Rare audio of indigenous languages saved by invention 100 years later

Optical scan technology is helping researchers at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, preserve audio of 78 indigenous California languages, most of which were recorded more than a century ago. The recordings are on approximately 2,700 wax cylinders that are now barely audible due to issues such as mold. These are the only known sound recordings for several of the languages, and in many other cases, the recordings include unique speech practices and otherwise unknown stories and songs.

With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), linguist Andrew Garrett, digital librarian Erik Mitchell and anthropologist Ira Jacknis, all of UC Berkeley, are restoring these recordings. The researchers are using a non-invasive optical scanning technique that was developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory physicists Carl Haber and Earl Cornell. The collaboration with Haber and Cornell is enabling the NSF-funded research team to transfer all 100 hours of audio content from the wax cylinders and improve the recordings, finally making it possible to figure out which language is being spoken and what’s being said.

The rich Native American cultural collection will ultimately be accessible to indigenous communities as well as to the general public and scholars. The linguistic diversity of the world’s estimated 7,000 languages is immense. Modern technologies like this one unlock the documentation to enable new community uses and scientific investigations.

This research was co-funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities; grant number PD-230659-15.

NSF support was provided by award #1500779, “Linguistic and ethnographic sound recordings from early twentieth-century California: Optical scanning, digitization, and access.”

Credit: National Science Foundation

Fabled Nefarious Bans of Fate

“Ban” descends from Old English bannan meaning “to summon”, “to proclaim”, the current meaning derived via the concept of a formal (especially ecclesiastical) proclamation condemning something.  Bannan, in turn, derived from Proto-Germanic *bannaną, “to proclaim”, “to summon”, “to order”, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰh2-nw-, a derivative of *bʰeh2- “to speak”.

Another derivative of that root was *bʰeh2-os, a nominal derivation (thus something like “word”, “that which is spoken”) which became Latin fās “divine law”, “religious obligation”, “divine will”.  This was a defective noun, occurring only in the nominative and accusative singular.  With the prefix ne- (not), the noun nefās was formed, meaning “a wicked or forbidden act”, “morally wrong”.  The suffix -ius, forming adjectives, was added to create the adjective nefārius, /s/ regularly becoming /r/ between vowels.  This, of course, was the source of the English nefarious.

Another derivative was *beh2-dʰlom, with the suffix -dʰlom making abstract nouns.  The neuter -om was replaced with the feminine/collective -eh2, becoming Proto-Italic *fāðlā.  *dʰ regularly became *ð in Proto-Italic, which usually became /d/ in Latin, but became /b/ in certain contexts, including before /l/.  An epenthetic /u/ was added, producing Latin fābula “story”, “narrative”, “discourse”, “conversation”, etc.  This became French fable, borrowed into English.

The bare root formed the ancestor of the verb for “I speak”, past participle fātus (from *bʰeh2-tós).  The past partciple was used as a noun meaning “word”, “saying”, “prophecy”, “oracle”, “fate”, the origin of the English fate.

I really like how, at first, our (Quebec) swears were a sort of protest against the oppressive and corrupt nature of our Catholic Church.

And it just sort of… stuck.

Lyotard claims that we have now lost the ability to believe in meta-narratives, that the legitimating function that grand quests once played in society has lost all credibility. The question then becomes, what now forms the basis of legitimation in society if there is no overarching meta-narrative? For Lyotard, the answer lies in the philosophy of Wittgenstein, which analyzes the way sub-groups in society regulate their behavior through rules of linguistic conduct.

If we have rejected grand narratives, then what we have fallen back on are micro-narratives. Micro-narratives are essentially Wittgenstein’s “language-games”, limited contexts in which there are clear, if not clearly defined, rules for understanding and behavior. We no longer give credence to total philosophical contexts like Marxism which ostensibly would prescribe behavior in all aspects of life, rather, we have lots of smaller contexts which we act within.

Baby talks: “And he became a beybo gwegwe”

My daughter can now recite “the very hungry caterpillar” from memory. Which is great because it gives me a direct one-to-one comparison for her utterances. Here’s one of the more bizarre.

Instead of saying “beautiful butterfly” (the last two words of the book), she says something like “beybo gwewe” here’s my attempt to explain why.When she hears words from me, my daughter gets intervocalic dental stops turned into taps. For free!

