lots of asian things in general

some thoughts on the PH and the history of racism

I was planning on doing some more research and digging before sharing some of the stuff in this post, so please take some of the details as a ‘work in progress’. However, since this discussion does come up every now and again, I want to share what I’ve learned via digging into scientific racism and american policy.

Whenever the 'debate’ comes up about whether or not pilipinxs are 'pacific islanders’ or 'asians,’ most people vehemently say 'asian.’ And they aren’t wrong, as far as racial classification is concerned today. But there is actually, historically and scientifically, reasons why the racial classifications of pilipinxs appears to be so unstable, vague, and sometimes confusing.

Although one of the things I’ve been arguing, in general is that racial classifications are a lot more stable than people usually think. Obviously there are exceptions. And, tbh, the only truly stable races are Black and white. The others… have been a bit more changeable throughout the years.

My interest in the history of racial classification in the Philippines (PH) first started when I saw this graphic racial hierarchy during the spanish colonization:

The thing that struck me was: why the fuck are Chinese ppl placed higher than, us, the 'indians’? My curiousity about this history continued when I first read Johann Blumenbach’s 1795 classic and authoritative book on scientific racism. In it, he classifies pilipinxs as 'malay’, which is a distinct race from 'mongolian’ (which was basically East Asian in today’s terms)1.

As I’ve been discovering, it appears that the real implications that race was a science seems to have lost its impact, since scientific racism only covertly and indirectly exerts its influence on contemporary racial relations and classifications. But. Yes. It was a science. This means that when Johann Blumenbach in 1795 decided that 'malay’ was a distinct, brown race this is exactly what people thought for a long time afterwards. A while back I coloured in a global map that represents his geographical delineations between races:

I’d like to draw your attention to the brown areas of the map, which is more or less the malay peninsula and all the pacific islands south and east (Indonesia, the Philippines, Oceania, New Zealand, etc).

You might be thinking “well, who cares what Blumenbach wrote in 1795, everyone knows that pilipinxs are asian”. Actually… not true. In about 1933, there was a US court case that 'officially’ designated us as Malayan and not mongolian/asian:

County officials cited the work of Aleš Hrdlička in arguing that Filipinos were indeed part of the “Mongolian race”. However, Justice T. Archbald, who wrote the opinion in the case, disagreed, stating that J. F. Blumenbach’s taxonomy, which classified “Malays” and “Mongolians” separately, was the dominant theory through the early 20th century. He also pointed out that the term “Mongolians” in popular opinion was meant principally to apply to the Chinese, in reaction to the late 19th-century influx of Chinese immigrants. The court thus concluded that Filipinos were members of the “Malay race” and not the “Mongoloid race”, finding Roldan and Rogers’ marriage legal.

This is what I mean when I say that race was a science and that Blumenbach was one of the main authorities. His 1795 treatise was used by an American judge in 1933 to classify us as “malay” and not asian. The result of this case, for the curious, is that a week later they ammended the anti-miscegnation laws to include malays (thus rendering marriages between white people and filipinxs illegal). This was less than 100 years ago.

It wasn’t too long after that, from what I can determine, that pilipinxs became reclassified as 'asian’ in american 'foreign’ policy. Why does american foreign policy matter? Well. They were our colonizers at the time. And, it looks like the political motivation for this reclassification was that they wanted to deny pilipinxs – considered american 'nationals’ – the ability to become citizens and to restrict 'immigration’. In this way, they made us distinct from their other colonies in the pacific (Hawaii, Guam, Samoa).

And the same racial hierarchy above shows what we were considered before the rise of scientific racism and in the earlier centuries of spanish colonization. For a long, long time we (and the other islands inclusive of Oceania) were the geographical region known as the 'east indes’. For the PH specifically, we were part of the Spanish east indes (and we weren’t alone, btw). We were just the Indians in the East. In contrast with the ones in the West (ie, the Caribbean). In contrast with the American Indians. And in contrast with the other East Indians (the peoples actually in India). The spanish weren’t… very creative with race. Just a whole lot of indians.

But why does this matter? Well… again, it relates to why Chinese settlers in the PH were considered racially superior to us indians. At this time (and this is part of what feeds into Blumenbach’s classifications), East Asians (principally Chinese and Japanese ppl) were considered 'civilized’ in a way that no indian (not just in the PH) was.

This notion of 'civilized’ became entrenched in scientific racism because it created a notion that some races were incapable of being civilized according to white standards. So when Blumenbach was deciding that we were 'scientifically’ not mongolian, he made a far-reaching pronouncement that we were less civilized, less capable of becoming civilized, less intelligent, just LESS than East Asians.

