Cuando las mujeres fueron excluidas de la convención mundial anti-esclavitud de 1840 en Londres y forzadas a permanecer sentadas en silencio, William Lloyd Garrison, orador principal, se rehusó a dar su discurso y se sentó junto a las mujeres. Se dice que “dominó la convención sin mediar una sola palabra”.
The [white anarchist] ignorance of Black freedom movements is so profound that even anarchistic tendencies within them get ignored. Nat Turner led a slave uprising in 1831 that killed over fifty whites and struck terror throughout the South; it should clearly count as one of the most important insurrections in American history. Historians often describe William Lloyd Garrison, a leader of the abolitionist movement, as a “Christian Anarchist” (e.g. Perry 1973), yet he is almost never included in anarchist-produced histories. The Black-led Reconstruction government in South Carolina from 1868-1874, which Du Bois dubbed the “South Carolina Commune,” did far more toward building socialism than the Paris Commune in 1871 ever did. Ella Baker’s anti-authoritarian critique of Martin Luther King Jr. encouraged young civil rights workers to create their own autonomous and directly democratic organization, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), arguably the most important direct action civil rights group. Further, the racial consciousness produced by these struggles has often been broader, radical, and international than the consciousness produced by other U.S. struggles, even if it describes itself as “nationalist” (See Robin Kelley’s great book Freedom Dreams for more on this). Yet these persons and events curiously form no part of the anarchist scene’s historical tradition.
Lucy Parsons and the Black Panthers tend to be the main links between Black struggles and American anarchists’ historical sense. Parsons, a militant anarchist organizer in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and possibly a former slave, is a problematic connection to the Black tradition because although she fought lynching and racial discrimination, she was not part of the Black community and often denied her Black identity. (She was married to a white man, Albert Parsons, so this denial may in part have been to evade anti-miscegenation laws. See Lowndes 1995 and Roediger 1986.)
Many anarchists fetishize the Panthers because they seem to fit both the infoshops and insurrection models (i.e. men and women with guns serving breakfast to Black children), but this position tends to idealize the Panthers rather than critically evaluate and integrate their experience into the anarchist tradition.
Mr. Townson, the wonderful APUSH god who has a history of 100% pass rates, has given the gospel of APUSH to his people. Here are Townson’s top 30 things that will certainly be on the test (some of these are more than one thing, but they’re related topics), followed by his top picks for what the essays will be.
Spanish, French, English Exploration and Settlement
Half-Way Covenant & First Great Awakening
Proclamation of 1763
Articles of Confederation & Shay’s Rebellion
Compromises in the Constitution
Washington’s Farewell Address
Alexander Hamilton’s Financial Plan
Marbury vs. Madison
William Lloyd Garrison
Compromise of 1850
The Gilded Age
The Lost Generation
The New Deal & Court Packing
The Cold War
Conformity in the 1950s and Levittown, NJ
Civil Rights Leaders
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Camp David Accords
Townson’s Top Essay Picks
Early America (pre-American Revolution)
Exam tip: every year there is a question about African Americans or women.
There is 1 DBQ. Everyone does the same one of that.
There are 4 choices for the FRQs. You write 2. You must write an essay from the first category, which is pre-1900, and you must write an essay from the second category, which will be from the 1900s or later.
It is YOUR job to research and know these topics, their related facts, and their implications. I’m not going to do that for you. It won’t help you in the long run. Study well, study strong. I’m probably going to keep posting a bunch of review questions on here. Look them over, but in general, STAY OFF OF TUMBLR! You should be studying.
Im butching the lions colors and im sorry but they NEED to MATCH. The green lion is the head, white and blue are arms, red and black are legs
lloyds dad was on the kerberos mission and never came back. Lloyd enrolls in the garrison to try to find out more information and proceded to end up being part of a team with jay and kai. Kais the pilot, jay is the engineer, lloyd is communications
nya also goes to the garrison, and cole got Dropped Out.
