liver cell

PSA: Do not fast an overweight reptile to help them lose weight

1) It probably won’t work very well, because drastically cutting off food will likely cause them to just slow their metabolism to compensate.

2) Fasting an overweight animal can actually make them more likely to develop fatty liver disease. When it goes without food for a long time the body starts sending fat to the liver to be converted into energy. The liver can’t handle all the influx of fat and so stores it in liver cells, eventually leading to fatty liver disease.

What should you do instead? Feed them as often as you usually would (assuming you were feeding them on a species-appropriate schedule) to keep their metabolism up, but make the meals smaller.

5 colors of phytonutrients
8/10 Americans don’t eat enough color

74% DON’T EAT ENOUGH RED
Phytonutrients: lycopene, ellagic acid, quercetin, heperidin, anthocyanidins
Red benefits: Supports prostate, urinary tract and DNA health. Protects against cancer & heart disease

76% DON’T EAT ENOUGH PURPLE / BLUE
Phytonutrients: resveratrol, anthocyanidins, phenolics, flavonoids
Purple benefits: Good for heart, brain, bone, arteries & cognitive health. Fights cancer & supports healthy aging.

69% DON’T EAT ENOUGH GREEN
Phytonutrients: lutein/zeaxanthin, isoflavones, EGCG, indoles, isothiocyanates, sulphoraphane
Green benefits: Suppots eye health, arterial function, lung health, liver function, & cell health. Helps wound healing & gum health

83% DON’T EAT ENOUGH WHITE
Phytonutrients: EGCG, allicin, quercetin, indoles, glucosinolates
White benefits: Supports healthy bones, circulatory sistem, & arterial function. Fights heart disease & cancer

89% DON’T EAT ENOUGH YELLOW / ORANGE
Phytonutrients: alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta cryptoxanthin, lutein / zeaxanthin, hesperidin
Yellow benefits: Good for eye health, healthy immune function, & healhtygrowth & development

GOAL:
EAT TWO FOODS FROM EACH COLOR GROUP DAILY

Quick Guide: Chemicals of Inflammation

Substance

  • Function in Inflammation
    • Source

Histamine

  • Vasodilation; increased permeability of capillaries; conversion of an inactive plasma protein (kininogen) into active peptides called kinins; released early in inflammation
    • Mast cells, basophils, platelets

Kinins (e.g., bradykinin)

  • Vasodilation and increased permeability of capillaries; increase production of CAMs; stimulate sensory pain receptors
    • Plasma protein produced by the liver and other cells as kininogen; activated by tissue injury

Leukotrienes (slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis [SRS-A])

  • Effects similar to histamine; released later in the inflammatory response than histamine and longer lasting
    • Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid molecules of mast cell and basophil plasma membranes

Prostaglandins

  • Vasodilation, fever, stimulate sensory pain receptors (categories include E, D, A, F, and B)
    • Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid molecules of mast cell and basophil plasma membranes

Chemotactic factor

  • Attracts immune cells; release of specific chemotactic factors attract a specific type of cell (e.g., neutrophil chemotactic factor attracts neutrophils early in the inflammatory response; with a parasitic infection, eosinophil chemotactic factor attracts eosinophils)
    • Mast cells and basophils

Serotonin

  • Effects similar to histamine
    • Platelets

Nitric oxide

  • Vasodilation; may inhibit mast cells and platelets
    • Endothelium of blood vessels

Alpha-1 antitrypsin

  • Inhibits damage to connective tissue by enzymes released from destroyed phagocytes
    • Plasma protein formed by the liver

C-reactive protein

  • Activates complement by binding to polysaccharides on bacteria surface
    • Liver

IL-1 and TNF-α

  • Increase cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs) to cause margination; cause endothelial cell contraction to facilitate diapedesis
    • Dendritic cells, macrophages
Glycogen Metabolism
  • Glycogen is a readily accessible form of glucose. It breaks down far more rapidly than eg fat
  • It’s a long chain of glucose molecules held by a-1,4-glycosidic bonds
  • Found in high concentrations in the cytoplasm of skeletal muscle cells and hepatocytes (liver cells)
  • Glycogenesis: formation of glycogen Glycogenolysis: breakdown

