lobes of the brain

Character Analysis: Holly Blue Agate

Anonymous said:
what were your thoughts on holly blue?

I’ll keep the introduction short for this post. Holly Blue is the second Homeworld character introduced affiliated with Homeworld and a specific Diamond. The first character was Peridot. While the Rubies openly talk about their service to Yellow Diamond, they don’t share the deep investment that Holly Blue and Peridot have shown in the story.

It’s interesting looking at her character knowing what we do about Peridot now. So let’s get right into it!

1. Gem Placement

Anonymous said:
What do you suppose Holly Blue Agate’s gem placement (the back of her head, at the base of her skull) symbolizes?

Going by anatomy, the back of the skull is where the occipital lobe of the brain is located. The occipital lobe functions not necessarily to let us see, but to help us make sense of what we’re seeing. That is, the occipital lobe helps us interpret and comprehend the images that our eyes are looking at.

And to me, there’s something interesting about every single moment we get to see Holly Blue’s gem in Gem Heist, when she’s first introduced. In those moments, she sees the CGs just as they’re doing something they’re not supposed to do, and each time, she misinterprets what happens and they don’t get caught.

The very first time we see her gem is when the CGs just arrive and try to convince the Amethysts of their credibility. That Sapphire isn’t a “disgraced” Homeworld defector and that she’s the leader of the entire operation bringing a new human for Blue Diamond’s Zoo. Holly Blue buys into this narrative completely and leads them exactly where they want to go.

The second time is immediately after Pearl is ordered to open the first door. Pearl makes a very un-Pearl face at Holly, who, with back turned, ignores it unknowingly, saving Pearl and Sapphire what could have been a heated questioning.

The third time, she and Sapphire walk in on the other CGs trying to destroy the door. And they look so obviously guilty, but Holly blames it on the Amethysts instead. 

Close to the end of the episode, we have one more shot of her gem as the Amethysts take Steven away and he’s very loudly resisting. We know that’s a sign of the upturn that Steven causes later on, but Holly interprets it as a sign that things are running smoothly and going to be fine.

Note that none of these circumstances immediately signal to Holly that things are going wrong. The Zoo is a far off outpost that has been very low-key. Working there must be very quiet, save the occasional visit from BD. Holly wouldn’t be expecting trouble and that tinges the way she processes what goes on around her.

I’d say on a normal day, the Famethyst pulls a few pranks, Holly makes them clean up and then they train for a while. Holly goes around inspecting everything. And it’s boring. So when a noble gem shows up, Holly wants things to be the best they can be.

It’s a point in how our contexts tinge how we interpret what our senses tell us. In experiencing the world, there is definitely going to be an element of subjectivity. No two people experience the same scenario the same way because just from a physical standpoint, they’re never really in the same place at the same time.

I think this is especially true for Holly. Her gem, which I’ve mentioned before gives us an idea of how gems interact with the world, is behind her. That means she wants to be on top of everything, but she doesn’t face things directly when interacting with them. She’s always just a little bit behind on what’s going on.

Additionally, we’ve already seen a discrepancy between what she sees and what she makes of it. It implies that she’s out of touch with what’s happening on the ground. Extending it further, she’s a bit out of touch with herself. Functioning at her best, I’d say she’d be very perceptive. But that “gut feeling” has to be cultivated.

And being out of touch is a very real phenomenon. Holly is in the middle of nowhere. She doesn’t get to interact with a lot of gems and the gems she does interact with are ones she’s been with for thousands of years from very early on in their lives.

I’d say that she’s amazing at telling what the Famethyst are up to. She’s always suspicious of them, and that’s maybe because they’ve given her a reason to believe something is always brewing. If the mischievous character of our own Amethyst is anything to go by, poking fun at Holly’s uptight nature is something they’d be doing very frequently, even before the CGs came. 

Holly can probably tell what the Famethyst are plotting even at a glance. She’s attuned to them, whether she wants to be or not. And that leads to the next point.

2. Position on Homeworld

Keep reading

Investigators Identify Human Brain Processes Critical to Short-Term Memory

Cedars-Sinai neuroscientists have uncovered processes involved in how the human brain creates and maintains short-term memories.

