loyalist forces

4

/pol/ analyzes a newly posted Ahrar al-Sham (Islamic Front) propaganda video originating out of the 15km wide Eastern Ghouta pocket of Damascus, a rebel strong hold.  Ahrar al-sham has killed and captured christians and shiite civilians in areas of their control.

The posters in the thread made a scavenger hunt of it and broke the entire territory up into a grid for participants to claim a quadrant and scour their respective area on satellite map programs to try and connect the surroundings in the video to it’s corresponding overhead view.

Eventually, someone successfully identifies the location and the coordinates are forwarded to Syrian loyalist forces for aerial bombardment.

>tfw 4chan is a faction in the Syrian Civil War

The War for Ultramar

In M42, its formerly idyllic existence was shattered by a Death Guard invasion led by Mortarian himself. Three systems to the galactic north of Ultramar were corrupted by influence of Nurgle and its planets are turned into staging grounds for the invasion of Guilliman’s mini-Empire.

Espandor was badly sieged, Iax was overrun by daemons of Nurgle after being converted into a hospital world due to a convoluted scheme involving Guardsmen infected with Nurgle bugs, and even Macragge suffered bouts of Chaos-induced rebellion. Adding to the Ultramarines’ misfortune, the invasion force also consisted of Typhus and his Plague Fleet alongside a Great Unclean One named Ku'Gath.

Guilliman eventually returns to Ultramar from his Indomitus Crusade after hearing of this invasion. There, he leads the Ultramarines and their auxilia in a large-scale counterattack against the invaders. He first sets his eyes on Espandor, which serves as the main supply line for the Death Guard invasion. After a brief battle, Espandor was cleansed and the forces of Nurgle were cut off from the Scourge Stars. Several loyalist Ultramarine successors also joined the fight, their fleets engaging the Death Guard and doing their best to keep Ultramar’s shipping lanes safe.

The next great battle took place on Parmenio which saw the largest armored clash between the traitor and loyalist forces during the war. The largest star fort in Ultramar, Galatan, attempted to provide support but was engaged by the Plague Fleet and was boarded by traitor marines, leading to the death of the Novamarines Chapter Master. However, Guilliman kills Ku'Gath’s lieutenant, Septicus and shatters his Plague Guard, after which the loyalists make gains on Parmenio and the Primarch of the Ultramarines leads a relief force to Iax.

The final battle of the war takes place here, with Guilliman and Mortarian fighting each other to a standstill amongst the ruins of Iax. Eventually, Mortarian and the Death Guard are summoned back to the Scourge Stars which had come under threat from the War in the Rift. They withdraw from Iax under the cover of a virus bomb and the forces of Nurgle withdraw from Ultramar.

A neat little summary I thought I’d make for Nurgle’s invasion of Ultramar. I’ve posted this on 1d4chan as well.

@fuukonomiko @ultramarineblues @askrobouteguilliman40k @nightshade-victorian @templarhalo

Colonel Tye and the “Black Brigade”

A bit of a departure from the stuff I’d normally post, but something of an interesting topic; less an obscure weapon, more an obscure person.

Born Titus Cornelius, slave to a John Corlies, in Monmouth County, New Jersey, in around 1753, “Tye” suffered a particularly unpleasant upbringing. Corlies was notorious, even among other slaveowners, for mistreating his slaves. Despite being a Quaker (it was Quaker practice to educate slaves and grant them freedom at age 21), Corlies had no intention of teaching or freeing his slaves, and regularly beat them. His actions eventually cost him his membership to the Quaker Church in 1778.

Titus was largely educated by other people in the region, and learned his way around the land whilst running errands for his master. He became acquainted with many of the families living in Monmouth at the time.

When the Revolutionary War started to break out in 1775, Lord Dunmore, the governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation offering slaves a deal: they would be offered freedom in exchange for service in the British Army. It should be noted that Dunmore’s proclamation, in its original wording, only applied to slaves owned by Patriots who opposed the British government. Dunmore was fierce Loyalist and somewhat of a reactionary figure; notoriously unpopular with the Patriot revolutionaries after threatening to impose martial law in Virginia. His actions no doubt did more damage than good to the Loyalist’s already poor reputation in the colonies, and this proclamation was no exception: wealthy slave owners, who had previously been indifferent to British rule, came to support the Patriot cause because of their fears that Dunmore was attempting to incite a slave rebellion.

As word spread all around of Dunmore’s proclamation, slaves, who were faced with a choice between their current condition or the enticing offer of potential freedom, began to flee their masters en masse. It is said that wherever the British Army marched, escaped slaves followed. The proclamation acted twofold: to bolster the Loyalist fighting force, and to damage the Patriot’s infrastructure by depriving them of their slaves. Dunmore established the “Ethiopian Regiment”, an all-black Loyalist regiment made up entirely of escaped slaves who had answered Dunmore’s call. It had nothing to do with Ethiopia. It was in this regiment that the former slaves would fight for their freedom, and wore their motto “Liberty to Slaves” across the chests of their uniforms.

