link-digest

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Hi Taylor!!! Look at this amazing swifties’ live which were held in TOKYO in May,13th!!!
This link is the digest version’s movie of swifties’ live!!!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MUTgunQKEyw

Ms.Lily who met you at Austin , Ms.Chinatsu and Ms.Sae who met you at 1989WorldTour in Nashville were there, too!!
We sung, danced and talked each other about you💕
If you like our live, Please notice us😭

@taylorswift @taylornation

AP BIO Study Guide- Water, Carbon, & Macromolecules

Water

H2O = two hydrogen ions bonded* to an oxygen ion

*bond = “polar covalent”: the molecule has opposite charges on opposite ends; this is due to the electronegativity difference between the H’s and O, causing the H’s to have partial negative charges and the O to have a partial positive one; strong bond that keeps the water molecule together

H2O molecules bond to each other by “hydrogen bonding”: these are weaker bonds that are able to be broken and reformed frequently; this allows water its many emergent properties and to be the key to life

Four emergent properties:

1)      Cohesion/Adhesion- This is the ability of water molecules to stick to one another due to hydrogen bonding as well as to other surfaces, respectively. This is what allows transpiration up the plant xylem and out the leaves to occur (this is also due to the difference in water concentrations between inside the plant and in the atmosphere, as water wants to go from a high concentration to a low concentration). Also, surface tension is considered a subtopic of this property.

2)      Moderation of Temperature- Due to water’s high specific heat, it is able to absorb heat from the environment (breaking bonds) or release heat to it (forming bonds), without more than a slight change in its own temperature. This allows water to regulate to temperature of the environment around it and to make sure it is habitable enough for life. Water also has a high heat of vaporization. This results in “evaporative cooling”: as a surface is heated (heat is absorbed), the hydrogen bonds between water molecules break, and water changes from its liquid form to a gas, and is evaporated. This allows water to stabilize the temperatures of organisms and bodies of water.

3)      Expansion upon Freezing- When water freezes and changes to its solid form, the H2O molecules form a crystal lattice, where the hydrogen bonds keep each water molecule a certain distance away from each other. Due to this further apart spacing, ice is less dense than liquid water. Therefore, ice floats on top of liquid water. This allows ice to insulate what is below it, and helps regulate life.

4)      Versatility as a Solvent- Due to the partial pos. and partial neg. charges within an H2O molecule, when a solute is introduced into water, as long as that solute has charged ions, the H’s and O’s will be attracted to the oppositely charged ions, creating a hydration shell around the ions and pulling them away from the solute’s molecules, dissolving it (WATER IS PRETTY CLOSE TO A UNIVERSAL SOLVENT.)

Acids/Bases:

An “acid” is any substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.

A “base” is any substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.

pH = “percent (%) hydrogen”

[H+] and [OH-] have an inverse relationship. This means as one goes up in concentration, the other goes down. Their relationship always has a constant of 10 ^ -14.)

(In a neutral solution, pH is 7, which means [H+] = 10 ^ 7, and [OH-] = 10 ^ 7.)

*Know how to do a Mol equation/set-up*

Carbon

Carbon can create up to four bonds with many different elements due to its “tetravalence” (has 4 valence electrons, and needs 4 more)

Ability to create long chains, often with hydrogen, resulting in organic molecules

Despite some organic molecules being isomers (same molecular formula), the variation in their carbon skeletons (brancing, double bonds, etc.) is what makes them completely different molecules.

Macromolecules

Monomers are the “building blocks” of macromolecules, which, when linked together, create polymers.

Monomers are bonded together using “dehydration synthesis” (the removal of water molecules), and broken apart by “hydrolysis” (the addition of water molecules).

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are sugars that provide fiber and a quick source of energy for your body. The monomer of carbohydrates is called a monosaccharide. Glucose is most common monosaccharide.

The type of links within carbohydrates are called “glycosidic linkages”. Two monosaccharides linked together creates a disaccharide. For example, two glucose molecules bonded together would create maltose.