“This study is the first clear demonstration of precisely how human brain cells work to create and recall short-term memories,” said Ueli Rutishauser, PhD, associate professor of Neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai and the study’s senior author. “Confirmation of this process and the specific brain regions involved is a critical step in developing meaningful treatments for memory disorders that affect millions of Americans.”

The study’s findings, published online Feb. 20 and in the April print edition of Nature Neuroscience, involve a type of brain cell, called a persistently active neuron, that is vital for supporting short-term memory. Results indicate that this specific type of neuron remains active for several seconds when a person is required to memorize an object or image and recall it later.

The findings reveal critical new information on how the human brain stores and maintains short-term memories — the ability to remember ideas, thoughts, images and objects for seconds or minutes. Short-term memory is essential for making decisions and mental calculations.

“Because impaired short-term memory severely weakens someone’s ability to complete everyday tasks, it is essential to develop a better understanding of this process so new treatments for memory disorders can be developed,” said Jan Kamiński, PhD, a neuroscientist at Cedars-Sinai and lead author of the study.

Researchers found persistently active neurons in the medial frontal lobe as well as the medial temporal lobe. The neurons remained active even after the patient stopped looking at an image or object. Until now, the medial temporal lobe was thought to be involved only in the formation of new long-term memories. Now, however, the new findings show that both areas of the brain are critical for maintaining short-term memory and rely on the ongoing activity of the neurons for memorization.

During the study, a team of Cedars-Sinai neurosurgeons implanted electrodes to precisely locate the source of seizures in 13 epilepsy patients. Investigators then studied the electrical activity of individual neurons while patients performed a memory test.

During the test, patients viewed a sequence of three images, followed by a delay of two to three seconds. Then patients were shown another image and were asked to decide whether they had previously seen it.

“A surprising finding of this new study is that some of the persistently active neurons were only active if the patient memorized a specific image,” Kamiński said. “For example, the researchers discovered a neuron that reacted every time the patient memorized an image of Han Solo, a character in the movie Star Wars, but not any other memory.”

Another key finding of the study was a correlation between the strength of the neurons’ activity and the ability to later make use of the memory.

“We noticed that the larger the increase in activity, the more likely the patient was to remember the image. In contrast, if the neuron’s activity was weak, the patient forgot the image and thus lost the memory,” said Adam N. Mamelak, MD, professor of Neurosurgery, director of Functional Neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai and a co-author of the study.

Keith L. Black, MD, chair of Neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai, said the breakthrough can be credited to the partnership between neurosurgery and neurology clinicians working with neuroscientists.

“This unique collaboration allows us to discover the mechanisms of memory in the human brain,” Black said. “This is key for moving closer to finding treatments for memory disorders, epilepsy and other diseases.”

Rutishauser said a next step is understanding how multiple areas of the brain work together to support short-term memory.

“Now that specific neurons that support short-term memory have been discovered, we have a way to study their interaction systematically,” he said.

Date the girl made from a little bit of everything. The girl who’s her own Frankenstein, her own combination of parts she’s hand-picked and stitched together. She’ll pull herself limb from limb for you but she’ll be able to put herself back together, too. She’ll love you with the biggest heart she could have found, and hold your hand with the softest skin she chose. She’ll sing to you with the vocal cords of a siren, she’ll talk to you with the brain of a surgeon, the frontal lobe of a psych professor, and more. She’ll use every seam and bolt and glued part of her to show you how perfect she tried to make herself in hopes someone (you) will appreciate the artwork she tried to make.


The Bloody Red Baron’s traumatic brain injury,

 The issue of head trauma and brain injury has been in the spotlight a lot lately, especially when it comes to sports and athletic injury, as well as auto accidents, job accidents, and of course, soldiers returning home from war.  Perhaps one recently recognized case of traumatic brain injury in history is Manfred von Richthofen, also known as the “Red Baron”.  One of the greatest combat fighter pilots of all time, the German ace helped form the foundation of aerial dogfighting.  He wasn’t the most skilled pilot, but he utilized tactics which made him the most dangerous airman of World War I, earning him 80 kills, making him the highest scoring and most decorated pilot of the war. Richthofen’s incredible success was mostly due to his strict adherence to a set rules governing dogfighting called the “Boelcke Dictums”, written by German flying ace Oswald Boelcke.  Today the Boelcke Dictums are holy gospel among fighter pilots, still taught to trainees in air forces around the world.