Undoubtedly, Dunmore’s intensive was purely to undermine the Patriot cause rather than a steadfast opposition to slavery. For slaves, though, it didn’t matter. Many of them were prepared to fight and die for even a chance at freedom. Even if Dunmore was lying, most considered it worth a shot.

Titus was one of the first slaves to take up Dunmore’s offer. He escaped shortly after his 21st birthday and joined the British Army under the pseudonym “Tye”. Over the next few years, he may have gained military experience by participating in several skirmishes, such as Kemp’s Landing and Great Bridge, but there is no exact record of his activities until 1778, when he distinguished himself in battle by capturing Patriot Captain Elisha Shepard during the Battle of Monmouth. His combat initiative and vast knowledge of the New Jersey region singled him out as a particularly valuable asset to the British, and although former slaves could not officially earn a commission, Tye was unofficially promoted to the rank of “Colonel” and given command of his own unit called the “Black Brigade” in 1779.

The Brigade were given assignments by William Franklin, the Loyalist son of Benjamin Franklin and Royal Governor of New Jersey. Most of these assignments boiled down to destabilizing Patriot-controlled areas and destroying their infrastructure via the means of guerrilla warfare. For Tye and the men under his command, it was an opportunity to exact revenge on slave holders; many of the Black Brigade’s targets were their former masters. For every successful assignment, Tye and his men were paid 5 guineas. They also worked in conjunction with the Queen’s Rangers in New York, and also are said to have set up an early form of the Underground Railroad that would escort slaves to freedom in Nova Scotia.

The exploits of the Black Brigade were seen as disgraceful and barbaric by the Patriots and Tye became something of a boogeyman in New Jersey. By 1780, the Black Brigade were essentially acting as hitmen for the British, assassinating or capturing local high-ranking militiamen. One such target was Joshua Huddy. Huddy was considered something of a hero among Patriots but was notorious among Loyalists; he and his militia had raided and killed many prominent Loyalists. In essence, he was Tye’s Patriot counterpart.

When the Black Brigade came for him, Huddy managed to hold them off for about two hours with the help of his servant girl, before surrendering when his house caught fire. During his arrest, however, the Black Brigade was ambushed by a Patriot militia, and in the ensuing confusion, Huddy managed to escape. Tye was wounded in the wrist by a stray shot. Two days later, he succumbed to gangrene and died, aged 27.

Thus ends Tye’s chapter in history.

Although Tye never achieved the free life he sought, the story did not end with him. As the war came to a close in 1783, the British prepared to evacuate through New York. By this point, tens of thousands of slaves had served with the British. Many of them had since succumbed to disease, been captured and returned to their masters, or died in battle. Many did not expect the British to make good on their promise of freedom, but perhaps surprisingly, they did. Guy Carleton, the temporary commander-in-chief of the British forces, attended negotiations with George Washington following the British surrender, in which Washington was quite adamant that the “human property” of the Patriots be returned to their original owners. Carleton refused to yield. After some discussion, he managed to broker a deal with Washington: the slaves would not be returned, but any slave owners who lost their slaves during the war would be monetarily reimbursed by the British government. Carleton went so far as to compile a book of records relating to every escaped slave and every slave owner who was legally entitled to compensation, which was entitled the “Book of Negroes”.

The escaped slaves were shipped off with the rest of the Loyalist evacuees to Canada, England, and eventually, Sierra Leone. Many were granted land in Nova Scotia, where they built defenses among fears that the Patriots would try and forcibly reclaim their lost slaves.

Joshua Huddy was captured by Loyalists and hanged in a revenge killing. This event disrupted negotiations between Colonial Congress and the British.

Despite Carleton’s promises to Washington, no slave owners were ever reimbursed by the British government.

This is a painting of Abigail Dolbeare Hinman. On September 6, 1781 a combined force of 1700 British, Hessian, and Loyalist forces attacked the town of New London and Fort Griswold (which was across the river). According to legend Abigail Hinman participated in the defense by attempting to shoot Benedict Arnold as he ordered the town burnt. 

Nurgle’s Invasion of Ultramar in 8th Edition (MASSIVE SPOILERS)

I was able to glean some info from the fluff segments regarding Mortarian and the Death Guard’s invasion of Ultramar. HEAVY spoilers below. I’ll basically be summarizing the main points.

-Three systems to the galactic north of Ultramar are fully corrupted by Nurgle, becoming the Scourge Stars which will serve as the staging area for the invasion of Ultramar by the forces of Nurgle. Note that these systems are NOT part of Ultramar but are simply to the north of it. This will be an important distinction later in the story.

