brethren had been tarnished.
^ Herkimer at the Battle of
Oriskany by F. C. Yohn.
All hope for the fate of
Fort Stanwix seemed lost, but Patriot (rebel) General Benedict Arnold came up
with a strategy to turn the tide. General Benedict Arnold led a small Patriot
(rebel) force towards Fort Stanwix while turning a British soldier into his spy
by holding his brother hostage. This spy, named Han Jost Schuyler, was to sow
doubt and fear into the British besiegers by warning them of a massive Patriot
reinforcement which sought to engage them in battle personally. The ploy worked
as many of the British-allied Natives deserted, being that the Iroquois made up
at least half of the British force, their loss prevented any chance for
succeeding to take Fort Stanwix.
The remaining British and Loyalist forces
retreated in haste, leaving their camp supplies made up of money, clothing,
tents, provisions, hospital supplies and private papers. Joseph Brant and Molly
Brant both headed to the Onondaga Council seeking to sway the others into
siding with the British and separating the Oneida from the rebels (Patriots).
The Six Nations sent out wampum belts as far west as Detroit in the hopes of
winning the assistance of the western tribes; the Iroquoian Mingoes and
Algonquian Shawnees, whom were already dissatisfied with the “white” settlers,
began raiding Kentucky.
^ Lost Documents by Robert
Battle of Cobleskill (Massacre) – May 30, 1778
Joseph Brant led a force
near to the settlement of Cobleskill (New York), there a small portion of said
force made themselves visible in order to lure the local militia into pursuing
them. This ruse worked and after being pursued for about a mile, Joseph Brant set
off the trap, killing about half the militia force. They then raided the
settlement and its crops while also massacring the inhabitants. Joseph Brant
prevented his Native allies from slaughtering five settlers by taking them
captive and allowing them to choose whether they would like to become adopted
into the Natives or be taken to the British (Loyalist) held Fort Niagara
instead, they chose the latter.
Battle of the Wyoming Valley (Wyoming Massacre): July
A Seneca war-chief named
Sayenqueraghta Old Smoke, earlier mentioned as being involved in the Battle of
Fort Niagara and the Battle of La Belle-Famille; the taking of forts Venango,
Le Boeuf, and Presque Isle; as well as the ‘Devil’s Hole Massacre’; planned to
retaliate against Wyoming, in his cause he was joined by Cornplanter and Major
John Butler alongside “Butler’s Rangers”. After taking two forts and setting
them ablaze, the militia in ‘Forty Fort’ rushed toward the direction of the
British (Loyalist) and the smoke that rose from their allied forts. In their
haste they fell into an ambush the British had laid, much like the Battle of
Oriskany, the Natives couldn’t wait for the enemy to be surrounded as they
sprang up from their prone position to attack them despite them being 30 yards
Nevertheless, the ambush was
successful as the militia was wedged between the British (Loyalist) and the
Seneca, leading to a complete rout in which more than two hundred Patriots were
killed. ‘Forty Fort’ surrendered and Major John Butler signed an agreement with
them assuring them of their safety but once he left the Natives, whom were
still upset over their losses at Fort Stanwix and Oriskany, completely
plundered the Wyoming Valley; destroying over a thousand settlements and farms,
burning crops, killing or driving away cattle and massacring the settlers.
^ Depiction of the
battle by Alonzo Chappel, 1858.
Joseph Brant was not present
in the Wyoming expedition as he was still attempting to rally Natives and
“whites” to his cause but he would nevertheless be blamed for almost every
British-allied Native conflict, “crime” and atrocity that occurred, even for
those in which he wasn’t present. Almost every band of British-allied Natives that
were seen were thought to be led by Joseph Brant, a man seemingly present in
several locations at once. He became sort of a bogeyman, with the Patriots
(rebels) spreading propaganda which framed him as a bloodthirsty savage referred
to as “Monster Brant”.
Chief Joseph Brant, who was
in dire need of provisions such as cattle and crops, led raids (July, 1778)
against the settlements of Springfield and Andrewstown (Jordanville).