Many monosaccharides linked together creates a polysaccharide. In aqueous solutions they form rings.

Carbohydrates are used for many different purposes, such as energy storage in plants (starch) and animals (glycogen), as well as for structure within plants (cellulose, forms cell wall) and animals (chitin, forms exoskeletons).

Carbohydrates contain a carbonyl group

Carbs contain “alpha” or “beta” links. We are unable to digest beta links.

Lipids

Lipids are not considered polymers because they are made up of a few monomers they are not made up of many. Usually lipids consist of a glycerol and three fatty acids (triglyceride). There are three types of lipids: fats, phospholipids, and steroids, but they all have one thing in common: they are hydrophobic. This is due to them being nonpolar and having no charge (fatty acids are basically really long chains of hydrogen and carbon with no charge).

The types of links within lipids are called “ester linkages”.

Saturated fats have a straight molecule and are solid at room temperature. These are bad for you, such as butter.

Unsaturated fats are “kinked” due to a carbon double bond and are liquid at room temperature. These are good for you, such as different types of oils.

Phospholipids contain a hydrophilic head (this is due to it actually having a charge due to its phosphate group’s neg. charge) and a hydrophobic tail. They make up the cell membrane of animal cells.

Steroids are made up of 4 carbon rings. One common type of steroid is cholesterol.

Proteins

Amino acids are the building blocks, made from the ribosomes of cells. They can either be nonpolar, polar, electrically charged, or etc. There are 20 different amino acids in existence, but they can make up countless proteins.

Amino acids consist of an alpha carbon, a hydrogen, an R group/side chain, a carboxyl group (COOH), and an amino group (N3H+). The “R” group is the variable that makes the specific amino acid unique. All amino acids are distinguishable by their “N-C-C” backbone.

The types of bonds present between amino acids are called peptide bonds, and the polymers of amino acids are called “polypeptides” (proteins).

Amino acids sequences are controlled by DNA/genetics. Even one amino acid being out of place can cause serious issues.

There are 4 levels of conformation to creating a protein. CONFORMATION = STRUCTURE.

Primary structure consists of the unique amino acid sequence. Secondary structure is the “backbone” of a protein, where the curves and folding of polypeptide chains are created through the attraction of hydrogen bonding. Tertiary structure by the interactions (Ex: types of bonds) between the “R” groups. Quaternary structure is the creation of a macromolecule through two or more polypeptides.

Some examples of quaternary structures are collagen (found in hair) and hemoglobin (found in the blood, in RBC’s).

Nucleic acids

Monomers are called nucleotides.

They make up your genes.

There are two types, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

They consist of a phosphate group, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base.

CHAKRAS

CHAKRA 1

INDIAN NAME: Muladhara

WESTERN NAME: Base/ root

LOCATED: Between genitals and anus

ELEMENT: Earth

COLOUR: Red

BODY SENSE: Smell

FUNCTION: to ground us in the world and connects us to the earth

PHYSICAL HEALTH: Being disconnected from this chakra could result in ankle and knee pain as well as lower back pain (especially around the sacrum) and problems with sexual organs

MENTAL HEALTH: This chakra allows us to have confidence in ourselves and i the world. If the chakra is disconnected you may have issues with trusting people or feeling safe and secure within the world

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CHAKRA 2

INDIAN NAME: Svadisthana

WESTERN NAME: Sacral

LOCATION: Just below the navel

Element: Water

Colour: Orange

Sense: Taste

FUNCTION: Associated with sexual energy and helps us form healthy emotional and sexual relationships. The energy can also manifest as creativity and fuel enthusiasm.

PHYSICAL HEALTH: The adrenal glands may be affected by the second chakra. This influences how we react to stress. Any dysfunction can also manifest in disease of the urinary tract and kidneys

MENTAL HEALTH: Dysfunction in this chakra often leads to someone being unable to receive love. This can arise in several different ways such as being unable to to form relationships and sex may be unfulfilling

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CHAKRA 3

INDIAN NAME: Manipura

WESTERN NAME: Solar plexus

LOCATION: Center of the lower rib cage

ELEMENT: Fire

COLOUR: Yellow

SENSE: Sight

FUNCTION: The solar plexus is associated with the sun and is usually associated with personal power. It draws in solar energy which enables the flow of energy through the physical body, like a energy hub.