-The Invasion is led by Mortarian and Typhus who leads the entire Plague Fleet on this offensive as well. There is a Great Unclean one named Ka'Gash who joins their forces as well.

-Initially the forces of Mortarian grind down the Ultramarines and their auxilia, making progress in their invasion. They even launch swift, probing, hit and run attacks against Maccrage as well.

-However, Guilliman returns with his Primaris Marines and the Ultramarines regain the initiative, bringing the invasion to a grinding halt and allowing the fronts to stabilize.

-Several Ultramarine successors also arrive, defending the shipping lanes of Ultramar against the attacks from the Plague Fleet.

-A huge battle takes place on the world of Parmenio, where there is the largest armored clash between the traitor and loyalist forces. The Ultramarines space fort Galatan tries to provide support but gets boarded by the Plague fleet and the Chapter Master of the Novamarines is killed. Eventually the loyalists gain the upper hand with Roboute Guilliman killing Ka'gashs’ lieutenant and shattering his Plague Guard (unique formation?).

-Guilliman leads a relief force to Iax which was being invaded by the Death Guard. The final battle takes place here and the Primarchs fight each other to a standstill.

-After this battle, the Death Guard withdraw from Ultramar as their Scourge Stars (mentioned earlier) had become threatened by the “War in the Rift” (no idea what that is).

There is a short blurb in the Primaris Marines datasheet, where Captain Acheron of the Ultramarines proclaims that the forces of Nurgle were “driven off” from Ultramar and has him saying that they would beat them several times over if they desired to return. By his upbeat tone, I’m guessing the whole affair ended in a loyalist/Imperium victory.

@ultramarineblues @tw6464 @fuukonomiko @melody-chii @templarhalo @nightshade-victorian

Some premium lore content for you guys right here :3

CHIEF JOSEPH BRANT: MOHAWK NATIVE, FREEMASON, LOYALIST, MONSTER (?)

This is an excerpt from my post: THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE RED ROMANS AND THE RED COATS.

FIRST NATIVE FREEMASON

While the colonies of New France and British America were warring in the French and Indian War (1754–63 CE), a young Mohawk Native named Thayendangea or Joseph Brant began his rise from obscurity. During this war Joseph Brant, still in his early teens, was involved in conflicts at Fort Niagara and Lake George.

This being the first action at which I was present I was seized with such a tremor when the firing began that I was obliged to take hold of a small sapling to steady myself; but after the discharge of a few volleys, I recovered the use of my limbs and the composure of my mind so as to support the character of a brave man, of which I was especially ambitious.” – Joseph Brant, around the age of 12.

^ French (blue) and British territories (red) c.1750 CE.

There was an influential, rich and Native-friendly man named William Johnson who was a Freemason Charter Master, the Superintendent of Northern Indian Affairs and was Joseph Brant’s brother-in-law. This youth had potential, believing so, William Johnson sent him to Eleazar Wheelock’s “Moor’s Indian Charity School” in Lebanon, Connecticut (a predecessor of the famed Dartmouth College) where he was given a Christian education and converted to the Anglican church. Joseph Brant was also known for acting as a translator and aiding Anglican Reverend John Stuart in translating Christian works into Mohawk. 

After William Johnson’s death Joseph Brant visited London alongside Guy Johnson (William Johnson’s nephew and son-in-law) in 1755 with the intent of negotiating a deal. If the Iroquois Confederacy were given a tract of land in Quebec, Canada, then the Iroquois Confederacy would aid the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775-83). While there Joseph Brant was enrolled as a Freemason and given a ritual apron, he was the first native American to be accepted as a mason.

^ Portrait of Joseph Brant. Brant was visiting England with Guy Johnson at age 33 or 34 when Romney painted him in his London studio.

There are some mentions of Joseph Brant sparing the lives of fellow Freemasons despite them being on the side of the Patriots. One such occurrence mentioned was one following the Battle of the Cedars (May 18–27, 1776) in which the American POWs were about to be executed but a captain named John McKinstry, who was a member of the Hudson Lodge No.13 of New York, recalled that Joseph Brant was a Freemason. Captain John McKinstry gave Joseph Brant a ‘Masonic sign of appeal’ in the hopes of being saved from his fate of being burned at the stake; the two became and remained friends from that point on. In 1779 this is again repeated as a Patriot scout by the name of Lt. Boyd was ambushed along with Private Parker and taken captive, Lt. Boyd asked to speak to Joseph Brant himself and gave him the ‘Masonic sign of appeal’. Joseph Brant assured them their freedom and safety but in his absence Colonel Butler had them interrogated, tortured and then beheaded.