In turn, when you look at american rhetoric about why they 'needed’ to colonize the PH, it was because we weren’t considered capable of self-governance because of our racial classification (around this time, nordicism was also making an impact so they didn’t really think that the spanish had done much to change our ability to become civilized). So the plan for the PH was that americans would civilize us so that we could become capable of self-governance.

Incidentally around the time the US first started pulling out, and wanting to limit 'immigration’, we became capable of self-governance, of being civilized just around the time that we were reclassified as 'asian’. A coincidence, I’m sure. Also interesting that the 'east indes’ basically vanished as all the other european colonizers started pulling away from south east asia. But many areas in Oceania are still colonies, territories, or somehow bound to a colonial power but are considered 'Pacific Islanders’ these days. This is one of the areas that I want to research more before I say much more. I’m just pointing out various things I’ve noticed during my research.

I’m going to finish up because I have to go somewhere soon. All I’m trying to do in this essay is show that the question “are filipinxs asian?” is actually a really complex one. It doesn’t matter if other asians see us as asian, btw, race was invented and is maintained by white ppl. It only matters what they think we are. And since they say we are asian, that’s what we are today. And that’s the only reason why we are 'asian’ at all.

In reality, we are neither 'asian’ nor 'pilipinx’ because this are things made up by white people.

So the real answer to “am i asian?” is 'no.’ Not bc I think I’m a pacific islander but because what i am is tagalog (well mestisa too). This question isn’t a matter of identity. It is about how white supremacy sees and identifies us and how it interacts with us.


  1. Interestingly, it isn’t even ambiguous in his treatise whether or not he is including pilipinxs in “malay”. He says in one of his footnotes that he saw one us on display in London (or something). And it was this experience, in part, that convinced him that we (and the other islanders) were a distinct race from Asians. 

I am having a lot of feelings about the Tonys and representation because I’ve seen so many things on Facebook today of people posting about how excited they are to see themselves represented, from the lesbian community to the Asian-American community to the autistic community to plus-sized women to just women in general. And just like. If that doesn’t get you choked up and excited to keep making great theatre I don’t know what will.

[FICRECS] Zayn/Liam

Hey, uh so, there’s about ~40 fics in here bc it seems like i’ve been reading a lot and avoiding my responsabilities :P 

like always bolds are my faves :)

  • Hello, My Name Is… by insomniacjams [4.5k | Teen]
    alternately titled “Hurricane Zayn”
    Liam first sees Zayn when he joins an international student club at college.
    Zayn first sees Liam when his name appears on Liam’s binder with a heart. Liam + Zayn ♥
  • Everything’s Gonna Be Alright by ziamxo [4.4k | General]
    It’s taking Liam a bit longer to let Zayn go.
    Or the one where Zayn goes to the 2015 Asian Awards and Liam starts putting things into perspective.
  • peppermint by Anonymous [6.2k | Mature]
    Stranger looks at Zayn sadly. “Are you alright?”
    Zayn sniffs. “No,” he says. “Bit less than alright.” Zayn feels water run from his tear duct down his cheeks, and Brown Eyes looks incredibly upset.
    “No, don’t cry,” Jawline pouts, waving his hands uselessly in front of Zayn’s face as if by doing so, he’ll shoo the tears away. “Please don’t cry.”  
    “I’m not fucking crying,” Zayn says through gritted teeth, rubbing at his eyes with his sleeve.
    or, fic in which Zayn is bitter because he has hayfever, and Liam is a godsend.
  • He Says I Smell Like Safety and Home by unfortunate17 [5.2k | Explicit]
    Zayn feels his heart swell four sizes too big for his body. “I make you feel safe,” he repeats, knowing that there’s a dopey smile stretching his face and scrunching up his nose, “You sit in my lap ‘cause I make you feel safe.”
    “And warm,” Liam points, cheeks hot, “Loved too.”
    ______________________________
    In other words, Liam likes to ride Zayn because it’s kind of their thing.
  • the only exception by insomniacjams [4.6k | Explicit]
    Liam and Zayn meet in a compartment of an overnight train between Bratislava and Frankfurt.
    Liam rides Zayn.
  • Taking the Plunge With You by Romancemesomeziam [4.9k | Explicit]
    Zayn can’t sleep because of a leaking sink, so he calls a plumber since he is in desperate need of slumber but ends up getting more than a dream filled night in exchange.
  • You Know I Got You by writingsofamadchild [15.3k | Explicit]
    “You don’t think I look stupid?” Zayn murmurs, fingers spreading across Liam’s thigh to tug him closer. He keeps his hand there, resting against his inner knee, gently cupping it and smoothing a thumb across the rough material of his jeans.
    Liam snorts, he can’t help it. His breath is catching in his lungs just looking at Zayn because he is so beautiful, and he can’t grasp the concept of how Zayn doesn’t get it.
    [Alternatively, the one where Zayn and Liam will do anything to protect and take care of the other, but admitting their feelings well -]

