lithospheric

4.19.15: facts to know as I fall through the planet

hold on, let me google the layers of the earth
yes, okay there: crust, mantle, outer core &inner

the dense materials sink in a process called planetary differentiation
(see related: the iron catastrophe)

the mantle counts for 84% of earth’s volume
separated into the asthenosphere (plastic flowing rock) and the lithosphere (rigid rock)

there are theories that between these layers, there is 3 times as much water
as there is in all of earth’s oceans combined

so as I fall it’d be dirt, dirt, rock rock rock, silicate rock, water water water, rigid rock, iron, nickel (liquid.) iron, nickel (solid. maybe.)

the core conditions are dependent on
if we are talking dense plasma
or a solid with seismic super abilities.

4

LithoSphere, New and Retrospective Works, an exhibition by Irish artist Eileen MacDonagh, at visualcarlow, February 5th – April 29th 2012.

The most ambitious installation of her work to date. Echoing MacDonagh’s Medusa Tree (2009) which sits in the forecourt of VISUAL and the George Bernard Shaw Theatre, the artist has created a forest of 8 metre high trees, taking on the scale the Main Gallery, the largest white gallery space in the country. Alongside this installation other works will illustrate the breadth of her career to date. This is a unique opportunity to experience sculpture in facilities that were designed to showcase the immense affect of large scale work.

Eileen MacDonagh has been working as a sculptor for over thirty years. She has participated in Sculpture Symposia all over the world and has completed almost 20 public art commissions around Ireland. In 2004 she was elected to the Aosdána and stands as one of the countries pre eminent artists working with stone. 

Ascent or no ascent?

Gigantic volumes of hot material rising from the deep earth’s mantle to the base of the lithosphere have shaped the face of our planet. Provided they have a sufficient volume, they can lead to break-up of continents or cause mass extinction events in certain periods of the Earth’s history. So far it was assumed that because of their high temperatures those bodies - called mantle plumes - ascend directly from the bottom of the earth’s mantle to the lithosphere. In the most recent volume of Nature Communications, a team of researchers from the Geodynamic Modeling Section of German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ explains possible barriers for the ascent of these mantle plumes and under which conditions the hot material can still reach the surface. In addition, the researchers resolve major conflicts surrounding present model predictions.

The largest magmatic events on Earth are caused by massive melting of ascending large volumes of hot material from the Earth’s interior. The surface manifestations of these events in Earth’s history are still visible in form of the basaltic rocks of Large Igneous Provinces. The prevailing concept of mantle plumes so far was that because of their high temperatures, they have strongly positive buoyancy that causes them to ascend and uplift the overlying Earth’s surface by more than one kilometer. In addition, it was assumed that these mantle plumes are mushroom-shaped with a large bulbous head and a much thinner tail with a radius of only 100 km, acting as an ascent channel for new material. But here is the problem: In many cases, this concept does not agree with geological and geophysical observations, which report much wider zones of ascending material and much smaller surface uplift.

The solution is to incorporate observations from plate tectonics: In many places on the Earth’s surface, such as in the subduction zones around the Pacific, ocean floor sinks down into the Earth’s mantle. Apparently, this material descends up to a great depth in the Earth’s mantle over several millions of years. This former ocean floor has a different chemical composition than the surrounding Earth’s mantle, leading to a higher density. If this material is entrained by mantle plumes, which is indicated by geochemical analyses of the rocks of Large Igneous Provinces, the buoyancy of the plume will decrease. However, this opens up the question if this hot material is still buoyant enough to rise all the way from the bottom of the Earth’s mantle to the surface.

GFZ-researcher Juliane Dannberg: “Our computer simulations show that on the one hand, the temperature difference between the plume and the surrounding mantle has to be high enough to trigger the ascent of the plume. On the other hand, a minimum volume is required to cross a region in the upper mantle where the prevailing pressures and temperatures lead to minerals with a much higher density than the surrounding rocks.”

