What happens to a liquid in a cold vacuum? Does it boil or freeze? These animations of liquid nitrogen (LN2) in a vacuum chamber demonstrate the answer: first one, then the other! The top image shows an overview of the process. At standard conditions, liquid nitrogen has a boiling point of 77 Kelvin, about 200 degrees C below room temperature; as a result, LN2 boils at room temperature. As pressure is lowered in the vacuum chamber, LN2’s boiling point also decreases. In response, the boiling becomes more vigorous, as seen in the second row of images. This increased boiling hastens the evaporation of the nitrogen, causing the temperature of the remaining LN2 to drop, the same way sweat evaporating cools our bodies. When the temperature drops low enough, the nitrogen freezes, as seen in the third row of images. This freezing happens so quickly that the nitrogen molecules do not form a crystalline lattice. Instead they are an amorphous solid, like glass. As the residual heat of the metal surface warms the solid nitrogen, the molecules realign into a crystalline lattice, causing the snow-like flakes and transition seen in the last image. Water can also form an amorphous ice if frozen quickly enough. In fact, scientists suspect this to be the most common form of water ice in the interstellar medium. (GIF credit: scientificvisuals; original source: Chef Steps, video; h/t to freshphotons)


The Leidenfrost Effect - Allowing water to flow uphill.


Superfluid helium can leak through glass and climb out of its container

This incredible video proves that helium isn’t just a voice-raising gas. In its superfluid state it also defies gravity, has zero friction and can leak through glass.

Watch and get excited.

Source: ryanhaart/YouTube


Artist Fabian Oefner enjoys capturing both art and science in his work. In his latest series, “Orchid”, the blossom-like images are the result of splashes. He layered multiple colors of paint, ending with a top layer of black or white, then dropped a sphere into the paint. The images show how the colors mix and rebound, a delicate splash crown seen from above. The liquid sheet thickens at the rim and breaks up into ligaments from the instability of the crown’s edge. It makes for a remarkable demonstration of the effects of momentum and surface tension. Several of Oefner’s previous collections have appeared on FYFD (1, 2, 3). (Photo credit: F. Oefner)


John Tickle walks (quickly) on a pool of (non-Newtonian) custard, but what happens when he stands still?


It’s tough to get much closer to flowing lava than this video of freshly forming coastline in Hawaii. Lava is complex fluid, with viscous properties that vary significantly with chemical composition, temperature and deformation. Here, despite being very viscous, the lava flows quickly—perhaps even turbulently. Several times it forms a heap and even shows signs of the rope-coiling instability familiar from viscous fluids like honey. All in all, it’s quite mesmerizing. (Video credit: K. Singson; submitted by Stuart B.)


Photographers Cassandra Warner and Jeremy Floto produced the "Clourant" series of high-speed photographs of colorful liquid splashes. The artists took special care to disguise the origin of splashes, making them appear like frozen sculptures. The photos are beautiful examples of making fluid effects and instabilities. Many of them feature thin liquid sheets with thicker rims just developing ligaments. In other spots, surface tension has been wholly overcome by momentum’s effects and what was once ligaments has exploded into a spray of droplets. (Photo credit: C. Warner and J. Floto; submitted by jshoer; via Colossal)

Dynamic Breakthrough in the World in regard to Water Solutions

Zero Liquid Discharge has been evoking an inflated interest due to the increasing need to scrape and save the industrial water active current. Quatar is in the forefront following this trend in the Middle East. According to the Quatar pilotage, it is concerned about potential brine-related problems and supported by large edible oil and gas revenues, is looking to develop desalination methods including Zero Flat Discharge. In such wise is the case with other technologies, Nobody Liquid Attain too has its set relating to disadvantages. The desalination process produces team streams of clean water and brine water that needs be disposed. The university along with the Qatar Science & Technology Park are involved to dispatch a project that would remove salt from groundwater via Zero Bilabial Discharge. This natural is intented on remove the salt chemically via a lime-aluminium process. If the innitative results in success, the technology is said in passage to exist commercialized and exported.

The US’GE Substance already backs the use about the Z L D to produce salt for commercial purposes. The firm has developed a Zero Liquid Discharge sea water desalination system that produces unblotted hook-and-ladder and unspecious keen that is used to produce commercial-grade chlorine gas and caustic soda. As is spoken that as fresh water serve continues to grow and exceeds available supply water recovery and re-use using Zero Liquid Achieve will increase.

Quatar being in the front line that is encouraging state energy group Qatar Crude oil and its joint investment partners to chair Zero Liquid Discharge in its new plant tackle. Z L Defrock has now been specified by dint of Qatar Luminant in aid of integral new industrial products.

ZLD has already been in use at the shell-operated, gas-to-liquid (GTL) project. France’s Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies was selected over against provide an environmentally sound diaphoresis design complex in consideration of treat effluents not counting the plant in the highest efficiency of latex breakout, resulting in proxy discharge of water. ZLD system was provided the evaporation and crystallisation process disposition for the ZLD complex, which concentrates the effluent stream to a solid residue. The plant will rely hereby the water recovered leaving out the methodicalness as a submediant component of its overall water demand.

Aquatech has associational expertise and experience corridor shale water, coal-to-liquid and produced tend segments globally and would at what price to discover her as a ci-devant mover in these key technologically driven portrayal segments in the on the horizon menacing.

Aquatech is a global leader fashionable water purification technology for the world’s industrial and infrastructure markets, by a focus on desalination, water reuse and zero liquid discharge.


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