Deep heat melts Greenland’s icy base

We have heard stories in recent years of the retreat of Arctic ice and the increasing amounts of summer melt, seemingly linked to global climate change. The idea that ice will melt as the atmosphere or oceans warm is rather intuitive. But news is reported today highlighting the influence of Earth’s interior heat flow on the glacial melt.

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noicecream  asked:

The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (crust and upper mantle), is broken up into tectonic plates.The Earth's lithosphere is composed of seven or eight major plates (depending on how they're defined) and many minor plates.

Cool. We can fit seven or eight major plates into our dishwasher.

A new map of Mars’ gravity made with three NASA spacecraft showing the Tharsis volcanoes and surrounding flexure. The white areas in the center are higher-gravity regions produced by the massive Tharsis volcanoes, and the surrounding blue areas are lower-gravity regions that may be cracks in the crust (lithosphere).

It’s a Geological Life: Spain Edition

Day 4: to Etang de Lers and FREAKING MANTLE ROCKS!!

July 21, 2016

Oh, the mantle was beautiful!

The Mantle in Etang de Lers

In the central Pyrenees, France, is the Lherz Massif, which displays one of the best exposures of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. These Pyrenean orogenic peridotites are comprised of 40 distinct ultramafic bodies of  intermingling harzburgites and spinel lherzolites. The massifs are associated with crustal granulites and are embedded within carbonate rocks of Jurassic age. The carbonate rocks are affected by the low-pressure/high-temperature metamorphism. The exhumed mantle rocks are located within the North Pyrenean Matamorphic Zone. 

During the Lower Cretaceous, the Iberian plate (Spain) was experiencing regional rifting, which was localized along the North Pyrenean Fault Zone. The fault zone created extensional basins by transcurrent movement (strike-slip) activity. 

(Not my photos and I do not know where my professor got it. If anyone know, please tell me. I would like to give credit.)

In these basins, there was crustal thinning and resulted in the Low P-High T metamorphism. Ganolithic and ultramafic mantle rocks were emplaced in the upper crust. After the strike-slip activity, convergence between the Afro-Iberian and European plates formed an inversion of Late Jurassic and Earth Cretaceous extensional basins. The collision formed a doubly verging collisional mountain belt and pushed the mantle rocks to the surface. 

(From: “Active Tectonics of the Pyrenees: A review”)

The lovely J.D. is hammering away at the carbonate host rock.

The mighty Clark is delicately holding a beautiful sample of lherzolite

the story goes like this:

he spent the day with his friends so she had to wait for him to come back. had to take her mind off of him. so she took care of her niece for ten hours straight, she was never fond of selfies but she tried every snapchat filter that day. because she had to not think about him. she had to forget for a while, that he was not there. she assumed that vodka would be too strong and that she might forget everything. brown eyed girl just wanted to do something else because waiting would mean she misses him, and she was tired of missing him. to be honest it’s been a week. she felt the distance. like fault lines across the lithosphere, unfinished bridges or the ones waiting to be burned down.

brown eyed girl said hi over messenger. “hi?? are you ignoring me???” brown eyed girl needed to vent. brown eyed girl was fed up. brown eyed girl was tired or waiting. but she wouldn’t let him know that. because if he knew she was upset because of him, they would argue. and that was the last thing that they needed.

still, they fought over messenger. something about her apologizing for being a bitch and him trying to help. she said he didn’t know how to listen, he told her she didn’t do anything wrong. she apologized but he wouldn’t accept. because for him, she was not in the wrong. she had to beg him to accept her apology, he did, eventually.

the story goes like this:

brown eyed girl says hi over messenger and they forget about what happened moments before because they know that having each other is more important that their petty fights. brown eyed girl cracks jokes over messenger and he laughs. she hears it through the songs blasting on her earphones. she smiles. brown eyed girl is happy again.

the story goes like this:

brown eyed girl will apologize even if she knows she’s not in the wrong. brown eyed girl will forgive him for this, will forgive him in the future, will forgive him either way because she loves him. brown eyed girl loves him and tonight he will sleep alright.

—  dad told me to forgive, mom taught me how to love