Casualties were low, with only eight being killed and fourteen being taken
captive (two elderly men were set free) in both settlements. Joseph Brant saved
many women and children from being harmed by his fellow Native brethren. Joseph
Brant was known for being against harming women and children. Joseph Brant’s next
target were the ‘German Flatts’, arriving on the seventeenth of
September (1778 CE), Joseph’s raiding party destroyed their homes and
barns, killing three; yet another raid was led against Peenapack.
The last raid that was
launched (November 11, 1778 CE) before winter fell was one against
Cherry Valley, New York. An Oneida spying for the Patriots (rebels) warned
his allies of this proposed expedition but they had warned them before and
nothing came of it, it seemed that once again the Oneida were crying wolf and
this supposed threat seemed unlikely as winter was coming. Nevertheless the
expedition neared its target location, with Joseph Brant being stripped of
almost all of his Natives and overall command as a young man named Walter
Butler had threatened and bribed them into following him instead.
Unbeknownst to Walter
Butler, the Iroquoian Seneca were angry and vengeful after learning of the
Patriots destroyed their settlements of Tioga and Oquaqa. The young and
inexperienced Walter Butler was unable to control the Iroquoian Seneca as they
massacred or captured men, women and children – despite Joseph Brant’s attempts
to save the innocent and unarmed. Even those who were Loyalists or friends of
Joseph Brant (the Wells family) were slaughtered. So troubled was he that
instead of returning to Fort Niagara with Walter Butler, Joseph Brant left the
party and returned to the Mohawks for some time.
^ Cherry Valley
massacre, the fate of Jane Wells, one of thirty non-combatants killed during
Sometime later (1779 CE)
as Joseph Brant and company traveled to Quebec, where General Haldimand had
summoned them to, the General thought over how much of a great support Joseph
Brant had been to the British cause, all the while receiving little economic support
from them, and how virtually every important British officer praised both his
character and ability. While there British general General
Haldimand awarded Chief Joseph Brant the office of ‘Captain of the Northern
Confederated Indians’; he was also given a commission equal to a white captain
and even a pension after the war’s end.
Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, “The Winter of the Deep
The massacres at Wyoming and
Cherry Valley led to a massive surge of refugees fleeing from the frontier.
These atrocities however unified many behind the Patriot (rebel) cause. The
Patriots were now cornered into either surrendering or into launching an
assault against the Natives, by taking the offensive and assaulting the Haudenosaunee
(Iroquois Confederacy) at their very homelands they would be able to cripple
the main power strengthening the British (Loyalists). The following summer
George Washington organized a military campaign led by Major General John
Sullivan and Brigadier General James Clinton, this Sullivan-Clinton Expedition
was aimed at:
Expedition you are appointed to command is to be directed against the hostile
tribes of the Six Nations of Indians, with their associates and adherents. The
immediate objects are the total destruction and devastation of their
settlements, and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as
possible. It will be essential to ruin their crops now in the ground and
prevent their planting more.
I would recommend, that some post in the
center of the Indian Country, should be occupied with all expedition, with a
sufficient quantity of provisions whence parties should be detached to lay
waste all the settlements around, with instructions to do it in the most
effectual manner, that the country may not be merely overrun, but destroyed.
But you will not by any means listen to any overture of peace before the total
ruinment of their settlements is effected. Our future security will be in their
inability to injure us and in the terror with which the severity of the
chastisement they receive will inspire them.” – George Washington
to John Sullivan: May 31, 1779.
This plan was effectively
enacted, the Patriot forces destroyed as many as forty Iroquoian settlements
and stored crops which lead to large-scale deaths to starvation and the elements
(freezing to death) the following winter as well as refugees seeking shelter.
am well persuaded that, except one town situated near the Allegana, about 50
miles from the Chinessee, there is not a single town left in the country of the
Five nations.” – John Sullivan to Congress.
A little known fact is that
George Washington was referred to as Conotocarious (“Town Destroyer”),
and would even refer to himself by that same name.
me kindly to our good friend Monacatootha (a leader of the Iroquoian
Oneida), and others; tell them how happy it would make Conocotarious to
have an opportunity of taking them by the hand at Fort Cumberland, and how glad
he would be to treat them as brothers of our Great King beyond the waters.” –
George Washington to Andrew Montour, 1755.