PHYSICAL HEALTH: This chakra is linked to digestion but more importantly is linked to stress. These two things mixed together can lead to problems such as ulcers and stomach upsets. stress reducing techniques and reiki can be used to help strengthen this chakra

MENTAL HEALTH: Plays a big role in how other perceive us, the more energy we draw through this chakra the more people will be attracted to you, this is because you are admitting more light energy. Balance in this chakra can allow a person to assimilate higher wisdom in out unconscious. Dysfunction in the chakra can lead to unhappiness and arrogance

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CHAKRA 4

INDIAN NAME: Anahata

WESTERN NAME: Heart

LOCATION: Center of the chest

ELEMENT: Air

COLOUR: Green/ Pink

SENSE: Touch

FUNCTION: The Anahata is associated with passion and devotion and the heart is universally associated with love, however, this is not the primarily concerned with romantic love but with all-encompassing love such as the love of creation. It is also the connecting chakra between the three physical chakras and the three finer emotion and spiritual chakra’s.

PHYSICAL HEALTH: This chakra is connected to the circulatory system. Heart disease is a massive killer in western society and stress is a big contributing factor. We can help prevent stress in this chakra by releasing the issues we hold in our heart such as emotional trauma and sadness. 

MENTAL HEALTH: This chakra can help build unconditional love, not only for another but for yourself. Dysfunction in this chakra can manifest in the inability to maintain an emotional relationship.

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CHAKRA 5

INDIAN NAME: Vishuddha

WESTERN NAME: Throat

LOCATION: Between the center of the collarbone and the larynx

ELEMENT: Ether/ Akasha

COLOUR: Turquoise 

SENSE: Hearing

FUNCTION: This chakra is a gateway between the heart and the head. Through meditation of the throat chakra we can choose the happy medium between what our heart says and what our heads say. It is also said to lie between body and spirit. The Vishudda sits over the local chords and we can easily create unbalance here by using our voices for negativity and anger. 

PHYSICAL HEALTH: Typical physical aliments associated with the dysfunction or unbalance of this chakra manifest as ear, nose, throat and respiratory problems. Dysfunction in this chakra can also lead to hypo/hyperthyroidism.

MENTAL ISSUES: A lack of energy to this chakra can lead to one becoming timid, fearful and afraid to speak up. Where as an overload of energy can lead to being too loud and speaking excessively. This can lead to the closing down of communication and this can lead to depression.

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CHAKRA 6

INDIAN NAME: Ajna

WESTERN NAME: Brow/ third eye

LOCATION: Center forehead

ELEMENT: Spirit

COLOUR: Deep blue

SENSE: Extra-sensory perception

FUNCTION: This is the chakra you draw on when you meditate, it enables us to move beyond the mind we experience daily filled with chatter and into our inner wisdom that we may be unaware of. Dysfunction in this chakra may lead to arrogance about having special powers of insight or psychic abilities and use them to control people

PHYSICAL HEALTH: Physical problems associated with Anja are ones that effect the head in general. Most commonly headaches and migraines.

MENTAL ISSUES: The Anja isnt strongly associated with emotion but it can effect the pineal gland. This is the glad responsible for releasing serotonin and melanin, hormones that strongly affect our mood and sleep patterns.

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CHAKRA 7 

INDIAN NAME: Sahasrara

WESTERN NAME: Crown

LOCATION: Crown of the head

ELEMENT: Spirit

COLOUR: violet/ gold

SENSE: All the sense

FUNCTION: The Sahasrara is the opposite to the base chakra, it faces up towards the heavens and it can not be closed at any time. The Sahasrara connects us to everything that transcends our earthbound state. 

PHYSICAL HEALTH: Much like the brow chakra the crown chakra dysfunction shows itself as headaches and migraines. Epilepsy can also be a symptom associated with this chakra. 