In the liver

  • glycogenesis occurs when glucose is in excess
  • glycogenolysis occurs when glucose is required

Hormonally

  • glycogenesis is stimulated by insulin (produced when blood glucose concentration is high)
  • glycogenlysis is stimulated by glucagen (produced when BG is low) and adrenaline (fight or flight response)

Glycogenesis

Step one:

Glucose is phosphorylated by hexokinase (in muscle) or glucokinase (in liver)

  • Hexokinase has a much higher affinity for glucose than glucokinase
  • Allowing tissues to make greater use of glucose before the liver
  • Glucokinase (unlike hexokinase) is not inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate (the product)
  • This lack of feedback inhbition allows the liver to continue synthesising glycogen even when glycogen concentration is high

Step two:

Isomerisation of glucose-6-phosphate to glucose-1-phosphate, catalysed by phosphoglucomutase

  • reactions where a phosphate is moved are catalyzed by mutase enzymes

Step three:

Addition of glucose-1-phosphate to UDP (uridine diphosphate), a carrier

  • reaction is between glucose-1-phosphate and UTP (uridine triphosphate)
  • hydrolysis of the last phosphate in UTP drives the reaction
  • catalysed by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 

Step four:

the activated glucose-UDP is added to the non-reducing carbon-4 end of a glycogen molecule, with the release of UDP

  • catalysed by glycogen synthase
  • which is the rate limiting (slowest) step
  • cells control production of glycogen by controlling this enzyme’s activity

Glycogenolysis

Step one:

Removal of a glucose residue from glycogen chain

  • catalysed by glycogen phosphorylase
  • phsphorylysis  reaction

Step two:

Isomerisation of glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate (backwards to above!!)

  • catalysed by the same enzyme - phosphoglucomutase
  • direction of reaction depends on the relative concentrations of -1 and -6

Step three:

Dephosphorylation of glucose-6-phosphate to form glucose

  • catalysed by glucose-6-phosphotase
  • only occurs in the liver
  • in muscle cells it’s not needed as glucose-6-phosphate is a glycolytic intermediate and can be used as is
  • as muscle glycogen is a store only for itself, it doesn’t need to export glucose (unlike the liver)
3

(this post is for @isaoubel​ as part of the [now closed] drive to help pwr bttm! they requested, “sufjan and aubrey meet solange.”

drake: solange, i can’t tell you how much i appreciate you taking the time to sit down and have dinner with us

solange: well, it’s always a pleasure to have… a seat at the table

sufjan: Oh Goodness Me She Said It Aubrey She Said The Name Of Her Record Did You Hear That Aubrey She Said It She Said A Seat At The Table Which Is The Name Of Her New Full Length Album A Seat At The Table She Said It She Said It She Said It

drake: yes sufjan she certainly did

solange: sufjan, if i may, i’d like to compliment you on your dinner party look. your jacket perfectly recalls the kineticism and vitality of keith haring and those wings… why, you appear positively apotheosized.

sufjan: I Am Going To Cry

drake: haha, don’t mind him… it just, it means a lot, coming from you. you’re sort of his fashion icon.

solange: that is so kind. thank you.

sufjan: I Love Your Dress It Makes You Look Like A Type Of Organelle In Eukaryotic Mammalian Liver And Gonad Cells That Forms An Interconnected Net Work Of Flattened Membrane Enclosed Sacs Or Tube Like Structures Known As Cisternae Which Functions In Lipid Manufacture And Metabolism As Well As The Production Of Steroid Hormones And Detoxification

solange: how perceptive of you; “smooth endoplasmic reticulum” is precisely the concept i aimed for.

sufjan: I Love You I Love Your Concepts And I Love The Synthesis Of Lipids

drake: i gotta be honest, i don’t understand what eighth-grade biology has to do with fashion

sufjan: With All Due Respect Aubrey You Frequently Perform In The Same Tee Shirts That You Wear As Pajamas… Your Performative Concepts Are Lacking

drake: my performative concepts? you’ve made some pretty ridiculous fashion statements yourself, sufjan! what about that time you headlined eaux claires in a trucker hat and pink walmart sunglasses and a gold chain?