A pod crashes to earth and it has a message from the pilot of the kerberos mission. How do they know this? Uh well the team kinda. Stole it
Kai jay nya and lloyd hang out in coles house where he lives with his dad, who is sad his son doesnt want to be a dancer but is more sad he quit his dreams of space exploration, and they read the message
The message is basically “theres a magic robot lion thats part of something called voltron at these coordinates go get it”
Its the red lion and it turns out KAI IS AN AWFUL PILOT OH MY GOD WERE GONNA DIE
No one disputes that white abolitionists were active in the Underground Railroad, but later scholars argued that [a white historian] had exaggerated both their numbers and their importance, while downplaying or ignoring the role played by African-Americans. Among religious sects, for example, the Quakers generally receive the most credit for resisting slavery, with secondary acknowledgment going to the wave of evangelical Christianity that spread across the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century, in the movement known as the Second Great Awakening. Yet scant mainstream attention goes to the African Methodist Episcopal Church, which was established in 1816, in direct response to American racism and the institution of slavery, and played at least as crucial a role in raising money, aiding fugitives, and helping former slaves who had found their way to freedom make a new life.
This lopsided awareness holds not only for institutions but for individuals. Many people know of William Lloyd Garrison, one of the country’s leading white anti-slavery activists, while almost no one knows about the black abolitionist William Still—one of the most effective operators and most important historians of the Underground Railroad, whose book about it, published a quarter of a century before Siebert’s, was based on detailed notes he kept while helping six hundred and forty-nine fugitives onward toward freedom. Likewise, more people know the name of Levi Coffin, a white Midwestern Quaker, than that of Louis Napoleon, a freeborn black abolitionist, even though both risked their lives to help thousands of fugitives to safety.
This allocation of credit is inversely proportional to the risk that white and black anti-slavery activists faced. It took courage almost everywhere in antebellum America to actively oppose slavery, and some white abolitionists paid a price. A few were killed; some died in prison; others, facing arrest or worse, fled to Canada. But these were the exceptions. Most whites faced only fines and the opprobrium of some in their community, while those who lived in anti-slavery strongholds, as many did, went about their business with near-impunity.
Black abolitionists, by contrast, always put life and liberty on the line. If caught, free blacks faced the possibility of being illegally sold into slavery, while fugitives turned agents faced potential reënslavement, torture, and murder. Harriet Tubman is rightly famous for how boldly she faced those risks: first when she fled slavery herself; then during the roughly twenty return trips she made to the South to help bring others to freedom; and, finally, during the war, when she accompanied Union forces into the Carolinas, where they disrupted supply lines and, under her direction, liberated some seven hundred and fifty slaves. By then, slaveholders in her home state of Maryland were clamoring for her capture, dead or alive, and, in the words of her first biographer, publicly debating “the different cruel devices by which she would be tortured and put to death.”
[“The Perilous Lure of the Underground Railroad”]
In thinking of America, I sometimes find myself admiring her bright blue sky—her grand old woods—her fertile fields—her beautiful rivers— her mighty lakes, and star-crowned mountains. But my rapture is soon checked, my joy is soon turned to mourning. When I remember that all is cursed with the infernal spirit of slaveholding, robbery and wrong,— when I remember that with the waters of her noblest rivers, the tears of my brethren are borne to the ocean, disregarded and forgotten, and that her most fertile fields drink daily of the warm blood of my outraged sisters, I am filled with unutterable loathing…
Frederick Douglass, letter to William Lloyd Garrison (1846)
racism is bad and doesn't affect white people negatively
@debunkingfeministbullshit your blog is racist and disgusting.
if you think assuming white people’s racism is the end of the world: no one genuinely thinks white people are automatically racist. no one is thick-headed enough to think that babies are born with prejudice. thinking that babies differ in thought because of their race is incredibly outdated and has never been a theory used AGAINST white people. racism is a sociological issue. therefore, it needs a sociological definition, not a literal dictionary one. it’s just plain ignorant to act like a dictionary is going to help your cause here. in a sociological way, racism can only exist because one race is in a position of power. the racism is directed towards the ones they are oppressing. white people don’t necessarily have it easy, but they will never have a hard life BECAUSE of their race. because white people are, in fact, white, they are more likely to get a job, own property, be financially stable, have appropriate representation, etc. and less likely to get murdered, be assaulted, be fired, etc. if you don’t believe me, try google. just honestly google it. finally, let me just say that i am a white person who actually understands her privilege. poc don’t seem to be looking for apologies- they just want justice going forward from the injustice in literally everything i can think of from books and movies to fashion to prisons to police brutality.