MENTAL HEALTH: An unbalanced crown chakra can lead to someone becoming obsessive and bottling up anger. Parkinson has also been linked to this chakra.

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Body Mapping: What Is Your Acne Telling You?

Some of us struggle with not only acne on the face, but also on our body. If you struggle with break outs on the face and missed my previous post, go here!

Body mapping can be your key to unlock the mystery of why you’re breaking out where you are and how you can treat it. Just like the face, specific areas of the body are connected to other areas or organs. So, just like before, sit that beautiful booty down and we’ll discuss the Da Vinci Code of body acne!

Here are your “maps”:

**Disclaimer** I am not a medical professional. I am using my own personal experience and knowledge from studying to bring you this information. Before assuming any health issue, please know that there are exceptions to rules and speak with your doctor if you are concerned.

Area 1: Blood Sugar
Stomach acne is quite rare due to the fact that there are very little oil glands in this area of the body. When blemishes do flare up here, make sure you are wearing breathable clothing and check your sugar intake.

Area 2: Hygiene, STD, or Infection
We’ll just go ahead and get this one out of the way! Break outs in the private or pelvic region can be painful, irritating, and hard to get rid of due to body moisture. These are most likely caused by shaving or waxing. Personal hygiene can be the culprit, too (keep your cooka clean, girls!) If your symptoms don’t clear up within a week or you experience burning/itching, seek a physician’s advice.

Areas 3 & 4: Stress
Stress can cause our bodies to do some crazy things. Break outs on the shoulders is one symptom that you may need to take that day off you’ve been meaning to take. Try an at-home spa day, go get a mani/pedi, or (if you’re like me) unload that bag of bricks you have on your shoulder! Your purse may be causing irritation on your skin.

Area 5: Hormones
Yes, as if hormones didn’t already reek enough havoc on our bodies! Blemishes on your neck, much like the jaw area, can be a sign of haywire hormones. If it’s that time of the month, rest assured that it will go away in due time. Also, keep second+ day hair off the neck area as much as possible to decrease the chance of breaking out and keep sugar intake as low as possible.

Area 6: Digestion
If you’ve factored out any possible infections or allergies, break outs on the chest are most likely linked to your digestive system. Poor eating habits, spicy foods, too many alcoholic beverages, and bad dietary choices are all options here. Try cleansing your system with healthy eating habits (extra points for Green Tea consumption!).

Areas 7 & 8: Did You Take Your Vitamins?
Many people suffer from a skin condition called Keratosis Pilaris, or “chicken skin”, which occurs most often on the legs and back of the arms. You can treat this with regular exfoliation or a moisturizer that contains salicylic acid. If “chicken skin” isn’t the problem here, make sure you’re getting the recommended amount of vitamins and minerals from your diet and/or supplements.

Area 9 & 10: Allergic Reaction/Skin Irritation
Acne on your upper, lower, and inner thighs is most likely due to a reaction to the lotion, soap/shower gel, detergent, or fabric softener that you are using. You may also be reacting to your razor or wax. Remove possible factors of allergic reaction and try a body wash with glycolic acid (AHA) with a non-fragrant lotion.

Area 11 & 12: Nervous or Anxious?
This is the most common place for people to experience break outs on the body. Most often the causes are allergies, sweat, non-breathable clothing, hair product, or friction from your purse/backpack. If you rule out all of these possible causes, make sure you are getting enough shut-eye and try to relax.

Areas 13 & 14: Digestion (again?)
Yes, digestion, again. And how perfectly fitting for your rump area. Usually, if you’re breaking out here, it is caused by dirty underwear (keep your cooka clean, I say!), underwear that is too tight, dry skin, or digestive issues. If symptoms don’t clear up after wearing breathable clothing, keeping your undies clean, and moisturizing your skin, look at your dietary habits.

There you have it, beautiful! Next time you’re breaking out, have a look at your body map here or your handy-dandy face map here.

May the clear-skin gods be ever in your favor!

<3 Raychel