linguistica

Le PARI OPPORTUNITA’ nella lingua/civiltà italiana
Dal profilo Facebook del mio professore di Linguistica, che seguo sempre con tanto affetto.



Adescatore: uno che coglie al volo persone e situazioni
Adescatrice: mignotta

Uomo disponibile: tipo gentile e premuroso
Donna disponibile: mignotta

Cortigiano: gentiluomo di corte
Cortigiana: mignotta

Massaggiatore: che per professione pratica massaggi, kinesiterapista
Massaggiatrice: mignotta

Un cubista: artista seguace del cubismo
Una cubista: mignotta

Segretario particolare: portaborse
Segretaria particolare: mignotta

Uomo di strada: uomo duro
Donna di strada: mignotta

Passeggiatore: chi passeggia, ama camminare
Passeggiatrice: mignotta

Mondano: chi fa vita di società
Mondana: mignotta

Uomo facile: con cui è facile vivere
Donna facile: mignotta

Zoccolo: calzatura in cui la suola è costituita da un unico pezzo di legno
Zoccola: mignotta

Omaccio: uomo dal fascino robusto e dall’aspetto massiccio
Donnaccia: mignotta

Un professionista: uno che conosce bene il suo lavoro
Una professionista: mignotta

Uomo pubblico: personaggio famoso, in vista
Donna pubblica: mignotta

Intrattenitore: uomo socievole, che tiene scena, affabulatore
Intrattenitrice: mignotta

Uomo senza morale: tipo dissoluto, asociale, spregiudicato
Donna senza morale: mignotta

Uomo molto sportivo: che pratica numerosi sport
Donna molto sportiva: mignotta

Uomo d’altro bordo: tipo che frequenta ambienti altolocati
Donna d’altro bordo: mignotta (di lusso)

Tenutario: proprietario terriero con una tenuta di campagna
Tenutaria: mignotta (che ha fatto carriera)

Steward: cameriere sull’aereo
Hostess: mignotta

Uomo con un passato: chi ha avuto una vita degna di essere raccontata
Donna con un passato: mignotta

Maiale: animale da fattoria
Maiala: mignotta

Uno squillo: suono del telefono o della tromba
Una squillo: mignotta

Uomo da poco: tipo mediocre, modesto
Donna da poco: mignotta

Un toro: uomo molto forte
Una vacca: una mignotta

Accompagnatore: pianista che suona la base musicale
Accompagnatrice: mignotta

Uomo di malaffare: birbante, disonesto
Donna di malaffare: mignotta

Prezzolato: sicario, o factotum di qualcuno
Prezzolata: mignotta

Buon uomo: probo, onesto
Buona donna: mignotta

Uomo allegro: un buontempone
Donna allegra: mignotta

Omino: piccoletto, tipo inoffensivo
Donnina: mignotta

MORALE: La sessuofobia becera e meschina che affligge la nostra civiltà condiziona da sempre più gravemente la vita delle donne. L'uso linguistico ne è uno dei tanti riflessi.
“grandmother” and “grandfather” in several Mesoamerican languages

Nahuatl

  • grandmother - citli
  • grandfather - colli

Mayan

  • grandmother - chiich
  • grandfather - nool, taaten, or nojoch taata

Zapotec

  • grandmother - daogoçh or xna'agolä
  • grandfather - xagolǝ

Purepecha

  • grandmother - Naná kheri, náant khéri, naníta, or naníta khéri
  • grandfather - Tatá khéri or tatíta

Mixe

  • grandmother - ta’mam
  • grandfather - apteety or tety’ap

anonymous asked:

Hi! This isn't really a question for homework or an exam or anything, it's just curiosity. Why is it "conmigo" and "contigo" instead of "con mí" and "con ti"? I thought that maybe that was a common thing in Romance languages, but it isn't.

Because it comes from Latin.

What started as me cum and te cum and se cum in Latin turned into mecum, tecum, and secum in Latin. They started to add another cum in front to make it more apparent.

What’s funny is that the cum in Latin turned into con “with” in Spanish. Thus, it became funnily more emphatic: cum mecum, cum tecum, cum secum.

