Restaurant Car (c.1935). Leonard Campbell Taylor (English, 1874-1969). Oil on canvas. National Railway Museum. Original artwork for a London, Midland and Scottish Railway poster.
A well dressed young couple are seated opposite each other, next to a window, with a view of the coast and sea beyond. A middle-aged man reads with enjoyment an illustrated magazine, perhaps a fashion magazine, as an alternative to the red book on his table.
James I of Scotland was a complex and colourful king. He was a poet, a sportsman, a musician and a patron of architects.
He survived being kidnapped by pirates when he was just 12 years old - and the following 18 years he spent as a hostage to the Lancastrian kings of England. In 1424, he made a triumphant return to Scotland and was crowned at Scone, but 13 years later he was brutally stabbed to death, his body dumped in the sewer below the Blackfriars monastery in Perth.
James Stewart was born in 1394, the third son of King Robert III and Annabella Drummond.By the time he was eight years old, he was their only surviving son. His brother Robert died in infancy and his other brother David, the Duke of Rothesay, died in suspicious circumstances at Falkland Castle while he was being detained by his uncle Robert, the Duke of Albany. After David’s death, James was the heir to the Scottish throne, but he was also an impediment to the royal line being transferred to the Albany Stewarts. Fears grew for his safety and plans were made to send him to France.In March 1406, he boarded a boat bound for France, but just days into the voyage, the vessel was intercepted in the English Channel by pirates who delivered him to Henry IV of England. On 4 April 1406, Robert III died and the 12-year-old James was now the uncrowned King of Scots. But he was imprisoned in England and his uncle, the Duke of Albany, became regent in Scotland.
James may have been a prisoner, but he was allowed to keep a small household and was treated well by Henry IV. This lasted until 1413 when Henry IV died, his son Henry V became king, and James was transferred to the Tower of London with other Scottish prisoners. It took another seven years before James’ standing improved enough for him to be regarded more of a guest than a hostage - but it took a third change of monarch in England before James was finally allowed back to Scotland.Henry V died in 1422, and the regency council for the infant Henry VI were eager to organise his release as soon as possible. Despite opposition from the Albany Stewarts, it was arranged for 1424 when he arrived triumphantly in Edinburgh on Palm Sunday, accompanied by his newly-wed English wife, Joan Beaufort.
Prominent members of the Albany Stewarts were found guilty of rebellion and executed, but a conspiracy against the King began to grow and he reigned for just 13 years before his death.On 4 February 1437, the King and Queen were in their royal apartments at the Blackfriars monastery in Perth, when a group of about 30 people was let in by one of the conspirators against him. James I was alerted and had enough time to hide in a sewer tunnel, but his exit was blocked and he was trapped and killed. He died in a pool of his own blood, stabbed dozens of times. The assassin, Sir Robert Graham, is said to have screamed after his death: “I have thus slayne and delivered yow of so crewel a tyrant, the grettest enemye that Scottes or Scotland might have.”
James I was buried within the grounds of Perth Charterhouse, but the priory was destroyed in the reformation a century after his death and now no-one is exactly sure where his grave is.A stone monument at the corner of Perth’s King Street and Hospital Street marks the fact he is buried somewhere in the area. Discovering the murdered King’s exact location would be a major historical find - and a coup for the city of Perth.
It had been nearly eighty years since he was last in a large human city. Back then he had found it too noisy, busy, and dirty for his liking. But standing there in nothing but trousers as vehicles screamed by, he wished he was back in the city of old. He wasn’t sure how he got there or where “here” was. He was disoriented, confused, alone. Signs were flashing at him, people were talking non-stop and the vehicles…he had never seen anything like it.
It got to be too much and he squatted down, putting his hands over his ears as he curled inward, and praying someone found him and took him back to his home.
The more things change, the more they stay the same
Sir John Soane’s Museum, located in the heart of London at the architect’s former residence, is a beautifully preserved snapshot of 19th century British antiquarianism and collecting. Soane published what could be called an early guidebook to his house and collection in 1835, full of engravings of numerous treasure-filled rooms. The library of the Royal Scottish Academy holds a copy of one of these rare books (only 150 total were printed), made even more special by the fact that Soane himself signed and inscribed it.
It really is amazing to see how little has changed in the museum since the publication of the book- if the ghost of John Soane took to haunting the halls of the museum, I’m sure he would find his favorite artifacts right where he left them!
It’s rare I post a photo on here with a celeb these days because I swear to god some random people just loved to hate that time I met Tom Hiddleston at a party and posted it on here (like you don’t know me and you deffo wasn’t at the party to gtfo of here ya muggy little c*nts, excuse my French) last year.
Annnnnyway!! I just really wanted to share this one because it was at a charity event the other night and about a month before this I’d seen James McAvoy for the first time since Ruling Class and to my shock he actually remembered me and my friend, asked how we were and told us he was doing more theatre next year. Then at this event the other evening we had spotted him arrive but wanted to play it cool. At one point we walked right past each other and I could tell he was looking but avoided eye contact but I know he recognised us because then when my friend behind me past, she must have made eye contact because I heard him say ‘hey’ and something to the effect of ‘you’re here’ but we didn’t stop and talk.
Finally, later in that evening, after I’d had a load of champagne courage he was returning inside after going outside for a bit and I just intercepted him with a light backhanded slap on his chest/shoulder (I really need to learn not to do that oops) and then the following happened:
Me: Hey James!