Keep reading

fuck it, i’m going to link it because it’s amazing in its racist repulsiveness:

Could a possible reason for Skye being the “main” person in AOS right now be because Chloe’s half-chinese and a girl, whereas Brett’s a white guy? Narratively speaking, I haven’t found anything that makes Skye being born in China actually relevant in the slightest sense but for fans it works in giving them the “POC” (I don’t know when Asian became a color, but there’s a lot of things I don’t know) female superhero (I don’t even consider Skye a hero). Is this why the writers seem to be leaning towards the Inhumans and Skye rather than focusing on the morality of an organization like S.H.I.E.L.D. and the products of it like Grant Ward? [x]

Yeah, you are right, women of color had such an unfair advantage when it comes to fronting superhero shows. And in general really. It’s not like Skye was the protagonist from the pilot or anything, no, it must be that somewhere along the way TPTB decided to appease those pesky fans of color demanding their unfair representation. It’s not like the opposite happens ever so often in tv, that a show starts off diverse and then it becomes progressively less so. Have you heard of bait and switch? And of course Marvel is known for how many women of color they put in their products, of course Skye being the protagonist of Agents of SHIELD is representative of how little Marvel cares about white men and their compelling stories. People like Ward are in such a disadvantage in mainstream media. Like seriously, when will we see shows about bland-looking young white dudes? It’s time to end the tyranny of biracial female superheroes once and for all.

I’m also amused at the implication that the alternatives for protagonist of the show are Skye or Ward. Skye already has a co-protagonist in her story, and it’s a white dude and it’s not Ward, so yeah, even if you claim “reverse racism” (lol, what are you even on) the show pretty much disproves the notion that all white men are sidelined. The show just doesn’t care about Ward that much. Ward was a supporting character from the beginning, he was never a contender for a protagonist role, good guy or villain.

Stand With Ward Versus Minorities: The Fandom

anonymous asked:

Hi. I watch some fancam on YT, and it was Phase 1 if I am not mistaken. They sang 'Stand up ' and the audience was recording usinge thier phone. Afetr the song ended, Taiki and Toru kinda mimic the phone coz during the performance, there aren't many clap and sounds made my audience. Does this things happen on other Phase as well? I feel that Da-ice were disappointed at the audience in that vid.

Most likely not? Japan has different concert etiquette compared to other countries, and as a general rule, they will not make noise/clap/scream when they know the group will be talking. They’ll cheer and jump around for the songs and clap in between songs, but they quiet down really quickly out of respect for listening to the group. Having gone to a lot of Asian pop concerts in America, how Japanese audiences behave is verrrrry different to how people in my country behave. I’ve been to several concerts where the group has personally had to ask the audience to quiet down because people are screaming over them while they’re trying to talk. I don’t think Da-iCE would have found it rude– generally if they want the audience to go wild, they’ll do the “Let me hear you make some noise!” thing.

And even if the audience hadn’t been pumped up for some reason or another, Da-iCE wouldn’t ever be disappointed in the audience in my book. As musicians, they call it their responsibility to keep the audience energized, not the other way around. If people aren’t excited, they feel that they’re not projecting their emotions enough or bringing enough energy, so they would change their performances in the future to make sure that wouldn’t happen again. Rather than being disappointed with their fans, they would be disappointed in themselves for not performing up to standard. However, I don’t think the audiences in any fancam I’ve seen of Stand were lacking in energy since they’re all jumping around, even while they’re busy recording on their phones. I think in that case they were being quiet 1) so as not to mess up their recordings and the recordings of people around them 2) not to be rude to the group, who had an MC right after “Stand”

That’s my opinion ^^

anonymous asked:

Is it wrong to tell an attractive person that they look like a kpop idol? I heard that it implies bad things-also do you think people assuming that a good looking asian got plastic surgery is a 'stigma' more geared towards east asians or asians in general?

yea it’s racist…..because what does looking like a kpop idol specifically mean to you?? just tell them they’re attractive/stylish/wtv it is you’re trying to say, also yes it is a stigma, geared towards many demographics but concentrated a lot on e asians particularly koreans..like western mass media spotlights the prevalence of ps in s.korean society sooooo much….I see a lot of ppl who are traditional or anti-plastic surgery dismiss a korean person’s beauty because “they’ve probably had everything done” mad annoying n assumptuous! just let them b!