On this day in 1616, 400 years ago, English playwright William Shakespeare died in Stratford-upon-Avon. Born in Stratford on April 23rd 1564, Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, a leather merchant and glove maker, and local heiress Mary Arden. Little is known about Shakespeare’s early life, and he had little formal education, which leads some to question the authenticity of his plays. Shakespeare met a woman called Anne Hathaway when he was 18 years old. After a quick courtship, the couple married in November 1582, going on to have three children. Scholars generally believe that Shakespeare moved to London in the late 1580s and began working at local theatres. By the 1590s, it appears Shakespeare was working as an actor and playwright for the acting company Lord Chamberlain’s Men. By 1600, Shakespeare was an established playwright, having bought a large family home in Stratford and building the Globe Theatre in London with his business partners. Throughout his career, Shakespeare wrote around 38 plays, including
Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Macbeth, A Midsummer Night’s Dream and King Lear, and 154 sonnets. It is believed that he died on April 23rd 1616 - his 52nd birthday. Shakespeare bequeathed most of his belongings to his eldest daughter, leaving his widow his ‘second-best bed’, which is assumed to have been their marital bed. His extraordinary stories, and unique rhetorical style - inventing several words and phrases which have since entered the lexicon - make William Shakespeare the most famous writer in history.
Enheduanna, the daughter of King Sargon of Akkad (2334-2279 BCE), composed numerous poems and hymns, such as the one above written in Sumerian and dedicated to the goddess Inanna (the Sumerian counterpart to Ishtar). During her lifetime, Enheduanna served as a high priestess of the moon god, Nanna, in the city of Ur. A genuine creative talent, she is also remembered as one of the first named authors in history. Although the tablet above is somewhat damaged, it provides a good example of a later copy of one of her hymns, which shows that her work continued to be read and taught in scribal schools well into the second millennium BCE. (Source)
Cyberpunk, also known as Radical Hard SF or The Movement, was born around 1980 and didn’t survive that decade. (Some people map the end to 1992, with Neal Stephenson’s SNOW CRASH.) Philip K Dick had no affiliation with the movement, and was dead by 1982, two years before William Gibson published NEUROMANCER. People tend to associate Dick with cyberpunk because of BLADE RUNNER, particularly its visuals, which had nothing to do with the novel, but were so strikingly of the speculative zeitgeist that in 1982 William Gibson had to get out of his cinema seat and leave the screening because it looked too much like what was in his head.
Phil Dick was pre-cyberpunk. He, JG Ballard and Alfred Bester were major touchstones for the movement. Ballard’s CRASH and Bester’s STARS MY DESTINATION and THE DEMOLISHED MAN are essential. Also John Brunner’s STAND ON ZANZIBAR, THE SHEEP LOOK UP, and, most importantly for cyberpunk’s ancestry, THE SHOCKWAVE RIDER.
Of the cyberpunk period itself, you will need William Gibson’s first trilogy, NEUROMANCER, COUNT ZERO and MONA LISA OVERDRIVE. Also, Bruce Sterling’s THE ARTIFICIAL KID and ISLANDS IN THE NET. Richard Kadrey’s METROPHAGE. Rudy Rucker’s SOFTWARE and WETWARE. Pat Cadigan’s TEA FROM AN EMPTY CUP. That should keep you going for a bit.
FWIW, I agree with all of what Warren says, and please consider this another vote for METROPHAGE, which is amazing.
Today is the birthday of Beatrix Potter, born on this day in British history, 28 July 1866. She is most remembered for her work as an author and illustrator of children’s books. Her most famous creation, Peter Rabbit, is still a popular and well loved character today.
On this day in 1960, the novel ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ by Harper Lee was published by J.B Lippincott & Co. The novel tells the story of the trial of a young African-American man in Alabama in the 1930s, and is told from the perspective of the daughter of the defendant’s lawyer, Scout Finch. Lee was partly inspired by events she recalled from her own childhood growing up in Alabama in the days of Jim Crow segregation. 'To Kill a Mockingbird’ was released during a turbulent time for American race relations, as the burgeoning Civil Rights Movement was beginning to get underway with sit-ins and Freedom Rides in the wake of the Supreme Court ruling Brown v. Board of Education (1954). The novel was originally going to be called 'Atticus’ for Scout’s father and the moral centre of the story, but was renamed for one of Atticus’s iconic lines. The novel was an immediate success, and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1961. In 1962 it was adapted into an Oscar-winning film starring Gregory Peck and featuring the film debut of Robert Duvall as the elusive Boo Radley. Harper Lee never published another novel and remains reclusive from the press, though she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2007. The influence of 'To Kill a Mockingbird’ has never faded in the 54 years since its release, and is a favourite of many for its warmth and humour while tackling some of the most troubling issues of its day.