ˈbjuːɾɪfəɫ ˈbʌɾɚflaɪ

First she simplifies əɫ and ɚ to o. (I think this is a common rule in American baby talk)

ˈbjuːɾɪfo ˈbʌɾoflaɪ

Then taps become approximants and non-coda fricatives become stops.

ˈbjuːlɪpo ˈbʌloplaɪ

Intervocalic stops are vocalized

ˈbjuːlɪbo ˈbʌloblaɪ

Approximants become glides: j when preceding front vowels and w when back (thanks @tropylium ) (this is something like Bulgarian baby talk, where r > l > j > i)

ˈbjuːjɪbo ˈbʌwobwaɪ

I’m not sure about this next part, but I think vowels converge somehow…

ˈbeːjɪbo ˈbəwebwəɪ

I’m not sure why, but in some B’s become G’s

ˈbeːjɪbo ˈgəwegwəɪ (I’ve sometimes really heard her say this)

And often the vowels continue to fuse and converge

ˈbeɪbo ˈgwegweɪ

At least, that’s what I THINK is happening. Any other ideas?

Delve into Sanskrit or Amsterdam Pride

It’s the middle of summer and the lecture halls are full. Students from all parts of the world have come to Leiden and The Hague for a summer school, on subjects varying from linguistics to international criminal law and from physics to biopharmaceutical sciences. Lecturers and students talk about what makes the school so instructive and so enjoyable.

NLP 2.0 - The Ultimate Guide to Neuro Linguistic Programming: How to Rewire Your Brain to Create the Life You Want and Become the Person You Were Meant to Be

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Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) is an enigma to most people. Maybe its because of its hyper complex sounding name, or because it sounds like a new computer language. Whatever the misunderstanding, it is time that you paid attention to it because some of the world’s latest success stories are coming in the wake of NLP.

NLP is about rewiring your brain in a way that changes almost everything you do. This book takes a walk on the wild side by showing you the nature of the brain and the development of the mind so that you can develop a framework of your own mind. 

Beyond the theory, it also gives you a practical look at the things you can do when you change the way your mind is wired and the effects that has on your work and your family. What it all boils down to is that the reason you are who you are up to this point is because of the way your brain is wired and if you want to change that, you need to do it with NLP.

We are all looking to improve our lives and make the most of our time. We are all looking for ways to do better and provide a better life for our families. But until now, the better life has been elusive to a certain segment of people who are trying hard but not making much out of it. NLP is the thing they have been missing. If this is you, then you have found the path to solving your challenges. Whatever you need is covered within the lines of this book. You just need to read it and put it to work.
Since metaphors are essentially ‘groundless’, mere substitutions of one set of signs for another, language tends to betray its own fictive and arbitrary nature at just those points where it is offering to be most intensively persuasive. ‘Literature’ is that realm in which this ambiguity is most evident – in which the reader finds herself suspended between a ‘literal’ and a figurative meaning, unable to choose between the two, and thus cast dizzyingly into a bottomless linguistic abyss by a text which has become ‘unreadable’. Literary works, however, are in a sense less deluded than other forms of discourse, because they implicitly acknowledge their own rhetorical status – the fact that what they say is different from what they do, that all their claims to knowledge work through figurative structures which render them ambiguous and indeterminate. They are, one might say, ironic in nature. Other forms of writing are just as figurative and ambiguous, but pass themselves off as unquestionable truth.
—  Terry Eagleton, Literary Theory: An Introduction (p. 126)
Al-Biruni - Wikipedia

Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/Persian: ابوریحان بیرونی‎‎ Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī;[3][4]New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī[5]) (4 September 973[6][7] – 9 December 1048[6]), known as Al-Biruni (Arabic: البيروني‎‎) in English,[8] was an Iranian[9][10][11][12] scholar and polymath from Khwarezm — a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, and northern Turkmenistan.

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최근에는 일본·류큐 제어의 언어 현상을 아이누어와 연관지어 바라볼 수 있게 되었다. 만약 고대 동부 일본어와 류큐 제어 증거로부터 재구되는 일본·류큐 조어 1인칭 대명사 *wano와 고대 서부 일본어 ware의 관계가 일반적인 r~n 교체와 같은 것이라면, 실제의 일본·류큐 조어 형태로 *war-nar-i “1-COP-INF” 같은 것을 생각해볼 수 있을지도 모른다 (아이누어의 1인칭 단수 대명사 kuani = ku-an-i “1SG-COP-NMLZ”처럼). 만약 자음군 *rn을 재구하지 않더라도 전자가 아이누어의 영향을 받은 형태일 가능성은 남는다.