solange: a trucker hat? pink walmart sunglasses? a gold chain? oh my!

drake: haha yeah! and he had this ridiculous tank top with, like, a tiger on it… and these big, like… cut-outs… along the sides… so everyone could see he’d been working out… and it was in the middle of july so he was all sweaty and-

sufjan: Aubrey Drake Stevens-Graham!

drake:

sufjan: 

drake: 

sufjan:

solange: ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)

harukaze87  asked:

Regarding why Furuta is one-eyed and Rize a ghoul, I'm thinking they bred ghoul/one-eye along ghoul/human. It could explain why Rize was special and what would theoretically result if Kaneki and Touka had kids for example

I assume this ask came as a reply to this post of mine [x].
I will reply to the second part of your ask in a separate post, as I will have to talk about Epigenetics. In this answer, I will talk about Genetics.
Since I am a geneticist and I am currently working in the field, I decided to use my expertise to explain and reflect on this suggestion of yours. Hence, I made sketched and explanations that I will include under the cut. I am not sure if Ishida-sensei bothered to look at some literature on Biology or Genetics when he started the concept of ghouls/half-ghouls/RC cells/ghoul types… but I assume he consulted basic references as his work seems to fit major guidelines in this field.

It’s useless to go into complicated stuff, so I will only stick to basic genetics. As such, your assumptions of Touka and Kaneki’s children is false.
Before I explain why, I will offer a short Genetics 101:

Because the story involves humans, then their genome (set of chromosomes bearing genes) is diploid (double copy of each gene). This is illustrated by this top figure. For every chromosome, there is a duplicate that looks like it. As such you have homologous chromosomes.

Each gene, say eye color, has 2 copies in the genome, one occuring on each homologous chromosome. However, these 2 copies need not to be the same. They can be different. Both belong to the same gene, and contribute to this gene… they are called alleles. Example: a Black Allele will give black eye color, while a Blue Allele gives a blue eye color. The eye color you see is called a phenotype (the outcome of the 2 alleles in a gene). Genotype is the set of alleles you have at a specific gene.

Here a bunch of useful terms:

  • Homozygous genotype: the gene has the exact same alleles: blue and blue.
  • Heterozygous genotype: the gene has 2 different alleles: blue and black.
  • Recessive Allele: the allele is weak and will not show the phenotype unless the gene is homozygous for this allele: blue and blue => blue eye color.
  • Dominant Allele: the allele is strong and can show the phenotype whether the gene is homozygous or heterozygous for this allele: black and black, or black and blue => Black eye color.
  • Codominant Alleles: both allele show a distinct phenotype when they are together in a heterozygous state: AB blood type (Allele A and allele B)

In the world of Tokyo Ghoul, and based on Ukina and Kuzen’s story, and the emergence of Eto as a one-eyed ghoul, the gene responsible for ghoulness has CODOMINANT ALLELES.

Keep reading

the importance of talking to your patients.

Today, I was asked to review my very first not-emergency-but-clearly-not-well patient. I went in, guns blazing. Rattled off my questions. Wrote path and radiology slips. Asked the nurses to help. Promised to review, told the ward to page me if anything went awry. 

I felt like a mess, but at least I felt like I was dealing with the matter at hand. 

In the hustle and bustle of my own madness, I’d rendered the patient as nothing more as cardiac failure superimposed on a rising creatinine. I saw the numbers, but I didn’t see the woman. 

I could make excuses. I was tired, anxious, frustrated. I couldn’t hear her soft buzz over my racing thoughts. 

I went back in a second time and sat down next to her. I held her hand and explained what each test was for, what I wanted to find, what I worried about, what I expected to happen. I tried to be as gentle as I could.

She opened up to me. In that same soft voice, she started revealing how, in her many years, only one doctor had ever explained her treatment to her. How most doctors simply expected her to fill the script and take the pills. Get that scan and this one too. How she never felt listened to, and she definitely never felt heard. 