“Shoot all the blue jays you want, if you can hit 'em, but remember it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird”
Nearly two hundred years after its original publication, Dante’s Divine Comedy was
republished in 1502 with Italian Renaissance flair. The Renaissance
brought about a greater desire for erudite texts; individuals who
collected such works were seen as worldly and refined. To meet this
growing demand, books became smaller and less cumbersome, which explains
why this edition of Divine Comedy almost fits in the palm of your hand.
The first illustration above is the title page of Divine Comedy, and the second illustration is an introduction the Inferno sectionthat serves as the starting point of Dante’s journey. Dante then travels to purgatory and paradise. Much scholarship has focused on Inferno, which has proven to be the most captivating of the three realms Dante visits.
The first edition of The Hobbit was published on this day in British history, 21 September 1937. Published by George Allen & Unwin Ltd. of London, the first edition was printed in a run of 1,500 copies, all of which had sold by December 1937. This first printing was illustrated in black and white by Tolkien, who designed the dust jacket as well.
On this day in 1937, J.R.R Tolkein’s fantasy novel The
Hobbit, or There and Back Again was published in the United Kingdom. The novel follows the adventures of the hobbit Bilbo Baggins, as he assists a group of dwarves to reclaim their homeland, and tries to claim a share of treasure guarded by the fearsome dragon Smaug. Tolkein, an academic at Oxford University, found inspiration for the novel in his studies of Old Norse mythology and language. Upon completion, Tolkein had several notable literary friends, including C.S. Lewis of Narnia fame, read the manuscript. The novel was published by George Allen & Unwin Ltd. in September 1937, with an initial run of 1,500 copies, which quickly sold out. The Hobbit was a great
success, popular among adults and reviewers despite its childlike tone, and was nominated for the Carnegie Medal. The popularity of The Hobbit led Tolkein’s publisher to request a sequel, which became The Fellowship of the Ring (1954), the first book in The Lord of
the Rings series. His work on these novels led Tolkein to amend certain portions of The Hobbit to accommodate Middle Earth lore introduced in the new books. The Fellowship of the Ring was followed by The Two Towers and The Return of the King, and the trilogy - along with its precursor The Hobbit - remain immensely popular literary classics.
“In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit. Not a nasty, dirty, wet
hole, filled with the ends of worms and an oozy smell, nor yet a dry,
bare, sandy hole with nothing in it to sit down on or to eat: it was a
hobbit-hole, and that means comfort.”
The siren’s wail is as pervasive and deceitful in modern life as it was in ancient literature—the nymphs that nearly ensnared Odysseus’ wandering heart are more like the caterwauling devices atop police cruisers than you might assume. Both distract to the point of danger, yet evoke a titillating allure. “The question of the nature of the siren’s face and of the siren’s true role in human affairs,” writes Cabinet’s George Prochnik in an intriguing literary history of man’s relationship with sirens, “haunts both the mythological creatures from which the mechanical sirens derive their name and the history of siren technology alike.” Read more …
Today we remember the birthday of author and theologian C.S. Lewis. Clive Staples Lewis was born on 29 November 1898 in Belfast, Ireland. He is best remembered for his children’s fiction series, The Chronicles of Narnia. Among numerous other works, Lewis also wrote several famous works of Christian apologetics, including Mere Christianity, Miracles, and The Problem of Pain. Lewis was close friends with fellow author J.R.R. Tolkien.
this day in 1925, F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel The Great Gatsby was
published. The book takes place in New York City during the Roaring
Twenties, centred around the protagonist Nick Carraway’s encounters with the mysterious Jay Gatsby, who
throws lavish parties at his home in Long Island. Fitzgerald attended Princeton University, where he
wrote prolifically for university publications. However, his academic
standards slipped, and in 1917 he dropped out to join the army, during which time he met, and fell in love with, Zelda Sayre. Hoping to refine his writing skill, and to
impress Zelda, Fitzgerald published his first novel, This Side of Paradise, in 1920, which received critical praise; the pair soon married. Fitzgerald was widely hailed as one of the great writers of the day, and, while living in France, wrote his masterpiece: The Great Gatsby. Despite
achieving fame, Fitzgerald lived a troubled life, descending into
alcoholism and struggling with his wife Zelda’s mental health issues.
Coping with depression, Fitzgerald began work on more novels, but died
of a sudden heart attack in December 1940. The Great Gatsby recieved a lukewarm reception when it was first released, but it has since become widely-celebrated as the quintessential American novel.
“So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly
into the past”
He knew himself a villain-but he deemed
The rest no better than the thing he seemed;
And scorned the best as hypocrites who hid
Those deeds the bolder spirit plainly did.
He knew himself detested, but he knew
The hearts that loathed him croached and dreaded too.