On July 6th, 1917, Richthofen suffered a gunshot wound to the head, damaging the frontal lobe of his brain.  Amazingly, the wound didn’t kill him, and he was able to land in friendly territory. He had to undergo several operations to remove bone fragments from his damaged brain, and was temporarily blinded and paralyzed. Amazingly, Richthofen made a quick comeback, spending only three months convalescing and healing, attempting to return to active duty in August but finally returning to the air on October 23rd.

Richthofen wasn’t the same after his head injury, and modern medical professionals  have looked over his case and determined that he could have suffered from a serious traumatic brain injury. He become disinhibited and compulsive, often making snap judgments and irrational decisions.  He also had less control over his emotions, becoming moody and depressed.  In his journals, his writing became more simplistic, disorganized, and nonsensical.  In the air, he became more and more reckless, taking more dangerous risks and ignoring the Boelcke Dictums which he had rigidly adhered to before.  It is was quite clear that Richthofen was suffering from head trauma (and perhaps battle fatigue) resulting in decreased cognitive ability. It is a good possibility that the Bloody Red Baron had lost his edge due to his injury.

On April 21st, 1918 Richthofen broke formation with his squadron to chase an Allied plane.  Flying mere hundreds of feet above the ground, Richthofen pursued the fighter deep into enemy territory, totally oblivious of enemy fighters diving on his six and a mass of anti aircraft fire rising from the ground.  Neurologists call this “target fixation”, a habit common among those suffering brain injuries where a person will fixate on a particular object or thing while losing awareness of his or her surroundings.   Richthofen sustained a mortal gunshot wound to the chest, going down and crashing.  He was buried with honors by British forces.  Today, most medical and military experts agree that the Red Baron would have never been allowed to fly again in any modern air force.

some thoughts on gemstone placements and their opposites

Gem on chest (Amethyst, Yellow Diamond, Blue Diamond) vs. gem on upper back (Lapis). Chest gem: leading with the heart. Openly emotional– and this most definitely applies to Yellow Diamond, despite her best efforts to deny and repress her feelings. She would rather destroy the Earth over her grief than use its resources wisely when Homeworld is in the middle of a resource crisis. She lashes out at both Peridot and the Zircons.

Upper back gem: True feelings concealed.  Perhaps typified by Lapis offering to fuse with Jasper to defeat the Crystal Gems, when her real plan is to make Jasper her prisoner and use her as a punching bag for centuries of mistreatment that had nothing to do with Jasper. I have even seen the “back stabber” idea floated but I disagree. I don’t think Lapis is secretly evil although I think she’s far less innocent and good-natured than Steven imagines. Lapis keeps a lid on her real emotions as she plays along with “roommate” Peridot and assists the Crystal Gems in episodes like Hit the Diamond and Gem Harvest. She reflects what others want to see.

Gem on forehead (Pearl, Peridot) vs. gem on back of head (Holly Blue Agate).  The forehead gems are keenly observant and adaptable to change. Pearl and Peridot both pick up new skills quickly. Thinking of the flashlight powers of gemstones shown in Back to the Moon: their gems are located in a position to best illuminate their surroundings, like a miner’s headlamp.

Gem on back of head: I want to note that Holly’s gem isn’t just on the back of her head, it’s actually over the occipital lobe, the region of the brain that processes sensory information from the eyes. Holly is perhaps the most unperceptive character we’ve met, comically oblivious to the Crystal Gems sneaking around right in front her (not to mention the lack of Diamond insignias on their clothes and other important details that ought to arouse suspicion). She gets several sentences into an ass-kissing spiel before she notices that Blue and Yellow Diamond are directly in front of her, making for a very awkward moment of trying to pluralize “your radiance.”