I tried to validate and explain that sometimes, doctors think they know best. I told her my thoughts: that she knows her body better than I do. That maybe I know biology, but I don’t know how it feels to breathe while your lungs are drowning. I understand pharmacology, but I can’t see how the drugs interact with her liver and cells and kidneys. 

My words didn’t fix her pathology. But for a moment or two, she seemed settled. 

It was only later that my registrar told me that she was approaching death. 

As my doubts disappear and I try not to blame my decisions for her deterioration, I wonder how many other patients feel the same way. How many people get sicker and sicker and still feel as if they haven’t been heard. 

I know you have jobs to do and discharge summaries to write and drug charts to copy. But talking to your patients and explaining procedures and tests only takes five minutes. 

Paperwork can wait. Please, let your patients know that they’re not numbers and breath sounds – they’re people.

If I sell Organic Healthy Tea on tumblr

Do you think you’ll be interested to buy it?

It’s been 2 years I’m selling tea in my place and it works very well :P

I want to sell : 

1- Sun tea (japanese green with 50% more antioxydant + you absorb more the solar energy)
2- Moon tea (chinese white tea dried in the moonlight + good to remove headache + anti-inflammatory)
3- Buddha tea (chinese yellow tea helps concentration + meditation)
4- Red tea (remake liver cells, antioxidant, no cafeine)
5- Chai red tea (helps digestion + remake liver cells, antioxidant, no cafeine)
6- Pu’erh (remove toxins in digestive system)
7- Lavender (helps headache, sleep)
8- Jasmin gree tea (helps to reduce anxiety)
9- Rose buds (helps acne)
10- Chamomille (helps periods + boost the immune system + anti-bacterial + anti-inflammatory)
11- Mint (analgesic + helps digestion + nausea + sleep)
12- Verbena (helps to reduce anxiety, depression and have digestive benefits)

I CAN MAKE BLENDS ALSO!


+ SPECIAL CHAKRA TEA :

13- The spicy red tea:
Ginger (root chakra)
Calendula (sacral chakra)
Cinnamon (plexus chakra)

14- The flowery green tea:
Rose (heart chakra)
Eucalyptus (throat chakra)
Jasmin (third eye chakra)
Lavender (crown chakra) + (if I can find lotus i’l put it in the mix)

THEY ARE ALL ORGANIC!

5

So my histology experiment photos.

1- Blood smear. The light colored circles that doesnt have nuclei are erythrocytes, the darker ones are neutrofiles. Purple colored nuclei are however, i have no idea. We will learn about them next year appearently.

2- The stingray like cells are purkinje cells. They all have nucleus, the ones that look like they dont are like that because it’s a slice from cerebellum and nucleus stayed in the other half of the cell. The smaller cells are grannular neuron cells. The slide is from cerebellum.

3- Liver cells(Hepatocytes). Some have multiple nuclei, some have single nucleus.

4- Adipocytes. They are stained with OsO4 (osmium tetraoxcide), they are really big cells and the fat inside of the cells push the cell to a side so they are excentric nucleuses.

2

Vik Muniz is one of the most inventive and talented artists I’ve yet to discover - while he may catch flak for doing mostly copies, he does them with exquisite and meticulous expertise…using dirt, chocolate, liver cells, straight pigments, torn/cut/hole-punched paper, blood, wire, toys and trinkets, scrap metal, and dozens of other items and materials. He also takes all of his own photographs.

i’m bigger than my body (i’m colder than this home)

[’You would give anything to kiss her again, because you feel eighteen and you feel like you are more than the absent marrow in her bones.’ // post 227 drabble sry.]

//

i’m bigger than my body (i’m colder than this home)

.

they sent me away to find them a fortune a chest filled with diamonds and gold / their house was awake with shadows and monsters / the hallways they echoed and glowed / i sat alone in bed till the morning / crying, they’re coming for me / goddamn right you should be scared of me / who is in control?