BRITISH-LOYALIST

Battle of Long Island August 27, 1776

George Washington understood that the New York Harbor would be an advantageous place for the British to use as a naval base, because of its significant location, he thought it to be the next likely point that the British would attack so he brought the Continental Army to defend it. This was the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, with about ten thousand on the side of the Continental Patriots and twenty thousand on that of the British in Long Island. The British decided to use their center and right forces to both assault and distract the front while a large force was sent to assault the weak American left flank. Joseph Brant is believed to have been involved with the aforementioned, flanking maneuver.

The Fracturing Of the Iroquoian Confederacy (Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Tuscarora)

During the American Revolutionary War all sides, “Whites” and Natives alike, wished to keep the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy) neutral but in time the “whites” on both sides were desperate to win over the neighboring tribes to their cause. The Haudenosaunee were confused as they were allied with the British which were now two factions, the British Loyalists and the Continentals Patriots, which should they back? The Haudenosaunee began to fracture; the nations and tribes that were once unified were now divided between the two warring powers. 

The settlers had long opposed the British by continuing to trespass on and settle in Native American territories. Many of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquoian Confederacy) that favored the British did so because they feared, rightfully, that without the British to hold back the settlers the frontier would be swarming with settlers in much larger scale. Joseph Brant was able to gather four of the six Haudenosaunee nations together, the conference took place at Irondequoit on the 13th of July 1777, and here the Haudenosaunee were showered with gifts of rum and other provisions. 

^ Joseph Brant, painted in London by Gilbert Stuart in 1786.

Despite Seneca (Iroquois) leaders like Guyasuta and Cornplanter wishing to continue their policy of neutrality, the majority of the other Haudenosaunee (Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga) voted to side with the British – because of this the Seneca respected their decision and followed suit. Only the Oneida and Tuscarora refused to join the council and instead sided with the rebels, since they had long lived beside them they had grown accustomed to the colonists. There was also a Presbyterian missionary named Samuel Kirkland who baptized and educated the Oneida and Tuscarora, with the outbreak of war he swayed them over to the side of the American revolutionaries.

St. Leger’s Expedition: Siege of Fort Stanwix and Battle of Oriskany (August 1777)

The British planned a three-pronged offensive aimed at crippling any chance for the Patriots (Continental rebels) to invade Canada while also separating New England and the middle colonies. Since George Washington’s army was so limited he would then be forced to choose which to defend or to divide up his forces. One of these prongs was an expedition led by Barry St. Leger. While the British were laying siege to Fort Stanwix, Molly Brant sent word to Joseph Brant that a Patriot militia of 800 men from Fort Dayton in New York along with sixty Iroquoian Oneida warriors marched westward toward Fort Stanwix seeking to relieve the besieged fort and get revenge for the slaying of an innocent woman named Jane McCrea.

^ Treetop Advantage by Doug Hall.

Subsequently Barry St. Leger sent Joseph Brant and John Johnson to cut the Patriot reinforcements off. With Joseph Brant was his newly formed ranger corps called ‘Brant’s Volunteers’ which were made up of about 20% Loyalist Natives and 80% white Loyalist New Yorkers of English, Irish and Scottish descent. The Loyalists set an ambush about six miles from Fort Stanwix, near the Oneida village of Oriskany (Battle of Oriskany). In this dark ravine they laid in wait, deciding to assault the Patriot militia once they were surrounded but the British-allied Natives were too impatient and excited so they chose to leap out from behind the cover of foliage and assault the Patriot rebels. The Patriots at the rear fled and were then pursued by Joseph Brant and his Mohawk allies, armed with tomahawks and spears. After the initial clash, the conflict slowed in pace as both sides engaged in close combat or fired at each other from behind the cover of trees.

This was truly a battle where brother fought brother, sons and fathers clashed; as the Iroquoian Mohawks and Oneidas fought for each side respectively, as well as many “whites” – with many on both sides knowing their “enemies” personally. The leader of the Patriot (rebel) force was General Nicholas Herkimer, during the conflict his horse was shot and his leg was wounded, despite his injuries he sat beneath a tree and smoked his pipe while continuing to issue commands and orders –after the battle he would later die from complications after a leg amputation. 

Though the British (Loyalists) inflicted far more casualties on the Patriots (rebels), the latter still held the field and after hearing of a skirmish by Fort Stanwix, the British (Loyalists) fell back. Most of the losses on the British side were that of the allied Native Mohawks and Senecas so in revenge these Natives slaughtered as many prisoners as they could and even retaliated against an Oneida village, which would eventually strike back by burning Mohawk villages. This conflict also marked a shift within the Iroquois Confederacy as the pact made long ago to half hostilities amongst brethren had been tarnished.

^ Herkimer at the Battle of Oriskany by F. C. Yohn.