If you think the definition of racism will help you, here’s thoughtco’s idea of why a SOCIOLOGICAL TERM’S SOCIOLOGICAL DEFINITION: “Racism refers to a variety of practices, beliefs, social relations, and phenomena that work to reproduce a racial hierarchy and social structure that yield superiority, power, and privilege for some, and discrimination and oppression for others. Racism takes representational, ideological, discursive, interactional, institutional, structural, and systemic forms. But despite its form, at its core, racism exists when ideas and assumptions about racial categories are used to justify and reproduce a racial hierarchy and racially structured society that unjustly limits access to resources, rights, and privileges on the basis of race.”
The oppressed cannot oppress their oppressors. It’s not that difficult to understand.
You will never experience a disadvantage in your life BECAUSE you are white. That’s not saying white people don’t have struggles (obviously they can), but they will never have those struggles from their race.
You can’t claim that a black man just got into a college because of his race and then say it isn’t about race when a police man shoots him. You can’t twist scenarios to fit to your advantage. That’s complete hypocrisy.
If you think racism against black people doesn’t exist anymore: that’s really ridiculous. Dismantling racism has NEVER been linear. Jim Crow is proof of that. The US went from black governmental representatives to segregation. Also in the 70’s and 80’s, the government was way more harsh against crack cocaine users than powder cocaine users. Any guesses as to which race used which? The repercussions form that still stand today with the prisons systems that are INCREDIBLY imbalanced in terms of race. Just google the statistics.
If you think that “all lives matter:” well, no shit, but you don’t really think that. if you did, you would use it to HELP minorities rather than to silence them so they’d listen to your problems (ones that don’t stem from oppression). It’s the same way the founding fathers said “all men were created equal” while still owning slaves.
I know a POC/am dating a POC/have a POC friend so I can’t be prejudiced: first of all, can’t you just not be prejudiced on your own? Do you honestly have to use an excuse like that? Internalized racism definitely exists, by the way. Stop forcing POC to try and accept the systems that tear them down.
I deserve an opinion: what the fuck? Do you not understand that some opinions are not up for subjectivity? Racism kills. “Being nice” and “respecting your opinion” is essentially allowing that murder to continue. That’s not a stretch at all. Racism affects POC in every aspect of life that i can think of.
i do not have to be calm and i do not owe you or your “opinion” any respect. william lloyd garrison said “Tell a man whose house is on fire to give a moderate alarm; tell him to moderately rescue his wife from the hands of the ravisher; tell the mother to gradually extricate her babe from the fire into which it has fallen—but urge me not to use moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest—I will not equivocate—I will not excuse—I will not retreat a single inch—and I will be heard. The apathy of the people is enough to make every statue leap from its pedestal and hasten the resurrection of the dead.“
Any questions? Google is free, by the way. I am a white person who understands my privilege, doesn’t understand how it feels to be a POC, and thus adjusts my beliefs to help them dismantle the systems I benefit from.
Born Isabella Baumfree, Sojourner Truth was one of the most powerful African American women’s rights activists of her time. Incensed with a need for freedom, she escaped slavery before New York’s ban in 1827. A mother to four children, she escaped with her youngest and had to leave her other children behind. Upon learning that her son had been illegally sold south, she successfully campaigned for his return, the first time an African American woman had done so. William Lloyd Garrison published her memoirs in 1850 under the title, The Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave.
Read an excerpt from a speech given by Truth at the Women’s Rights Convention, 1851, in Akron, Ohio:
“I want to say a few words about this matter. I am a woman’s rights. I have as much muscle as any man, and can do as much work as any man. I have plowed and reaped and husked and chopped and mowed, and can any man do more than that? I have heard much about the sexes being equal. I can carry as much as any man, and can eat as much too, if I can get it. I am as strong as any man that is now. As for intellect, all I can say is, if a woman have a pint, and a man a quart – why can’t she have her little pint full? You need not be afraid to give us our rights for fear we will take too much, – for we can’t take more than our pint’ll hold. The poor men seems to be all in confusion, and don’t know what to do. Why children, if you have woman’s rights, give it to her and you will feel better. “
William Still was born free in 1821 and was known as the “Father of the Underground Railroad.” Still helped over 800 people escape slavery and continue on the road to freedom. He also served as chairman of the Vigilance Committee for the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. A meticulous recordkeeper, Still once discovered that he aided in the escape of his older brother who was left behind when his parents escaped their own bondage. Still worked with a team across New Jersey, New York, New England and Canada and even crossed paths with Harriet Tubman.