—halsey, ‘control’

//

There are so many ways to hurt a vampire, and most of them, you’ve discovered over your span of existence, are not anything close to gentle. Your bones, time and again, have never healed right—your wrists riddled with small lumps. When it rains your hips ache, and if you spend too long sleeping on the floor, your spine pops and clicks like a gun.

You have scars, too, many of them, although Laura can’t see them; no humans can, and you’re pale, even by vampire standards, so they’re not as noticeable.

Some days, you stare at your elbows, the hollows on the inside, where you have reams of shiny marks of mouths—when you were turned, they bit you here, like some kind of torturous IV, some kind of delicious break. Your stomach was split open and you were dead—murdered at eighteen, just as you had learned how sweet another girl’s mouth could be and before you would ever understand how dangerous that would become, how much the world would riot and revolt and want to dangerously stamp out everything that you are, all of the gentleness.

You were eighteen and small—inches shorter than your brother, and slight—and you used to laugh. You remember it, the sound and the feeling that, in a second, turned into the gurgle of blood in your throat, and how it has never, since then, since you were split in half and pumped with a blindingly painful ichor, stopped, how you have been hungry ever since.

Keep reading

This entry was written by Guest Professor Robert, a Molecular Biology student who is really into viruses and pokemon.


Requested by orderedreflections

There are several animals on earth who exhibit a similar trait of marking their territories. Dogs, for example, produce pheromones that they excrete through their urine to mark their territories. The scents produced by the animal in question is unique to that individual and warns others of the species that would compete with it to stay away. Other animals use visual markers of territory, often using feces to mark their borders, which is more similar to what smeargle does.

But the pokedex says that Smeargle does this with a paint like substance, rather than a pheromone or feces. This can also be explained rather easily. Cells are able to excrete proteins to alter their environment, for example, liver cells excrete insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. Smeargle does something similar except that the process forms a pigment, or that the excreted protein itself is a pigment, which is then excreted.

The cells in Smeargle’s tail excrete an enzyme that produces a pigment, which they then use to make unique designs to mark their territory.

Another thing that should be noted about Smeargle is its signature move, Sketch.

It enables the user to permanently learn the move last used by the target. Once used, Sketch disappears.

Sketch allows Smeargle to learn any move except for Struggle and Chatter. It is also the only way for Smeargle to learn any moves at all. So how does this move work?

Mimicry is somewhat common, and highly specialized,  in the animal kingdom, but not necessarily with skills. A parent is able to teach its child some skills, but they will not be learned instantaneously, nor will they be anywhere near perfected without the learner having a lot of practice. However, Smeargle is able to use these moves immediately with the same ability as the original user. Given that Smeargle uses Sketch while in battles, it is possible that the adrenaline rush Smeargle experiences also gives it increased brain productivity, allowing it to watch the move be performed and then mimic it perfectly.

While Smeargle is in battle, it’s brain gains a boost from a chemical similar to adrenaline that allows it to mimic its opponent quickly and with high accuracy.

anonymous asked:

Anatomy

Anatomy

- Head, neck and face (ENT and otolaryngology also included here)
Innervation of the tongue, palate, pharynx & larynx with mnemonic
Extrinsic muscles of the tongue
Lymphatic drainage of the tongue
Memorizing how to draw the nasal septum
How to draw the tympanic membrane
Parotid tumors mnemonic
- Upper extremity
Hand of Benediction and clawing mnemonic
Supination and Pronation of  Forearm
Why do we feel temperature with the back of our hand and why not the front?
- Lower extremity
Peroneal nerve branches mnemonic
Gluteus maximus is innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve
Sciatic nerve distribution and Sciatica
An artery is always palapated against a bone
- Abdomen
Left testicular vein drains into (Mnemonic)
Peritoneal ligaments of liver
-Histology
Cell mnemonics
Which cell secretes what? Gastrointestinal mnemonics
- Neuroanatomy
Coronal section of the brain highlighting lentiform nucleus, caudate nucleus & internal capsule
Ventral and dorsal view of the brainstem highlighting cranial nerves (Diagrams only)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
♥ Location of synthesis of neurotransmitters mnemonic
Embryological origin of brain mnemonics
Parasympathetic ganglia mnemonic
Fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus
Vestibular nerve, pathway and mnemonic for the receptors
Cochlear nerve, pathway and mnemonic
Spinal cord organization mnemonic
Cerebellum mnemonics
♥ Lateral medullary syndrome and lateral pontine syndrome mnemonic
♥ How to remember the difference between Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area
- Ophthalmology
Layers of the cornea mnemonic
Refractive indices of the eye mnemonic
Prolate and Oblate ellipse mnemonic
Tropia vs Phoria
Myopia and Hypermetropia mnemonic
Progression of visual field defects in Glaucoma mnemonic
Difference between Iris repositor and IOL dialer
- Embryology
Steps of mitosis mnemonic
♥ Aortic arch derivatives mnemonic images
Nervous system origins mnemonic