Under these conditions, mantles plumes with very low buoyancy can develop, preventing them from causing massive volcanism and environmental catastrophes, but instead making them pond inside of the Earth’s mantle. However, mantle plumes that are able to ascend through the whole mantle are much wider, remain in the Earth’s mantle for hundreds of millions of years and only uplift the surface by a few hundred meters, which agrees with observations.

4

LithoSphere, New and Retrospective Works, an exhibition by Irish artist Eileen MacDonagh, atvisualcarlow, February 5th – April 29th 2012.

The most ambitious installation of her work to date. Echoing MacDonagh’s Medusa Tree (2009) which sits in the forecourt of VISUAL and the George Bernard Shaw Theatre, the artist has created a forest of 8 metre high trees, taking on the scale the Main Gallery, the largest white gallery space in the country. Alongside this installation other works will illustrate the breadth of her career to date. This is a unique opportunity to experience sculpture in facilities that were designed to showcase the immense affect of large scale work.

Eileen MacDonagh has been working as a sculptor for over thirty years. She has participated in Sculpture Symposia all over the world and has completed almost 20 public art commissions around Ireland. In 2004 she was elected to the Aosdána and stands as one of the countries pre eminent artists working with stone.

Images by photographer Ros Kavanagh.

Ascent or no ascent?

24.4.2015: Gigantic volumes of hot material rising from the deep earth’s mantle to the base of the lithosphere have shaped the face of our planet. Provided they have a sufficient volume, they can lead to break-up of continents or cause mass extinction events in certain periods of the Earth’s his…
Source:Ascent or no ascent?

Ascent or no ascent? How hot material is stopped in Earth's mantle

Gigantic volumes of hot material rising from the deep earth’s mantle to the base of the lithosphere have shaped the face of our planet. Provided they have a sufficient volume, they can lead to break-up of continents or cause mass extinction events in certain periods of the Earth’s history. So far it was assumed that because of their high temperatures those bodies – called mantle plumes – ascend directly from the bottom of the earth’s mantle to the lithosphere. Scientists explain possible barriers for the ascent of these mantle plumes and under which conditions the hot material can still reach the surface. In addition, the researchers resolve major conflicts surrounding present model predictions.

from Latest Science News – ScienceDaily http://ffc.im/1HwuAZI

Ascent or no ascent? How hot material is stopped in Earth's mantle

Gigantic volumes of hot material rising from the deep earth’s mantle to the base of the lithosphere have shaped the face of our planet. Provided they have a sufficient volume, they can lead to break-up of continents or cause mass extinction events in certain periods of the Earth’s history. So far it was assumed that because of their high temperatures those bodies – called mantle plumes – ascend directly from the bottom of the earth’s mantle to the lithosphere. Scientists explain possible barriers for the ascent of these mantle plumes and under which conditions the hot material can still reach the surface. In addition, the researchers resolve major conflicts surrounding present model predictions.



from Latest Science News – ScienceDaily http://ift.tt/1yWnzym Science Daily Top News:
Ascent or no ascent? How hot material is stopped in Earth's mantle

Gigantic volumes of hot material rising from the deep earth’s mantle to the base of the lithosphere have shaped the face of our planet. Provided they have a sufficient volume, they can lead to break-up of continents or cause mass extinction events in certain periods of the Earth’s history. So far it was assumed that because of their high temperatures those bodies – called mantle plumes – ascend directly from the bottom of the earth’s mantle to the lithosphere. Scientists explain possible barriers for the ascent of these mantle plumes and under which conditions the hot material can still reach the surface. In addition, the researchers resolve major conflicts surrounding present model predictions.http://dlvr.it/9X8BRm

Ascent or no ascent?

24.4.2015: Gigantic volumes of hot material rising from the deep earth’s mantle to the base of the lithosphere have shaped the face of our planet. Provided they have a sufficient volume, they can lead to break-up of continents or cause mass extinction events in certain p…
Source: Ascent or no ascent?

