lorde en

La adoración no es un deber ni una obligación; La adoración es la respuesta de un corazón agradecido por todo lo que Dios ha hecho.
La adoración a Dios es un privilegio divino; No una obligación religiosa.
1° dia de clases: No sé si llegaron más estúpidos o yo menos tolerante pero no soporto sus excrementos mentales.
—  Felipe Plazas. (Smokecandy.tumblr.com)
Ser positivo no significa que negamos la existencia de dificultades; significa que tenemos la certeza de que Dios es mayor que nuestra dificultad.

URUK PERIOD OF IRAQ

This is an excerpt from my post: THE SUMERIANS, FOREFATHERS OF CIVILIZATION IN MESOPOTAMIA.

The Uruk Period is named after the ancient city of Uruk, a large settlement that could sustain a population as high as 40,000-50,000. Where in the earlier periods the sizes of war-bands were only in the hundreds, they could now support armies of as much as 5,000 men. Although they were also supported by about 146 smaller settlements that lay within their domains, these villages and cities began to decrease as the inhabitants flocked to the larger capital cities for the safety of their walls and promise of a better life.

^ Uruk.

Artifacts manufactured in Uruk can be found throughout Mesopotamia, one of the primary items found is also believed to be the world‘s first mass produced object, a “bevel rimmed bowl”. Most believe that these cheaply made ordinary looking bowls were actually part of the early Sumerian currency system. With the increase of urbanization less city folk farmed, instead finding work within the cities where they would be paid in grain. How much grain one had in a bowl would determine how much one was paid (for you to eat from, save or trade with). 

An urban revolution had occurred; populations and the focus of agriculture now shifted over to the more fertile river valleys and irrigation increased the productivity and amount of crops which led to a population boom. With more cities lying beside channels and rivers there was an increase in trade and income as now they could more easily travel and connect with those along these waters. With the overall increase of food and income also came an increase in specialist professions; merchants, craftsmen, artisans, warlords, high priests, nobles and kings. 

^ A clay tablet maker and cuneiform scribe recording a cattle sale in a Sumerian market place about 3000 B.C. by Neville Dear.

Temples were now being built on a larger scale and were more numerous, priestly roles became more important as well. The en (“priest, lord”) was the high-priest, a title denoting sovereignty and the power to make things prosper. The en-priestess (Akkadian ‘entum’, Sumerian ‘Nin’) would live in a temple complex called a giparu (“storehouse”) which were in earlier times used as storage areas for the harvest and even cattle. En-priestesses were buried in a cemetery by the giparu, offerings were given to deceased priestesses and reverence to them extended to the point of there being a cult devoted to them. A common custom in Mesopotamia was to bury the diseased in the floors of the household, the same can be found in the giparu as the priestesses were also buried here. Sadly the city of Ur, the giparu and its cemetery were all looted by the Elamites late in Sumerian history.

The first and most famous of these en-priestesses was the daughter of Sargon the Great, Enheduanna (“En, ornament [ie. the moon] of the heavens”), who was the high-priestess of Nanna/Sin (moon god) and was renowned for being the first author in history, at least 42 hymns are attributed to her. The en-priestesses were also seen as the wife of their patron god therefore representing the godly wife; an example being that the Enheduanna, en-priestess of Ur, represented Ningal (goddess of reeds) the wife of Nanna/Sin (moon god). During the warring city-states period that followed, the title en would also grow to into a more militarized and authoritative position. This priest-king (Ensi, “lord [of the] plowland”) was seen as an intermediary between the gods and man. 

The lugal (“big man”) signified the owner of something and inevitably became the term for kings. The title lugal would not become prominent until c.2700 BCE, the ensi were more important than them but in time they would become seen as their subordinates. Unlike the high-priests and high-priestesses, who would be elected, the lugal’s succession would pass onto their heirs. According to some the lugals may have initially been elected as ad hoc leaders much like the consuls of Rome and the judges (shoftim) of the bible, but generally needed for military purposes.

Like the classical Greeks, the Sumerians and Akkadians may have believed that whomever won these wars, the gods favored more so. Countless tablets show both pictorial representations and written texts which depicted gods warring when it was known that kings fought these conflicts. An example of this is when Umma and Lagash were warring the texts say that Ningirsu (patron war god of Lagash) battled against Umma and “By the command of Enlil, he cast (his) big battle-net upon it, and its many tumuli (burial mounds) he laid upon the ground in the plain.” 

There was even a king of Akkad named Naram-Sin who is depicted in artwork wearing a horned helmet only worn by the gods and was deified as the god of Agade (Akkad)”. Despite the apparent supremacy the ensis and lugals held, early Mesopotamian history shows that the council (ukkin, “council, assembly”) still held sway over most important decisions; one made up of elders (abba urru, “father/elders of the city”) and one of youths. In the poem Gilgamesh and Agga even Gilgamesh, the great legendary king of Uruk, needed their permission to go to war against Aga of Kish. The elders disapproved “Let us submit to the house of Kish, let us not smite it with weapons” but the people of the city sided with Gilgamesh.

Other city states arose, like the great cities of Kish and Ur, which surpassed Uruk in importance. This transition from the Uruk period to the First Dynasty of Ur is said by some to coincide with a wet and dry period known as the Piora Oscillation which led to massive flooding (possibly inspiring the great flood myth) and drought (leading to a scramble for resources).

If there are any errors please privately inbox me so I can update it. As always, if you’d like to read or learn about any specific historical subjects just let me know what they are and I will take note of them.

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