The truth about fetal tissue research

Every month, Lishan Su receives a small test tube on ice from a company in California. In it is a piece of liver from a human fetus aborted at between 14 and 19 weeks of pregnancy.

Su and his staff at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill carefully grind the liver, centrifuge it and then extract and purify liver- and blood-forming stem cells. They inject the cells into the livers of newborn mice, and allow those mice to mature. The resulting animals are the only ‘humanized’ mice with both functioning human liver and immune cells and, for Su, they are invaluable in his work on hepatitis B and C, allowing him to probe how the viruses evade the human immune system and cause chronic liver diseases.

“Using fetal tissue is not an easy choice, but so far there is no better choice,” says Su, who has tried, and failed, to make a humanized mouse with other techniques. “Many, many biomedical researchers depend on fetal tissue research to really save human lives,” he says. “And I think many of them feel the same way.”

Massimo Berge/Lighthouse/SPL

I am selling tea in few weeks!

Tell me which teas are your favorite!! :) I’m only gonna take 5 of them!

1- Sun Tea : Japanese Green Tea
(japanese green with 50% more antioxidant + you absorb more the solar energy + lose weight + anti-cancer) 

2- Moon Tea : Chinese White Jasmine Tea Premium
(chinese white tea dried in the moonlight + good to remove headache + anti-inflammatory + helps to reduce anxiety )

3- Red Spice : Rooibos Chaï with cardamom, ginger, cinnamon, clove, red peper, nutmeg & cumin
(remake liver cells, antioxidant, cafeine free, helps digestion anti-inflammatory + pain killer + helps lung & cold + fight mental and physical fatigue)

4- Wisdom Tea : Pu'erh
(remove toxins in digestive system, probiotic + make you lose weight) 

5- Study Tea : Ginko Biloba
(improve memory + strengthen brain functions, helps concentration and reasoning + anticoagulant action + cafeine free)

6- Floral red tea : Rose & Lavender Rooibos
(remake liver cells, antioxidant, cafeine free,  helps acne,  helps headache, good for sleep)

7- Tropical tea : Papaya, Mango & Straberry Japanese Green Tea
(digestive proprieties + antioxidant + lose weight + anti-cancer)

8- Green Earl Grey : Chinese Green Tea with Bergamot

9- Antioxydant Tea : Blueberry Chinese Green Tea (or Black Tea)
(berries and tea are full of antioxidant)

10- Citrus tea : Lemon Chinese Green Tea
(lemon : decrease the acidity in the body, antioxidant, protects the cardiovascular system, digestive proprieties, clean the liver, decrease stress & helps the nervous system, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory)

Macrophages in a mouse liver

Found in practically all tissues, macrophages (in blue) are the hungry cells of the immune system. They gobble up dying cells and harmful pathogens like bacteria to ensure tissues are happy and healthy. When a tissue is damaged, young macrophages are recruited by the bucket-load to the site of injury where they mature to speed up wound repair and eat trespassing bacteria. Some bacteria, like the one responsible for tuberculosis, can survive even after being eaten, eventually killing the macrophage and accelerating its spread within the tissue.

Image by Hendrik Herrmann.