As the C sound in mecum turned into a G over time, and the cum turned to con you ended up with…

  • conmigo = “with me” = cum mecum
  • contigo = “with you” = cum tecum
  • consigo = “with him / her / it / You (formal) / they (plural)” = cum secum

The only pronouns spared that were vosotros and nosotros

Actually very old Spanish had forms that are now antiquated: con(n)usco and convusco. They come from cum noscum and cum voscum. I write connusco with the two N’s because I’m more used to seeing it that way, but modern Spanish doesn’t like double letters much (except for RR or LL)… and because it makes it clear it’s Latin. 

These became obsolete between 1100 and 1500. They were totally obsolete once the Renaissance began, only brought up by people who were mastering Latin or very educated; often the clergy.

The reason you still have ti, and  as dative “for me”, “for you”, “for him/her/it/they” is because there were also dative markers for Spanish.

The Spanish dative markers were influenced by Latin. They were mihi, tibi, sibi, nobis, and vobis

Over time they were replaced by the Spanish accusative (direct objects) me, te, se, nos, vos. Except in the cases of + dative, de + dative, por + dative… generally a preposition + dative still earns a mí, ti or  because they dropped the final syllable, and nobis and vobis were left out in favor of nosotros and vosotros.

In short: Spanish had dative, but replaced it with accusative. So now Spanish has accusative markers for indirect (dative) AND direct (accusative) objects.

Which I guess makes it easier for people studying Spanish with less to remember. The correlation between me and mihi etc. was probably obvious enough that it didn’t make much difference when me was used for both.

The real reason you don’t say con mí is because  is dative. It implies “for me” and with “with me” there’s no object being acted upon; nothing’s being done for something else so it’s not really dative case.

Which is why it’s conmigo and not con mí.

Same for contigo and consigo.

And with connusco and convusco out of date, they can only use con nosotros and con vosotros.

Teachers generally try to leave the etymology and linguistics out of the discussion of why con mí is wrong because unless you’re studying Latin or German or Russian, case systems aren’t something English speakers really know much about.

Plus big scary linguistics scare the newbies.

french ressources
let’s start with youtubers !

I discovered some great and interesting french youtubers lately, so I thought it might help people who are learning french n_n. 



doc seven : it’s basicaly a lot of facts in rythmed and interesting videos ( like, “ les 7 personnes les plus recherchées au monde ” or “ 7 metiers quasiement disparu ” )

linguisticae : this guy explains linguistics like nobody else, so french idioms, vocabulary and also he explains where some languages come from.

taupe10 same things as Doc Seven, but with the number 10 ( when doc seven does top 7, taupe10 does.. well, top 10 ).

pilote this channel is all about tv show, about this beautiful universe that is the serie universe. So yeh, he does different kinds of videos but they all are about tv shows.

romain teatime so this guy does biographies like nobody else. You can find lot and lot of biography well-explained, but also the stories behind fashion stuff ( like the heels, the skirts… ). And the “curiositea” serie which is kind of a lot of random stories with a lot of facts about something really interesting.

les cours de japonais this professor in university gives free and great japanese classes. So yep, if you want to study french and japanese ( although that might be quite difficult but ey, it’s a great youtube channel so ).

thomas gautier he’s a youtuber from Quebec ( so not the same accent and idioms as the metropolitan france but it’s still french right ) and he’s really, really funny.

histoire brèvesbasicaly it’s some history chapters, conflicts and so on explained shortly and well

dirty biology to be honest I just found this one and haven’t watched any of his videos yet, but it seems to be interesting and great. So it’s basicaly a bunch of youtube videos about biology ( but in a fun way, like “ game of thrones vs science, flying dragons ? ” )

les topovaures, yay, the first lady in this list ! So, she does some top ( like doc seven or taupe10, but it’s not a top 7 or a top 10 but : a top 5 ).and they are about a looooot of different things, like really, it can go to star wars to mythology.

les lectures de nine let’s keep going with girls ! So Nine has a channel where she talks about books, basicaly.

margaud liseuse sooo a girl who reads, (well a second one). Because we never have enough books to read okay.

links the sun So this guy does a “point culture” serie wich is mainly about discovering a subject ( like the pirates for instance ) and the “non mais t'as vu ce que t'écoutes” in which he does some criticism about popular music ( those in the top in france )

nota benean other youtuber talking about History ! It’s so damn interesting, and he talks about the middle age, mythology stuffs, vikings stuff and so on.

