photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts of plants. it takes place in two parts - light reactions that happen in the thylakoids and the calvin cycle. in light dependent reactions, light from the sun excites electrons in photosystem II. during this time, two water molecules are split into four hydrogen ions, four electrons, and oxygen. the electrons are used to replace any lost electrons in PII, the hydrogen is released into the lumen, and oxygen is released as a byproduct. the energized electrons move down the electron transport chain, where they pull in hydrogen ions to the lumen as well. in photosystem I, the electrons are added to NADP+ to make NADPH. H+ ions in the lumen flow down the concentration gradient and power ATP syntheses, which makes ATP. the NADPH is used in the calvin cycle along with carbon dioxide and ATP to make glucose, until they return to the light dependent reactions as NADP+ and ADP.
a/n: I saw the quote “no you’re not perfect but you’re not your mistakes” and immediately thought of taeyong because of the mistakes he made when he was younger. He still beats himself up about it and apologizes but no one seems to be able to forgive him and I think we should all find it in our hearts to forgive him and realize we’ve all made mistakes, but it’s wrong to constantly torment people about the mistakes they’ve made.
Aries: Fire Manipulation - Users can create, shape and manipulate fire, the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products, flame being the visible portion of the fire. Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire’s intensity will be different.
Taurus: Psychometry - The user obtains historical memories or sensations concerning beings and objects they can observe by their senses. With objects they gain the knowledge including the makers, users, and even those who have on passing used the object, and what has been done with it. With living beings or parts of the body the user learns their general life-history, but doesn’t gain anything of what they were thinking or feeling.
Gemini: Metamorphosis - User can enhance themselves and others via accelerated evolution process by triggering a bodily recovery system, resetting their genome and upgrading to a better physical form. Upgrading can lead to new physical enhancements. High end wielders of this ability can control the very flow and essence of progressive mutation.
Cancer: Animal Morphing - The user can transform into animals, as well as use the abilities, traits and appearance/physiology of animals by rearranging their own DNA structure. Some may have this ability from an empty genetic code, allowing them to accept any form from which they have a DNA sample, others may be able to alter their form mentally and change just by seeing and mimicking animal features.
Leo: Summoning - The user can transport person, creature, or object of choice by means of Teleportation, Dimensional Travel, Portal Creation or some other way. This may also result from a previous summoning contract, which creates a connection between the summon and summoner. High level users may not be bound by restrictions such as a contract, and can summon anything they want, including powerful beings or “familiar spirits” and often require strong mystic connections to where these entities reside. Users can call upon fairies, angels, demons, or animal spirits, just to name a few. The summoning can backfire, however, leading to any number of misfortunes, such as the summoned person, creature, or item causing harm to the summoner.
Virgo: Substance Mimicry - User is or can transform their body completely into fundamental elements, including air, earth, electricity, fire, light, shadow, water, etc. User’s transformed form can be either anatomically identical to their normal form, aside of being made of element, in which case it contains all organs and is somewhat vulnerable to attacks. Alternately user can transform into homogenous matter, without any part of their form being more important than the other.
Libra: Empathy - The user can fully interpret and replicate the emotions, moods, and temperaments of others without reading apparent symptoms, allowing them to understand introverts or discover one emotion is actually hiding another. They can attack someone in a personal and emotional way since they know exactly what emotion is flowing through themselves and can use this knowledge to play against them. Some users may learn to read emotional imprints left into environment or objects. Usually over time, an Empath’s power grows to the point that they can manipulate emotions on others, and possibly use them to empower themselves. User may learn to extend their power over/on vast number of sentient beings or reach extreme distances, even other levels of existence but this may be possible only if the user has emotional link to those they search already in effect.
Scorpio: Elemental Blast - The user can release their elements/energy over a specific target area causing great damage and/or delivering great shock waves of pure force.
Sagittarius: Wing Manifestation - User has or is able to manifest wings that grow or are attached to the body allowing flight. They may also protect from rear attacks or detach and re-grow for quick getaways.
Capricorn: Dimensional Awareness -
The user can sense activity in these portals from their own world. They can go so far as to detect the outer reaches of a dimension, even breaking the fourth wall.
Aquarius: Intangibility - User is able to move through objects and ignore most physical effects in their way, exact means how this is done vary between slipping partially into other dimensions, being able to make their own particles move between other particles, being non-physical being of energy, vibrating their molecules into a new quantum frequency, etc. Regardless the user is able to ignore most attacks, physical dangers and gravity.
Pisces: Dream-World Lordship - User has duty and domain over the Dream-World, place where dreams come and go while it advances into the users own hands. User can very well control the Dream-World and the dreams that come and roam around freely, as well as nightmares and daydreams. Also can spy on dreams and come inside dreams as well.
Oscillating chemiluminescent reaction using a luminol-H2O2-KSCN-CuSO4-NaOH system.
Long ago, according to the second law of thermodynamics, chemical reactions could only go one way, from starting material A to product B, since in every natural thermodynamic process the sum of the entropies of all participating bodies is increased. The except is the oscillating reactions, a classical example of non-equilibrium thermodynamics.
In 1951 Boris Pavlovic Belousov noted, while investigating the citric acid circle, that in a mix of potassium bromate, cerium(IV) sulfate, malonic acid, and citric acid in dilute sulfuric acid, the ratio of concentration of the cerium(IV) and cerium(III) ions oscillated, causing the colour of the solution to oscillate between a yellow solution and a colorless solution. Belousov made two attempts to publish his finding, but was rejected on the grounds that he could not explain his results (because of the second law of thermodynamics) to the satisfaction of the editors of the journals to which he submitted his results.
During the last 60 years, several oscillating chemical reactions have been described, some of them uses luminol as a chemiluminescent indicator as seen on the above gif. Chemiluminescent reactions are also among the most fascinating demonstrations. Many of these demonstrations can be found in the Journal of Chemical Education.
A journey into superpowers ↳
( Also called Pyrokinesis / Fire Release / Firebending )
• User can create, shape and manipulate fire, the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products, flame being the visible portion of the fire.
Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire’s intensity will be different.
Portgas D. Ace
(Marvel Comics) Madison Montgomery
(American Horror Story: Coven)
(Gravity Falls) Sailor Mars (Sailor Moon) Leo Valdez (Heroes of Olympus) Pyrope (Undertale) Zuko
(Avatar: The Last Airbender)