Gem on palm of hand (Ruby, Sapphire) vs. gem on back of hand (Padparadscha Sapphire). Palm gems take matters into their own hands, directly in contact with things, “hands on.” The back of the hand makes me think of the phrase, “knowing [something] like the back of your hand.” A familiarity with things that are already revealed.

Wild Child ~Winchester Sister~

Summary: Your two older brothers let you go out to a party but you miss curfew         and the get a call saying your miles past drunk. They come pick you up. 

Warnings: Heavy consumption of alcohol by the reader. 

Pairings: Sister!reader with both Sam and Dean

Author’s Note: 2 more coming your way! Daryl Dixon and Barry Allen :) 

You flinched slightly as someone slung a hand over your shoulder. You couldn’t help but burst out laughing at the senior who exclaimed something not quite audible over the loud music. 

“Drink up!” he yelled in your ear and you laughed plucking the red cup out of his hand and in one swig the contents were gone burning their way down your throat. He stood back and cheered before running off leaving you laughing. 

More alcohol. That is what you needed. You snaked through people making out and individuals who were basically having sex standing up something they would call ‘dancing’. You slipped into the kitchen and grabbed the whiskey bottle that stood on the counter. 

“This i’ll do!’ you exclaimed loudly surprising yourself. Dean and Sam were going to be furious.  

“Hey!” someone called and you turned seeing the girl who invited you to the party- Mary? Anyway this was extremely kind of her as you were a travelling teenager that barely stayed in one school longer than a month. You never got invited to such things as you never stayed long enough to make new friends. 

“Gimme me some Y/N!” she slurred. You laughed as you poured her about half a cup. Sam and Dean had reluctantly let you come here but you turned 17 a week ago they felt way to guilty and bad for not allowing you the joys of being a teenager. 

They also attempted the pep talk before and the ‘Under any circumstance if you feel uncomfortable you call us’. If you had to recite the exact words that Dean used. 

Keep reading

Scientists Scramble To Discover More About A Disorder That's Haunted People For Generations

This disorder is called “Misophonia” 

“Scientists all over the world are scrambling to find out what causes it, how to treat it and really just to identify it. But that doesn’t mean it’s something new. Many seniors have suffered in silence for decades.

Ask Michael Lawrence, 65, who has suffered from a sensitivity to certain sounds since he was six. Or better yet, ask him about his mother who died at the age of 93, after having drunk much of her life away to escape the sounds that haunted her.

Scientists have dubbed it misophonia. Literally meaning “hatred of sound,” the word is derived from the Greek words miso, “hate,” and phon, “sound.” It is also known as Selective Sound Sensitivity.”

…..”Researchers at Newcastle found the “first evidence of clear changes in the structure of the brain’s frontal lobe in sufferers of misophonia and also report changes in the brain activity.”

“Brain imaging revealed that people with the condition have an abnormality in the emotional control mechanism which causes their brains to go into overdrive on hearing trigger sounds,” A Newcastle University press release reported in February. “Researchers also found brain activity originated from a different connectivity pattern to the frontal lobe. This is normally responsible for suppressing the abnormal reaction to sounds. The researchers also found that trigger sounds evoked a heightened physiological response with increased heart rate and sweating in people with misophonia.”


That adhd feel whn you physically feel the frontal lobe of your brain shutting down like your computer would and it doesn’t want to turn back on which is the main reason why you get bored or cant hold down a regular 9-5 or a regular part time job.
So whn family ask you why you quit your job and you answer with all honesty that you couldn’t function anymore,Which by telling your family this your rsd kicks in strong ..

Structure/function: The Parietal Lobe

Behold! Your parietal lobe! You can thank this lobe for your ability to slap yourself in the face! You’re welcome!

Because it allows you to know where in space your hand is, where in space your face is, and where they are in relation to each other. Congratulations! If you have parietal lobe issues, you might have issues slapping yourself in the face… among other issues but those are probably not relevant.

More specifically, the parietal lobe is split up into the above sections. First you have the somatosensory cortex

(This post was brought to you by me, figuring out how to “remove background” on an image and abusing this newfound power). So with the hand slapping thing, you will feel both your hand making contact with your face, and your face being slapped, thanks to this doohickey!