la vidéothèque d'alexandrieokay so it’s a facebook page kind of like a headquarters for a lot of youtubers ( but not the entertaining kind of youtubers, the teaching in a fun way, educative kind ). So yeh, basicaly a lot of great youtubers ( in it you can find some of those I introduced you before but there are others that I haven’t checked yet so yep ).

le rire jaune that’s not an educative / study related channel like the others, but an entertaining/funny one. So, basicaly it’s two brothers living in paris and doing podcasts/vlogs.



and while i’m at it, this is a list of some great french singers/bands ( I won’t introduce them like saying a lot of things about each of them, I’m sorry, but it’s basicaly good music and I’m not daily listening to each of them so ) ;

L.E.J It’s 3 girls who started by doing covers, one of their video ( summer 2015 ) went viral and now they are actualy doing their album ( a covers album first ) aaand finaly an original song came out ! ( here ).

Luke Luke is a french rock band, and they’re just awesome. So I really love this one here but they are all awesome.

Téléphone Telephone is an old french band whish is now disbanded but it’s not a reason not to keep listening to them right ? ( some ideas of songs to start : here, here and here )

Florent pagny So yes, he’s pretty old now, he’s not the average 25 pop singer; but his voice is amazing, and he’s quite funny actualy ( he was a coach in the voice france ~ ). AND, there’s this one song that when I listen to, I cry. Like, for real. ( the cry me a river song )

CalogeroCalogero is a singer quite concerned about what happens in the world and around him. His voice is amazing as well. He has a guitar. Two recent songs he made : un jour au mauvais endroit, this song is about something that happened in Echirolles ( near Grenoble (somewhere in france)(not near paris)) : a young boy killed by others just because he looked at them. // le portrait this one is about a kid who draws the portrait of his mother because she’s dead and its the only way he can remember her. AND yes, I almost forgot but I can’t not talk about this song : J'ai le droit aussi this one is about homosexuality. it’s about tolerance. It’s about a guy who loves an other guy and wants to have the rights to be with him too, just like other couples.

Cats on trees its a duet, and they did one song i truly really love but they sang it in english ( here ).

Louane She’s a young girl who won The Voice (france) and then was casted as the main character in the film : La famille Belier ( which is a good movie btw, you sould definitely go check it out ). So I don’t like that much what she does, but it’s still pretty good, and she has a pretty voice, it’s just not my type of music at all. BUT i love her version of “Je vole” which is in the OST of La Famille Belier.

Emmanuel Moire is a french singer who did some musicals ( like Le Roi Soleil), and I like this song of him ( which is very poetic so maybe hard to understand but still, pretty ).

Julien Doré He won La Nouvelle Star, and he has a unique voice, like really. So, here ( but it’s quite poetic too )

Coeur de pirate she’s a singer from quebec, and she has a beautiful voice ( like all the others I know ). She took part in the “La bande à Renaud” ( okay sorry, grammaticaly it should be La bande de renaud but it’s how they wrote it ). It’s an album with covers of Renaud’s songs as a tribute. Here’s the one she did.

Zazie I was a huge fan of her when I was a kid, and I still like her songs. They have an actual meaning which is great. One of her most famous song ( and I know (proudly) all the lyrics yay) is this one but my favorite is this one



Some other great songs and great bands without description because it’s starting to be a really long list. I only put one song of each singer/band but they did some other great songs ~ à ma place/ // manathan kaboul // Liberta // Le vent nous portera // J'ai demandé à la lune // Désolé pour hier soir // La lettre // J'temmène au vent //La tribu de dana // Dernière danse // Les lacs du connemara // Tout le bonheur du monde // Tous les cris les SOS ( by Daniel balavoine ) // L'aigle noir // Les mots bleus + thierry amiel’s version // Je voulais te dire que je t'attend // L'assasymphonie // être à la hauteur // je veux le monde // un ange frappe à ma porte //