All hope for the fate of Fort Stanwix seemed lost, but Patriot (rebel) General Benedict Arnold came up with a strategy to turn the tide. General Benedict Arnold led a small Patriot (rebel) force towards Fort Stanwix while turning a British soldier into his spy by holding his brother hostage. This spy, named Han Jost Schuyler, was to sow doubt and fear into the British besiegers by warning them of a massive Patriot reinforcement which sought to engage them in battle personally. The ploy worked as many of the British-allied Natives deserted, being that the Iroquois made up at least half of the British force, their loss prevented any chance for succeeding to take Fort Stanwix. 

The remaining British and Loyalist forces retreated in haste, leaving their camp supplies made up of money, clothing, tents, provisions, hospital supplies and private papers. Joseph Brant and Molly Brant both headed to the Onondaga Council seeking to sway the others into siding with the British and separating the Oneida from the rebels (Patriots). The Six Nations sent out wampum belts as far west as Detroit in the hopes of winning the assistance of the western tribes; the Iroquoian Mingoes and Algonquian Shawnees, whom were already dissatisfied with the “white” settlers, began raiding Kentucky.

^ Lost Documents by Robert Griffing.

Battle of Cobleskill (Massacre) – May 30, 1778

Joseph Brant led a force near to the settlement of Cobleskill (New York), there a small portion of said force made themselves visible in order to lure the local militia into pursuing them. This ruse worked and after being pursued for about a mile, Joseph Brant set off the trap, killing about half the militia force. They then raided the settlement and its crops while also massacring the inhabitants. Joseph Brant prevented his Native allies from slaughtering five settlers by taking them captive and allowing them to choose whether they would like to become adopted into the Natives or be taken to the British (Loyalist) held Fort Niagara instead, they chose the latter.

Battle of the Wyoming Valley (Wyoming Massacre): July 3, 1778

A Seneca war-chief named Sayenqueraghta Old Smoke, earlier mentioned as being involved in the Battle of Fort Niagara and the Battle of La Belle-Famille; the taking of forts Venango, Le Boeuf, and Presque Isle; as well as the ‘Devil’s Hole Massacre’; planned to retaliate against Wyoming, in his cause he was joined by Cornplanter and Major John Butler alongside “Butler’s Rangers”. After taking two forts and setting them ablaze, the militia in ‘Forty Fort’ rushed toward the direction of the British (Loyalist) and the smoke that rose from their allied forts. In their haste they fell into an ambush the British had laid, much like the Battle of Oriskany, the Natives couldn’t wait for the enemy to be surrounded as they sprang up from their prone position to attack them despite them being 30 yards away. 

^ Ensign Downing’s Escape - Battle of Wyoming (July 3, 1778).

Nevertheless, the ambush was successful as the militia was wedged between the British (Loyalist) and the Seneca, leading to a complete rout in which more than two hundred Patriots were killed. ‘Forty Fort’ surrendered and Major John Butler signed an agreement with them assuring them of their safety but once he left the Natives, whom were still upset over their losses at Fort Stanwix and Oriskany, completely plundered the Wyoming Valley; destroying over a thousand settlements and farms, burning crops, killing or driving away cattle and massacring the settlers.

^ Depiction of the battle by Alonzo Chappel, 1858. 

Joseph Brant was not present in the Wyoming expedition as he was still attempting to rally Natives and “whites” to his cause but he would nevertheless be blamed for almost every British-allied Native conflict, “crime” and atrocity that occurred, even for those in which he wasn’t present. Almost every band of British-allied Natives that were seen were thought to be led by Joseph Brant, a man seemingly present in several locations at once. He became sort of a bogeyman, with the Patriots (rebels) spreading propaganda which framed him as a bloodthirsty savage referred to as “Monster Brant”.

MONSTER BRANT

Chief Joseph Brant, who was in dire need of provisions such as cattle and crops, led raids (July, 1778) against the settlements of Springfield and Andrewstown (Jordanville). Casualties were low, with only eight being killed and fourteen being taken captive (two elderly men were set free) in both settlements. Joseph Brant saved many women and children from being harmed by his fellow Native brethren. Joseph Brant was known for being against harming women and children. Joseph Brant’s next target were the ‘German Flatts’, arriving on the seventeenth of September (1778 CE), Joseph’s raiding party destroyed their homes and barns, killing three; yet another raid was led against Peenapack.

The last raid that was launched (November 11, 1778 CE) before winter fell was one against Cherry Valley, New York. An Oneida spying for the Patriots (rebels) warned his allies of this proposed expedition but they had warned them before and nothing came of it, it seemed that once again the Oneida were crying wolf and this supposed threat seemed unlikely as winter was coming. Nevertheless the expedition neared its target location, with Joseph Brant being stripped of almost all of his Natives and overall command as a young man named Walter Butler had threatened and bribed them into following him instead. 