The superior and supramarginal cortices are visual, so it guides your movement to, say, pick up a water bottle. And slap yourself in the face, although you can do that with your eyes closed (go ahead, try it). That’s thanks to the posterior cingulate gyrus but we will get there later because it is a LOT. For now we have the friendly, simple

Angular Gyrus, which does what it says. So thinking about your place in space, where you want to go, where you’ve been, which way is north, which way is your house. Boom. Angular Gyrus. The Angular Gyrus and the Supramarginal Gyrus together make up the inferior parietal lobule (sub-lobe)

Now on the OTHER side of the parietal cortex (cut your brain in half, saggitally, to expose this part) (don’t cut, like, YOUR brain in half… couldn’t learn much then, could you) (actually) (we won’t go there). Episodic memory retrieval=who, what, when, where, and emotions of memories.Makes sense this is with visuo-spatial imagery. When you imagine up these memories, you envision the location of these memories and where these memories took place. Self-consciousness is also related to this area (but not exclusively located here. It’s pretty well understood that’s not located in one area but processed throughout the brain. NOW for the REAL doosy

Phew. Look at that. And such a small area. It is primarily known for its role in the Dorsal Stream in visual processing. A lot of its other roles kind of relate to this, as it is also known as the “where” stream. So spacial awareness, movements in space, mental rotation (that skill on IQ tests where they give you the shape and ask you to ID the shape from another angle), mental imagery, manipulation of visual imagery. So your understanding and manipulation of space. Interestingly (possibly connected) math and reading abilities are also highly related to this area. Spatial and non-spatial working memory (temporary memory holding, decision making), response inhibition, and task switching are all related to this area. Which is interesting because they are also all related to the medial prefrontal cortex. Pathway?? (Probably, I haven’t looked into it)

Not labeled here:

Medial Parietal-Pain processing and meditation

Intraparietal Sulcus-Saccadic eye movements, attention, reaching, grasping, tactile manipulation of objects, observing hand movements, passive tool use, object matching and object size and orientation discrimination. (aka REALLY relevant for slapping yourself)

So there you have it. The overall structures and their functions within the parietal lobe! 

Unprompted Ferengi headcanon of the day: Those intense earrings female Ferengi wear (Ok, Ishka wears, because besides Pel she’s the only one we’ve got) are actually common, and one of the few forms of adornment female Ferengi wear. They stunt the growth of their lobes, keeping them small and feminine and attractive. (By fucked up Ferengi standards.)

muse-et-al  asked:

Hello, Aunt Scripty! Your blog is amazing! It's both fun to read and so insightful. I have learnt so much from you and the ScriptX family. So, I wanted to write a character who lost her vision at a young age in an accident or attack. I was wondering if trauma to the brain could cause complete blindness and where the damage would be in the brain. In addition to that, how would my character adapt afterwards, specifically what other possible symptoms could she have after such trauma?

Hey there, @muse-et-al

So this ask is a little problematic, not in any social sense, but in a medical one. 

Typically blindness after head injury involves damage to the eyes themselves. If that’s not the case, one of two things needs to have happened: 

a) The nerves that link the eyes to the brain need to have been damaged or cut 

b) The part of the brain that processes visual information needs to have significant damage. 

Here are the visuals you need to understand how unlikely this is: 

For option A) to happen, the optic chiasm – the meet-me-in-the-middle part, right down the middle of the brain – wound have to get damaged. Keep in mind this is the underside of the brain we’re looking at, so it’s extremely hard to get to. 

For option B) ….

That chunk at the back, the green lobe? That’s the Occipital Lobe, where viisual information is processed. 

In order for her to go completely blind after the attack, she’d have to suffer significant damage to the occipital lobe of her brain without causing damage to the cerebellum underneath it. 

It’s possible that a really significant blow to the back of the head caused enough damage to blind her. (I typo’d this as bling her, and then imagined an antirobbery in which people are forced to take solid gold chains with dollar signs.) 