In 1872, Still published an account of his work on the Underground Railroad in The Underground Railroad Records. A leader in the community, Still also helped to establish an African American orphanage and open the first YMCA for blacks in Philadelphia.
Photo: Pauli Murray. Carolina Digital Library and Archives. “Murray, Pauli, 1910-1985.” 5 July 2007. Online image. UNC University Library. Accessed 8 April 2011.
Pauli Murray was a civil rights activist, lawyer and author who was ahead of her time. Known for her short haircut and tomboy style, Murray often passed as a teenage boy and openly flaunted her numerous relationships with women.
A staunch advocate for women’s rights, Murray coined the term “Jane Crow” in response to sex discrimination and criticized the lack of women leadership in the Civil Rights Movement. In 1966, she cofounded the National Organization for Women in a hope to pursue women’s rights.
Murray was also a lawyer active in efforts to end segregation — using her law school training to advocate for equal rights for African Americans. Her book, States’ Laws on Race and Color, was considered a bible for Civil Rights lawyers that examined and critiqued segregation laws. The book was referenced in arguments for Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the landmark SCOTUS case that ended school segregation.
In 1977 Murray became the first African American woman to become an Episcopal Priest. Her first autobiography was published posthumously in 1987 and later released as, Pauli Murray: the Autobiography of a Black Activist, Feminist, Lawyer, Priest and Poet.
Image: Bayard Rustin (center) speaking with (left to right) Carolyn Carter, Cecil Carter, Kurt Levister, and Kathy Ross, before demonstration / World Telegram & Sun photo by Ed Ford. Library of Congress.
“When an individual is protesting society’s refusal to acknowledge his dignity as a human being, his very act of protest confers dignity on him.” - Bayard Rustin
Bayard Rustin was active in the struggle for human rights and economic justice in the United States and around the world for over fifty years. As an activist and political organizer, Rustin played an important role in propelling the civil rights movement forward and fought tirelessly for marginalized communities. He is perhaps best known for his work organizing the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
As an openly gay African American, Rustin stood at the intersection of several fights for equal rights. During the 1980s, Rustin spoke out publicly for gay rights and worked to bring the AIDS crisis to the attention of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He also continued working for economic justice.
Rustin’s long-time partner, Walter Naegle, accepted Rustin’s posthumously-awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama in 2013.
Born in Birmingham, Alabama, Angela Yvonne Davis, grew up witnessing racial and social injustices firsthand in her neighborhood that was known as “Dynamite Hill” – for the frequency of Ku Klux Klan bombings. During college Davis became politically active and joined both the socialist party and Black Panther Party for Self-Defense.
In 1970 Davis was accused of being involved in a court room escape attempt by the Soledad Brothers. She went into hiding and was placed on the FBI’s 10 Most Wanted list until her capture in New York. As her trial approached, Davis' supporters started a successful #freeangela campaign and artists like The Rolling Stones, John Lennon and Yoko Ono and German Franz Josef Degenhardt dedicated songs to Davis. She was acquitted of all charges in 1972 and went on to become a successful advocate for social change.
Today, Davis remains an active and respected voice in the fight for civil and women’s rights, poverty issues and health care and prison reform.
Written by Lanae S., Social Media Specialist, Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
Tomorrow, you will be taking the APUSH Advanced Placement Exam. Determining on what college you want to go to, at least a three is commonplace. I don’t know about you guys, but my biggest problem is going the length of an entire essay (for example if they want me to talk about Colonial Times through the Revolution, but they just write “1763-1781” I wouldn’t know what to write about). Furthermore, I’m going to list eras, what happening during them in chronological order and a very brief description of what they did. Keep in mind that many eras (such as the 1960’s) are important both in foreign policy and domestic affairs. I will divide them accordingly. The DBQ will not ask for specific years, but it’s better to have a general understanding of the era they are asking you about so you can throw in some “specific evidence” to get that 7-9 essay. This chart is also particularly helpful with the FRQ. Anyway, let’s begin.