Unbeknownst to Walter Butler, the Iroquoian Seneca were angry and vengeful after learning of the Patriots destroyed their settlements of Tioga and Oquaqa. The young and inexperienced Walter Butler was unable to control the Iroquoian Seneca as they massacred or captured men, women and children – despite Joseph Brant’s attempts to save the innocent and unarmed. Even those who were Loyalists or friends of Joseph Brant (the Wells family) were slaughtered. So troubled was he that instead of returning to Fort Niagara with Walter Butler, Joseph Brant left the party and returned to the Mohawks for some time.

^ Cherry Valley massacre, the fate of Jane Wells, one of thirty non-combatants killed during the massacre.

Sometime later (1779 CE) as Joseph Brant and company traveled to Quebec, where General Haldimand had summoned them to, the General thought over how much of a great support Joseph Brant had been to the British cause, all the while receiving little economic support from them, and how virtually every important British officer praised both his character and ability. While there British general General Haldimand awarded Chief Joseph Brant the office of ‘Captain of the Northern Confederated Indians’; he was also given a commission equal to a white captain and even a pension after the war’s end.

Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, “The Winter of the Deep Snow”

The massacres at Wyoming and Cherry Valley led to a massive surge of refugees fleeing from the frontier. These atrocities however unified many behind the Patriot (rebel) cause. The Patriots were now cornered into either surrendering or into launching an assault against the Natives, by taking the offensive and assaulting the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy) at their very homelands they would be able to cripple the main power strengthening the British (Loyalists). The following summer George Washington organized a military campaign led by Major General John Sullivan and Brigadier General James Clinton, this Sullivan-Clinton Expedition was aimed at:

The Expedition you are appointed to command is to be directed against the hostile tribes of the Six Nations of Indians, with their associates and adherents. The immediate objects are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements, and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible. It will be essential to ruin their crops now in the ground and prevent their planting more. 

I would recommend, that some post in the center of the Indian Country, should be occupied with all expedition, with a sufficient quantity of provisions whence parties should be detached to lay waste all the settlements around, with instructions to do it in the most effectual manner, that the country may not be merely overrun, but destroyed. But you will not by any means listen to any overture of peace before the total ruinment of their settlements is effected. Our future security will be in their inability to injure us and in the terror with which the severity of the chastisement they receive will inspire them.” – George Washington to John Sullivan: May 31, 1779.

This plan was effectively enacted, the Patriot forces destroyed as many as forty Iroquoian settlements and stored crops which lead to large-scale deaths to starvation and the elements (freezing to death) the following winter as well as refugees seeking shelter. 

I am well persuaded that, except one town situated near the Allegana, about 50 miles from the Chinessee, there is not a single town left in the country of the Five nations.” – John Sullivan to Congress.

A little known fact is that George Washington was referred to as Conotocarious (“Town Destroyer”), and would even refer to himself by that same name.

Recommend me kindly to our good friend Monacatootha (a leader of the Iroquoian Oneida), and others; tell them how happy it would make Conocotarious to have an opportunity of taking them by the hand at Fort Cumberland, and how glad he would be to treat them as brothers of our Great King beyond the waters.” – George Washington to Andrew Montour, 1755.

The name first appeared in reference to George Washington’s great-grandfather named John Washington but when Seneca leader Half-King Tanacharison met a young George Washington in 1753 he also gave him that name, eerily foreshadowing the future. Over two decades later, Seneca chief Cornplanter recalls the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, its effects and George Washington.

When your army entered the country of the Six Nations, we called you Town Destroyer: and to this day when that name is heard, our women look behind them and turn pale, and our children cling close to the necks of their mothers,“ – Seneca chief, Cornplanter.

^ Joseph Brant by Charles Willson Peale (1797).

In the early months of 1780 CE Joseph Brant began a series of successful retaliatory raids against the rebel colonists and their Iroquoian allies until being decisively defeated at the Battle of Klock’s Field (October 19, 1780 CE). Eventually Brant’s expeditions petered off as the British were nearing peace terms with the rebels colonists, concluding with the Treaty of Paris (1783 CE). With Native lands now given by the British to the Americans, the Natives were embittered. Joseph Brant traveled westward were he aided in the creation of a ‘Western Confederacy’ which consisted of many Natives from different nations or tribes like the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy), the Wabash Confederacy (Wea, Piankashaw, Kickapoos, Mascoutens, etc.), the Council of Three Fires (Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibwe) and the Illinois Confederation – among many others.

^ 1830′s lithograph based on the last portrait of Brant, an 1806 oil on canvas painting by Ezra Ames.

Joseph spent the rest of his life either allying the Natives against future American encroachments while also buying land back from the ‘whites’ for his Native brethren. At the age of sixty-four he passed away (November 24, 1807 CE): a Mohawk Native born in a difficult time where his people were trapped between more powerful and advanced world powers. Joseph Brant or Thayendangea (“places two bets”), was a sort of prodigy caught between two worlds: the old world of the Natives and the newer one the ‘whites’ brought. He was the first Native American to be invited into the Freemason order and was also one of the few Natives to visit Paris, France and London, England. He rose from obscurity, a relatively unknown Native American who was taught in white schools, invited into the Freemason order and rose in the ranks by means of his bravery, loyalty, skill, honesty, integrity, respect and honor. As he did in life, even his last words reflected his hope for a future for his Native brethren.