As always, though, a blow that will damage the visual cortex enough to cause total blindness is likely to produce a variety of other neurological issues, and I suggest you do some reading at brainline.org (and check my own tbi tag) for more info. 

A short list of other issues often associated with brain injuries might be: 

  • Headaches 
  • Dizziness 

  • Memory issues (trouble storing short-term memories, trouble remembering the event) 

  • Balance and gait issues 

  • Motor issues 

  • Personality changes 

There are lots of things to investigate and consider, including different types of blindness (for example, in Riddoch Syndrome, only objects in motion are visible; the character would be unable to see static objects.) 

One thing I absolutely recommend is reading stories and resources about blindness written by blind people. Make sure that your representation speaks to the blind experience. And get some betas in the blind community if you can. 

Best of luck! 

xoxo, Samantha Keel

(Aunt Scripty)


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So I got a request to do a close up of my review sheets and maybe a mini how-to so let’s see how this goes.

My review sheets are for my AP Psychology class, and each sheet corresponds with a chapter of the textbook we’ve done so far. 

As for the mini how-to, for each sheet I make a list of the important topics for each chapter. I’ll use my third sheet as an example:

  • Neurons - structure and function
  • Neurotransmitters - names and functions
  • The Nervous System - breakdown of structures
  • The Brain - Lobes and functions, parts and their functions
  • The Endocrine System - function and parts

After I have a rough idea of what needs to go on the sheet, I space out where the different categories go on the sheet and then I just write. If there isn’t enough room on the paper for all of the information, I attach a sticky note over top of the section to finish it off. 

Sometimes if I’m feeling adventurous I’ll try and draw a sketch of a structure or draw a picture for the section (albeit poorly). 

That’s basically what I do for each review sheet, I don’t know if this is helpful for anyone at all, I don’t really think about what I’m doing when it comes to making my review material. 

Anyways I hope this is helpful to someone out there , and I hope you all have a wonderful day!!

Katie <3

Words are only that, words. They mean nothing if you can’t support it with action. I won’t tell you that I love you, because words are not enough. Let me dissect this heart of mines to show you how every vein and every artery has your name written on it. You will feel how much it aches for you. I will cut open my skull so that you can see how each lobe in my brain is consumed with thoughts of you. There’s not a moment where you don’t you don’t cross my mind.
—  I love you with every aching part of my body

I’m too lazy to check if I’ve already posted about this, but I’m always amused by Holly’s gem placement.

Not to get scientific or anything, but that’s where the occipital lobe of the brain is located, which is the part of the brain that lets you see. Because of this, she only believes what she sees without thinking any deeper than that.

Literally, she is the least perceptive gem! She’s sees absolutely nothing suspicious about this image here, she doesn’t even notice that Amethyst isn’t where she was told to be.

She sees a Sapphire: Ooh that’s the type of gem I need to impress!

Sapphire’s Pearl: Oh a servant. She is made to serve, moving on.

A Ruby guard: They’re dumb.

An Amethyst: Literal Earth trash, whatever.

She only realized she was being fooled when Steven and Greg were right there in front of her, and even then she still blamed it on the Amethysts being incompetent! She doesn’t see a band of rebels, even as they’re ushering these human captives onto their ship!

anonymous asked:

Are there any existing cases where a person changes in behavior drastically after receiving a head injury? Like as big as a violent person becoming peaceful or as small as eating only when around people.

Typically head injuries make people more violent/agitated, not less. But yes, personality changes are a very common effect of a head injury.

The frontal lobe of the brain is the place that controls behavior, social concepts, etc. When that gets damaged, people tend to have less patience, and may not comprehend social rules or roles as well. They can get frustrated very easily, which can lead to lashing out. The injury doesn’t even have to be directly to the front of the head; if there’s bleeding inside the skull, it can put pressure on the frontal lobe and cause the changes.

There’s a pretty good overview from brainline.org, from caregiver.org, and Psychology Today (note: I have no idea if this last one is a valid source).

I will say this…. docile or calmer behavior is almost never seen as a “bad thing,” so there’s definitely not as much written about how to “cope” with someone being calm.

I hope these references are helpful and help you make good stories!

xoxo, Aunt Scripty


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