I Sell the Shadow to Support the Substance. Sojourner Truth (1864). Albumen print carte-de-viste from the ICP’s Cowin Collection of African-American Vernacular Photography
Sojourner Truth (1797-1883), born Isabella Baumfree to a family of slaves in Ulster County, New York, escaped with her daughter in 1826, a year before New York state’s emancipation. After living in a commune, she converted to Christianity, changed her name in 1843, and became an itinerant preacher. The publication of the Narrative of Sojourner Truth, recorded in 1850 by her friend Olive Gilbert, and “Sojourner Truth: The Libyan Sibyl,” written by Harriet Beecher Stowe for the Atlantic Monthly in 1863, raised Truth’s national profile. She toured with abolitionists Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison and earned money from these speaking engagements as well as from the sale of images. As demonstrated by the inclusion of text on her cartes-de-visite, Truth actively controlled the dissemination of her image as a proper, educated, middle-class woman to support herself and her activist work. An ardent feminist, Truth often had herself represented proudly engaged in “women’s work,” such as knitting.
In A Gentleman of Color, Julie Winch provides a vividly written, full-length biography of James Forten, one of the most remarkable men in 19th-century America.
Forten was born in 1766 into a free black family. As a teenager he served in the Revolution and was captured by the British. Rejecting an attractive offer to change sides, he insisted he was a loyal American. By 1810 he was the leading sailmaker in Philadelphia, where he became well known as an innovative craftsman, a successful manager of black and white employees, and a shrewd businessman.
He emerged as a leader in Philadelphia’s black community and was active in a wide range of reform activities. He was especially prominent in national and international antislavery movements, served as vice-president of the American Anti-Slavery Society, and became close friends with William Lloyd Garrison, to whom he lent money to start up the Liberator.
Forten was also the founder of a remarkable dynasty. His children and his son-in-law were all active abolitionists and a granddaughter, Charlotte Forten, published a famous diary of her experiences teaching ex-slaves in South Carolina’s Sea Islands during the Civil War.
When James Forten died in 1842, five thousand mourners, black and white, turned out to honor a man who had earned the respect of society across the racial divide. This is the first serious biography of Forten, who stands beside Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and Martin Luther King, Jr. in the pantheon of African-Americans who fundamentally shaped American history.
Sengbe Pieh (c.1814 – c.1879), later known as Joseph Cinqué, was a West African man of the Mende people and was the most prominent defendant in the case United States v. The Amistad, in which it was found that he and 51 others had been victims of the illegal Atlantic slave trade.
Nathaniel Jocelyn painted portraits of Joseph Cinqué and of the abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. He went on to found the National Bank Note Engraving Company. After Trumbull, he is represented by more portraits in the Yale collection than any other artist. In 1827 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, and became a full Academician in 1946.
I am aware that many object to the severity of my language; but is there not cause for severity? I will be as harsh as truth, and as uncompromising as justice. On this subject, I do not wish to think, or to speak, or write, with moderation. … I am in earnest — I will not equivocate — I will not excuse — I will not retreat a single inch — AND I WILL BE HEARD.
Never can it be said that the victims are as much to be blamed as the victimizer; that the slaves are to be as much blamed as the slaveholders and slave-drivers; that the women who have no rights, are to be as much blamed as the men who have played the part of robbers and tyrants.
William Lloyd Garrison, shutting down your victim blaming since 1853
Recognized as the first African and Native-American sculpture, Edmonia Lewis created history with her marble sculptures. Born in New York in 1844, she befriended abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison who would teach her sculpture. Lewis began by creating busts of Garrison and other abolitionist leaders. She experienced her first major success with a bust of Col. Robert Shaw in 1864. From that sculpture she was able to travel to Rome, Italy where she honed her skills in marble. Her work often centered around themes of her personal heritage, religion, or U.S history. Her pieces can be seen in the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
People don't understand slavery and racism are completely different. Racism came about from slavery not the other way around. Africans sold their own people to the whites and white people started thinking these other people must be aware of their own inferiority bullshit. Many white people hated slavery (popular ones William Lloyd Garrison, Abraham Lincoln, even Robert E Lee) but none of them saw blacks and whites and equals.
“Many whites hated slavery” yet over half the people you listed owned slaves. 🐸☕️
Also, even though your argument was hella weak from the get go… You victim blamed. Which hurt and discredited your argument.
How has this Women’s Rights movement been treated in this country, on the right hand and on the left? This nation ridicules and derides this movement, and spits upon it, as fit only to be cast out and trampled underfoot. This is not ignorance. They know all about the truth. It is because the tyrants and usurpers are alarmed. They have been and are called to judgement, and they dread the examination and exposure of their position and character.