The name first appeared in
reference to George Washington’s great-grandfather named John Washington but
when Seneca leader Half-King Tanacharison met a young George Washington in
1753 he also gave him that name, eerily foreshadowing the future. Over two
decades later, Seneca chief Cornplanter recalls the Sullivan-Clinton
Expedition, its effects and George Washington.
your army entered the country of the Six Nations, we called you Town Destroyer:
and to this day when that name is heard, our women look behind them and turn
pale, and our children cling close to the necks of their mothers,“ – Seneca
^ Joseph Brant by Charles Willson Peale (1797).
In the early months of 1780
CE Joseph Brant began a series of successful retaliatory raids against the rebel
colonists and their Iroquoian allies until being decisively defeated at the Battle
of Klock’s Field (October 19, 1780 CE). Eventually Brant’s expeditions petered
off as the British were nearing peace terms with the rebels colonists,
concluding with the Treaty of Paris (1783 CE). With Native lands now
given by the British to the Americans, the Natives were embittered. Joseph
Brant traveled westward were he aided in the creation of a ‘Western Confederacy’
which consisted of many Natives from different nations or tribes like the Haudenosaunee
(Iroquois Confederacy), the Wabash Confederacy (Wea, Piankashaw, Kickapoos,
Mascoutens, etc.), the Council of Three Fires (Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibwe)
and the Illinois Confederation – among many others.
^ 1830′s lithograph based on the last portrait of Brant, an 1806 oil on canvas painting by Ezra Ames.
Joseph spent the rest of his life either allying the Natives against future American
encroachments while also buying land back from the ‘whites’ for his Native
brethren. At the age of sixty-four he passed away (November 24, 1807 CE):
a Mohawk Native born in a difficult time where his people were trapped between more
powerful and advanced world powers. Joseph Brant or Thayendangea (“places two bets”), was a sort of prodigy
caught between two worlds: the old world of the Natives and the newer one the ‘whites’
brought. He was the first Native American to be invited into the Freemason
order and was also one of the few Natives to visit Paris, France and London,
England. He rose from obscurity, a relatively unknown Native American who was taught
in white schools, invited into the Freemason order and rose in the ranks by
means of his bravery, loyalty, skill, honesty, integrity, respect and honor. As
he did in life, even his last words reflected his hope for a future for his
“Have pity on the poor Indians. If you have
any influence with the great, endeavor to use it for their good.”
If there are any errors please privately inbox me so I can update it. As always, if you’d like to read or learn about any specific historical subjects just let me know what they are and I will take note of them.
THE COUNCIL OF THREE
FIRES AND THE PONTIAC-GUYASUTA UPRISING– This post covers some of the history, culture and religion of
the Native American inhabitants of the Great Lakes region of North America,
focusing on the Pontiac-Guyasuta Uprising and the Council
of Three Fires (the Ottawa, Ojibwe and the Potawatomi); the peace-pipe,
the Delaware prophets, Rogers’ Rangers, the sport that
inspired lacrosse, and some Native battle tactics.
THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE “SAVAGE”
EMPIRE – The
origins of the Iroquois Confederacy, the early wars they were
involved in, the effects that disease epidemics incurred upon them,
the Iroquoian cultural use of torture, scalping, and cannibalism,
the tomahawk and its symbolism (bury the hatchet), as well as
the taking of captives during mourning wars and adopting them
in order to replace lost tribal members.
THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE RED
ROMANS AND THE RED COATS – This post covers the religious beliefs of the Iroquois
Confederacy, their origin story, their belief in duality (like
yin and yang), their secretive and mysterious masked societies, and
their involvement in the conflicts between their two great colonial neighbors
(New France and the New England) like the famed French and Indian War.
I’ll also speak of their involvement in the American Revolutionary War. It is
believed that without the aid of the Iroquois Confederacy, North America would
now be speaking French instead of English and that France would’ve held a
massive portion of the eastern half of North America, leaving a massive
battlefield for the French and Spanish to battle over.