Also, I wanted to introduce you the youtube chanel : ONDAR ( on ne demande qu'à en rire ). Because : it’s amazing. Okay so ONDAR is firstly a tv program in which people who wants to become humorists come and do a sketch. And they post all their sketchs on youtube, so hey, let’s laugh a little would you ? Here are some of my favourites ; l'avocat de la salade, la fritte et la saucisse, changer son or en argent liquide ( and a lot more )


So yep, that’s it, feel free to add some (:

Testo vuol dire Tessuto; ma laddove fin qui si è sempre preso questo tessuto per un prodotto, un velo già fatto dietro al quale, più o meno nascosto, sta il senso (la verità), adesso accentuiamo, nel tessuto, l'idea generativa per cui il testo si fa, si lavora attraverso un intreccio perpetuo; sperduto in questo tessuto - questa tessitura - il soggetto vi si disfa, simile a un ragno che si dissolva da sé nelle secrezioni costruttive della sua tela. Se amiamo i neologismi, potremmo definire la teoria del testo come una ifologia ( hyphos, è il tessuto e la tela del ragno). 

Roland Barthes, Il piacere del testo

Nahuatl word of the day - uicatinemi

Pretérito o perfecto, ouicatinenmo- ir, vivir juntos, hablando de varios personas. Nite- ir, estar en compañía, andar con alguien, acompañarlo. Impersonal, uicatinemoa, se acompaña, estar acompañado. Raíces, uicanemi.

Past or perfect, ouicatinen: mo- to go, to live together, talking about several people. Nite- to go, being in the company, walking with someone, accompany them. Impersonal, uicatinemoa, accompanied, to be accompanied. Roots, uica, nemi.

Diccionario de la lengua Náhuatl o Mexicana by Remi Simeon, page 754

La lengua se mueve a lo largo del tiempo en una corriente de su propia hechura. Tiene un curso… Nada es perfectamente estático. Toda palabra, todo elemento gramatical, todo sonido y acento es una configuración lentamente cambiante, moldeada por el curso invisible e impersonal que es la vida de la lengua.
—  Edwuard Sapir

If you’re a linguist and don’t mind watching videos in French, please make sure to check Linguisticae [x] !

His videos are clever, funny and you learn a lot about French, the origins of some idioms, but he also tackles some more serious linguistics questions such as the difference between languages and dialects and always with a great sense of humour!

I believe there are some subtitles in different languages for his videos, so make sure to check that too! :D

Glosario de Lingüistica (básico)
  • Alofonos: 2 manifestaciones foneticas de un mismo fonema
  • Alomorfos: variaciones de un mismo fonema
  • Denotación: Terminos para nombraral significado estable establece que todo hablante comprenderá al escuchar una palabra
  • Dialecto: Variedad social regional de una lengua que se identifica por tener un conjunto de palabras y estructuras grmaticales particulares
  • Fonemas: sonidos de las lenguas, se representan con: //
  • Fonetica: Se centra en la naturaleza de los sonidos del lenguaje, se divide en articulatoria y acústica, la primera analiza los sonidos no como unidades constrastivas sino desde el punto de vista de su naturaleza física, la segunda estudia el sonido según las propiedades acústicas de las ondas
  • Fase nominal:Nomra el conjunto de elementos lingüísticos que acompañen al nombre
  • Idiolecto: La oforma de una lengua hablada por un solo habitante
  • Lengua arágrafa: Lengua sin tradición escrita
  • Morfemas: Unidades mínimas con significado que se pueden identificar, cuentan con significado, los que tienen de diccionario y de los cuales se puede dar una definición les llamamos morfemas lexicos o lexemas
  • Morfología: Estudio de la estructura interna de la palabra
  1. Léxica: Derivación del proceso mediante el cual se añaden morfemas a una raíz de manera que se forma una nueva palabra o lexema
    • Oraciones: Construcciones con sentidos
    • Pragmática: Estudio de la lengua en uso o de las relaciones entre la lengua y contexto situacional mima que resulta fundamental para el entendimiento del lenguaje humano
    • Semiótica: Estudio de las relaciones de los signos con los objetos que éstos dominaban
  • Sintaxis: Estudio de las oraciones, así como los morfemas y las palabras que son unidades significativas
  • Sociolecto: Diferentes formas en las que hablan una lengua diferentes miembros de una clases social especifíca