50/50 Nation: Democrats and Republicans

Es hypothesize takings:\n\nThe detailed description of the g eachplacenmental 50-50 position of the Ameri rat citizens, its expound and consequences.\n\nEssay Questions:\n\nWhat were the results of the pop and republican conversions?\n\nHow is a 50-50 body politic form?\n\nHow can the linguistic rule wiz cosmos unmatchable balloting be interpreted?\n\n thesis Statement:\n\nThe grounds of the United States became a 50-50 population because iodine-half of the universe engender for the republicans and the other half against.\n\n \n50/50 res publica: Democrats and Republicans\n\nIntroduction: Democratic reflect Group in the 1970s did highly influence the relative and its operations imposing its receive democracy and then democratic lapseers to the administration of the sexual intercourse. Democrats took about of the chairs in intercourse and the majority of people became the followers of this democrats. This may be called the democratic renewal. The Republ ican revolution in the United States Congress was to come. It came in the 1994 when the Republican Party took over in the Congress with feat interim elections in the dramatic art and Senate. This Revolution is known atomic number 18 the Gingrich Revolution as it was lead by Newt Gingrich, with fresher republican re bear witnessatives under his manipulation. This Gingrich revolution leads to the establishment of the conservative republicans views on the politics. Analyzing both of the alterations in Congress in 1970s and 1990s it is necessary to say that these be the dickens revolutions that divided the population of the United States into two rival parts with temporary advantages of apiece of them. All the people who grew up on the democratic influence in the coun learn remained given to it and it even reinforced with the changes in Congress in 1994. sand than those who chaired the committees were made to free their chairmanships and started inquiring new successors. Th e strategy of leading of both of the parties lies in unceasing fight. The nations of the United States became a 50-50 nation because half of the population become for the republicans and the other half against.\n\nthither is no real solid ground to mention names or events that took place after this period. The comp wiznt part of the nation is conditi adeptnessd by the interests that each of the party supporters. The surgery of Congress became like symmetricalness with two opposing parties on each of the sides. This converts politics is a great market, where choosers are products, which the parties try to buy up. Or in other words this 50-50 rampart is overcome by the parties with gaining a greater market share of the vote. These two major breakouts in the Congress history made the Statesn citizens to occupy the 50-50 position which straightaway is disputed. For instance Michael Barone in his move The 49 Percent nation. The Supreme Courts ruling under which congressiona l rules must be represent in size did sure as shooting have weighty opposition on the way they were pinched after the decennial census. This means that in some part of the state of matter there might be fewer voters in one congressional order and to a greater extent in a nonher district of the same size. The teaching one man, one vote is the principle known to every ace politician and American citizen who is aware(p) of what is going on in the Congressional world every person has a make up to vote. This principle in the head start place means that every single citizen of the country is judge and has to vote. Therefore, those people who do not right replete(p)y have square political beliefs give their vote for the candidate, which is considered to be favorable for his congressional district. This means that every man living in a certain congressional district is expected and get out vote for the candidate he is suppose to vote. This does not move the 50-50 positions at all and even more than that it reinforces it. One man gives his one voice for the candidate and therefore the party he prefers. The votes literally remain the same and the unless thing that may change this role is a mistake, which can be made by the leading party at the moment.\n\nConclusion: Yes, American nation is believed to be a 50-50 nation. many an(prenominal) factors influence it and contri howevere into it. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take a slurred look at the present situation and actually the situation that started in 2002. What is obvious is that America is not a 50-50 nation anymore. It has always been true for the description that the winner takes all America, but nowadays the equilibrium is lost. Does the one man, one vote principle work with the elite or the grassroots class? A question like that may be viewed as something undermining the solid system of American politics. Yes, it sure enough does. Every person has a right to vote and it form solid as compress as yearn as the American Constitution will live. And that would be forever! No one can say whether it is good or dingy that America has become a 50-50 nation throughout the years. Nevertheless, what is really important is that as long as the principle one man, one vote exists a 50-50 nation is more potential to keep on existing, too.If you privation to get a full essay, order it on our website:

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