Have pity on the poor Indians. If you have any influence with the great, endeavor to use it for their good.


If there are any errors please privately inbox me so I can update it. As always, if you’d like to read or learn about any specific historical subjects just let me know what they are and I will take note of them.

SEE ALSO:

  • THE COUNCIL OF THREE FIRES AND THE PONTIAC-GUYASUTA UPRISING – This post covers some of the history, culture and religion of the Native American inhabitants of the Great Lakes region of North America, focusing on the Pontiac-Guyasuta Uprising and the Council of Three Fires (the Ottawa, Ojibwe and the Potawatomi); the peace-pipe, the Delaware prophetsRogers’ Rangers, the sport that inspired lacrosse, and some Native battle tactics
  • THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE “SAVAGE” EMPIRE – The origins of the Iroquois Confederacy, the early wars they were involved in, the effects that disease epidemics incurred upon them, the Iroquoian cultural use of torture, scalping, and cannibalism, the tomahawk and its symbolism (bury the hatchet), as well as the taking of captives during mourning wars and adopting them in order to replace lost tribal members. 
  • THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE RED ROMANS AND THE RED COATS – This post covers the religious beliefs of the Iroquois Confederacy, their origin story, their belief in duality (like yin and yang), their secretive and mysterious masked societies, and their involvement in the conflicts between their two great colonial neighbors (New France and the New England) like the famed French and Indian War. I’ll also speak of their involvement in the American Revolutionary War. It is believed that without the aid of the Iroquois Confederacy, North America would now be speaking French instead of English and that France would’ve held a massive portion of the eastern half of North America, leaving a massive battlefield for the French and Spanish to battle over.

Progress on my Loyalist Emperor’s Children force. After re-reading some of the background fluff, I’ve even begun to give them some back story as a unit. 

The 33rd Millennial of the Emperor’s Children, the Tyrean Eagles. Functioning as outriders and rapid response for larger Legion forces, the Tyrean Eagles were tied up in a campaign against Eldar raiders during the betrayal on Istvaan III. Refusing to turn against the Imperium, their Lord Commander echo’d the Primarch Fulgrim’s own words in defiance: “You must shake off the misfortunes of the past, and rise to heights others dare not. You are the Emperor’s chosen, his heralds, his warriors, his children, for this is only the beginning!”

Although woefully outnumbered by traitor forces, the Tyrean Eagles’ fleet-based nature and high-speed attack style would allow them to survive through the Horus Heresy, bloodied but unbowed.

TURN, Hewlett, and Why He (& Characters Like Him) Matters

It’s no secret that I love Edmund Hewlett. That’s basically the opposite of a secret, as is the fact that I’ll be pretty crushed if season 4 reveals that, yepp, he really did sail back to Britain and will not return.

But the thing is: my dread is not just about him, per se. I’ve weathered the loss of a favorite character many times before. Who hasn’t? In Hewlett’s case, however, I think the show itself stands to suffer without him — or at least, without the narrative role that he plays so well.

This post is kind of rambling and naturally a bit verbose, but take it, I suppose, as a justification of my sorrow at the possibility of a sans-Hewlett season 4 by way of an exploration of his thematic role in TURN’s narrative and a defense of that role’s importance to the heart of the show. Because for as much love as Hewlett gets, he’s got plenty of detractors as well: critics and fans alike who don’t see the point of the Anna/Hewlett plotline or understand Hewlett’s purpose beyond “local obstructive bureaucrat.” To which criticism I humbly submit the argument that Hewlett & his plotlines absolutely have a point, thank you very much, and that he has in fact proven to be among easily the most moving and successful articulations of a theme TURN has continually tried to reinforce:

That neither the audience nor the characters can side wholeheartedly with only one side of the war, because there have always been sympathetic and admirable characters on both sides, muddying the moral waters and forcing the characters to grapple with loyalty to ideals vs. loyalty to people.

In other words: although TURN ultimately portrays the patriots as the protagonists, it’s also increasingly made a point of forcing its patriots to confront the fact that they do not have any kind of exclusive claim to decency, morality, or sympathy. Quite the opposite, in fact.

And Hewlett is not the only permutation on this theme, but he’s a pretty dang significant one.

Keep reading

Khornate Rhino Problem

You see a runaway Rhino heading towards five loyalists.

You can either let the Rhino run them over, which is cowardly and displeasing to Khorne but will spare you and your traitorous friends the effort of killing them or you can throw a Krak grenade at one of the treads which will nudge it into solitary loyalist, but force you to fight four other space marines that you otherwise wouldn’t have had to?