James: Hey you! *holds out hand to shake*
Me: *goes to fist bump instead because that’s how I roll*
James: Nah, come here! *proceeds to pull me in for a hug*
And inner me is freaking the fuck out because James McAvoy just hugged me like I was his bro (and I am happy with being his bro if anything) That’s when I also realised I’ve got to not screw up now and come across like a major fangirl, I’ve got to act chill AHHH but I somehow managed.
So, then I spoke to him for what seemed like forever about how we’ve both been, theatre and other stuff. It’s so easy to get caught up talking to this wonderful man that I nearly forgot to bring my mate in on the convo but then I got him to wish her a happy birthday and we continued to talk about theatre and stuff. (Theatre is my passion of you hadn’t noticed oops) And then he was so nice with taking photos afterwards and I legit feel like I’ve upgraded from random James fan to random acquaintance that James recognises but not in a bad way! Then later that night I went to talk to him again and he took some classic James McAvoy selfies with us, because he’s a photo beast when he gets hold of your phone!
Oh and he also remembered telling us a month before he was doing theatre because turns out he probably isn’t now until 2018 because everyone is doing he show he wanted to do next year already!
When people think of China, they all assume that everyone in China is Chinese, speaks Chinese, looks and live like this:
Now let’s look at the Ethnic Make-Up of China!
Look how many Han Chinese there are? But first things first! All the Han Chinese do not speak the same language! Chinese is probably as useful as saying the “Europeans”.
Let’s pretend that Europe is combined into a single country! But with London as the Capital City, and everyone is officially, “European” and they all speak “European”, with European English as the official language of Europe! The French, German, Spanish and Russians? They are their own entire language, culture and ethnicity.
Same goes with China. China is much larger than Europe, speaking different languages, eating different foods, practicing different religions, wearing different clothing. Beijing is the capital, with Mandarin Chinese as the official language of the entire country. However, Chinese languages are considered “Dialects”, but not their own distinct language, culture or ethnicity.
Now let’s look at the Han Chinese languages:
Mandarin Chinese not only has it’s “Northern, Eastern, Southwestern” dialects, but they even break up into more different dialects and accents from different region, city and province. There’s a difference between London accent, Welsh accent, Scottish and Irish accents. To simplify it, the government simply grouped everyone together.
Southern Chinese languages cannot mutually understand with any other Chinese. That’s like an Englishman trying to communicate with a German, a Dutch, or a Danish. They all belong from the same language group, but they cannot understand one another mutually.
But what about the other Non-Han Chinese?
See where Han is at? (Look where Beijing would be!) That is the original homeland of all Han Chinese people.
There are officially 56 Ethnic Groups in China, but there are hundreds and even more that are unofficial and undocumented. It’s the Chinese government way of saying, “Meh. Saffron, Violet and Pink are the same thing. Let’s just call it “Red”.
But how did Han Chinese became the major language and ethnic group of China?
Through conquest! Very much like how the Romans of today Italy killed, pillaged, raped and took over the Gauls of France, the Germania of Central Europe and the Britannia’s of the British Isles, and turned them “Roman citizens” through colonization and expansion!
But what makes China a unique case, is that the surviving natives of the Northern Han conquest, is that they still retain much of their native cultures. They survived, because most of the ethnic groups lived up in the mountains, where the ancient Han Chinese were too lazy to bring their armies up mountains:
Those who were colonized and assimilated into Chinese culture?
The Vietnamese were colonized by the Chinese more than three times.
Korea was colonized/tributing state for the longest time ever.
And Southern China! They would be influenced and assimilated strongest to Northern Chinese culture and language!
But why is everyone considered Chinese?
Same bullshit as your government saying that you’re an American, Canadian, British, Australian, etc. etc. citizen. It’s like a rich White straight male, taking control of the government and dictating how you live, under his life style. The Han Chinese says that everyone in China is all Chinese.
And mostly the blatent ignorance and education on the diversity of China.
It’s another bullshit ideology.
Is French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese a dialect of Europe? No. They are their own distinct languages. They may come from the same Roman history, the same Romance language family, but they are their own language. Teochow, Hakka, Minnan, Cantonese, Mandarin, etc. etc. are their own distinct language and ethnicity.
To unify Germany, Hitler said that the German Race was the greatest race! Germans from all over Europe, the German Swiss, the Austrian Germans, etc. etc. united as a single “Race” and rose to power.
To unify China, Northern Chinese Emperors said that they were the greatest race! And attempted to conquer everyone else, killing anyone who wasn’t “Chinese”. This was done for more than 3,000 years, resulting in many extinct native cultures and ethnicities in China, and resulting many cultures (like Korea, Vietnam and even Taiwan) to assimilate into Northern Han Chinese culture.
Not everyone in China are Mandarin Han Chinese, the major ethnic and language speaking group of China. Three different dialects of Mandarin and 6 different languages of Southern Chinese (Hakka, Min, Wu, etc.).
There is an official recognized 56 ethnic groups, but hundreds that are unrecognized. Such as Tibetans, Miao, Manchu and even Koreans and Mongolians!
China is very diverse in language, culture, religion and ethnicity. Not everyone is ethnically Chinese, nor speak Mandarin Chinese.