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cartoon showing melting of asthenosphere beneath mt. st. helens volcano. note that this image is not to scale, the depth of the crust is exaggerated. also, no distinction is made between the convecting asthenosphere (upper mantle) and the non-convecting lithospheric mantle.   

from Dzurisin 2012. link to page

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Seismographic study of moonquakes has shown that the lunar structure is the same as the crustmantlecore structure of Earth, with the significant differences being that the lunar mantle is primarily solid the lunar lithosphere is about kilometers deep and overlies only a shallow plastic asthenosphere, and the small iron core is frozen solid see Figure . As the Moons mantle and core continue to slowly cool, their materials shrink at different rates, producing stress at the coremantle interface moonquakes thus occur in a deep spherical shell marking this interface. Because the Moons outer mantle is frozen, unlike that of Earth, there is no interior convection, no surface plate tectonics, and no crustal quakes, other than an occasional tremor produced by the impact of a small meteor. In terms of interior structure, Earth and the Moon may be contrasted The Age of Earth The age of Earth and by inference, the age of most other objects in the solar system is also not directly known.


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But related evidence can be studied, in this case, by the technique ofradioactive dating.Various elements the parent element are unstable and decay to produce another the daughter element. The time in which onehalf of a parent sample decays into its daughter product is known as thehalflifet it takes . s years, for example, for onehalf of a sample of uranium the form of uranium with nuclear particles to become lead. Alternatively, uranius decays much quicker, with onehalf of a sample becoming lead in years. After one halflife, the parentdaughter ratio isonehalfafter two halflives, the ratio is , three halflives, , and so forth. Chemical analysis of a rock sample thus yields the present abundance ratios and an age for the formation of the rock. The oldest Earth rocks which are rare due to the recycling of surface materials by plate tectonics have an age of . years, which is a lower limit to the age of the planet and the solar system. A more correct estimate of the age of the solar system is based on materials that have been unaltered since their original formation. Applying radioactive dating to a specific class of meteorites believed to be unaltered since their formation yields consistent dates for their origin of . . years. This solution is adopted as the age of Earth and the solar system Origin of the EarthMoon System

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Seismographic study of moonquakes has shown that the lunar structure is the same as the crustmantlecore structure of Earth, with the significant differences being that the lunar mantle is primarily solid the lunar lithosphere is about kilometers deep and overlies only a shallow plastic asthenosphere, and the small iron core is frozen solid see Figure . As the Moons mantle and core continue to slowly cool, their materials shrink at different rates, producing stress at the coremantle interface moonquakes thus occur in a deep spherical shell marking this interface. Because the Moons outer mantle is frozen, unlike that of Earth, there is no interior convection, no surface plate tectonics, and no crustal quakes, other than an occasional tremor produced by the impact of a small meteor. In terms of interior structure, Earth and the Moon may be contrasted The Age of Earth The age of Earth and by inference, the age of most other objects in the solar system is also not directly known.


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But related evidence can be studied, in this case, by the technique ofradioactive dating.Various elements the parent element are unstable and decay to produce another the daughter element. The time in which onehalf of a parent sample decays into its daughter product is known as thehalflifet it takes . s years, for example, for onehalf of a sample of uranium the form of uranium with nuclear particles to become lead. Alternatively, uranius decays much quicker, with onehalf of a sample becoming lead in years. After one halflife, the parentdaughter ratio isonehalfafter two halflives, the ratio is , three halflives, , and so forth. Chemical analysis of a rock sample thus yields the present abundance ratios and an age for the formation of the rock. The oldest Earth rocks which are rare due to the recycling of surface materials by plate tectonics have an age of . years, which is a lower limit to the age of the planet and the solar system. A more correct estimate of the age of the solar system is based on materials that have been unaltered since their original formation. Applying radioactive dating to a specific class of meteorites believed to be unaltered since their formation yields consistent dates for their origin of . . years. This solution is adopted as the age of Earth and the solar system Origin of the EarthMoon System