Assume for the purposes of discussion that you are a puny mortal traitor guardsmen and thus even fighting one space marine is a worthy challenge

House Corbray Lords of Heart’s Home, sworn to Arryn

Corbray is a noble house from the Vale of Arryn, they blazon their arms with three black ravens in flight holding three red hearts, on white and have an ancestral Valyrian sword called Lady Forlorn. The Corbrays are an Old house with Andal roots, founded during the Andal invasion. Corwyn Corbray conquered the Fingers by defeating Houses Brightstone and Shell, claiming for himself the title of Lord of the Five Fingers. During the First Blackfyre Rebellion, Ser Gwayne Corbray of the Kingsguard was part of the loyalist forces that fought Daemon Blackfyre at the Battle of the Redgrass Field. They dueled for nearly an hour, their Valyrian swords Blackfyre and Lady Forlorn clashing loudly. At last, Blackfyre struck Gwayne’s helm and left him blind and bleeding. Daemon dismounted to tend to his foe and ordered Redtusk to carry Gwayne back to the maesters for healing, an action that afterwards some considered decisive, since it gave the Raven’s Teeth enough time to find a good position to fire the arrows that killed Daemon.

Lord Lyonel Corbray is the current Lord of Heart’s Home, as he is childless his younger brother Lyn Corbray is his heir. At the Battle of the Trident, Lyn’s father Lord Corbray was badly wounded. In the confusion Lyn took up the family’s Valyrian steel sword, Lady Forlorn, and distinguished himself by leading an assault on the Dornish lines. He personally finished off a wounded Lewyn Martell. Honoring Lyn’s achievements on the battlefield, his father bequeathed him Lady Forlorn upon his death. His elder brother Lyonel Corbray inherited the rest of the family estate and titles, but still resented the loss of the family blade. Lyn acompanies the Lords Declarant to the Eyrie.

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Ambitious and brilliant, Jonathan Sewall rose through the ranks to finally achieve the rank of Attorney General of Massachusetts. This would often put him in direct conflict with the Sons of Liberty, and in later years, his best friend John Adams. Choosing the side of loyalist, he was forced to flee to England in 1775 after a mob stormed his family’s home. He would later be named in the Massachusetts Banishment Act of 1778, barring him from ever returning to the colony again. The stress of the move and living in Britain was too much for him, especially when many of his own family members joined up with the American cause. This, his wife’s unhappiness, and his treatment as a second class citizen in London caused him to slip further and further into madness.

Years later, while Adams was assigned to London as a U.S. minister to the Court of St. James’s, he and Sewall were briefly reunited. It only lasted two hours. Unable to reconcile, the two never saw one another again.

In 1796, weakened by illness, Sewall died. As his old friend John Adams put it however, he died “of a broken heart”, and Adams considered him a casualty of the American Revolution.

In many ways, he truly was.

Historic rifles discovered in north Belfast Orange hall

Ten antique rifles have been uncovered in an Orange hall in Belfast.

The guns were part of a shipment of 25,000 rifles smuggled into Larne on board the Clyde Valley in 1914.

It is believed they were concealed in Clifton Street Orange Hall for just over 100 years and date from the Home Rule crisis.

Orange Order members were clearing out a disused room inside the hall when they opened a cupboard and found the rifles and ammunition inside.

Orange Order member Ronnie McDowell described how he felt when he made the discovery.

“I’d like to say it was excitement, but at the onset it was blind panic,” he said.

“We opened one of the cupboards expecting to find minute books and banners inside.

"We were worried at first, as it is not every day that you open a cupboard and you see rifles and ammunition staring back at you.

"Finding out they’re antique weapons with an antique calibre is great excitement.”

The police were called and the guns removed.

An examination revealed that all 10 were Austrian made Steyr rifles manufactured in 1904 and were part of a cache of guns from the Larne gunrunning operation in 1914.

Each is stamped ‘Ulster Volunteer Force’. Once landed, the smuggled guns were distributed and hidden by unionists.

In a statement the PSNI said: “All the weapons date from before World War One and the circumstances in which they were found indicate that they had not been disturbed for many decades.

"Orange Order members facilitated a search of the hall to ensure that no other weapons were present.

"Police are satisfied that the Orange Order members contacted them immediately on making the discovery and that none of the existing members were aware of the existence of these weapons.”

About 25,000 guns and millions of rounds of ammunition were illegally landed in Northern Ireland from Germany on board the Clyde Valley coal ship to arm the Ulster Volunteer Force during the Home Rule Crisis in 1914.

The 10 rifles have been returned to the Orange Order and will be displayed in a museum inside Clifton Street Orange Hall.

The arms were found on 29 December 2015, but the guns are being shown to the public for the first time.

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