life span of animals

  • Me: hey so here's all the awful ingredients in Science Diet that's exacerbating your cat's health problems
  • Old Dude: I didn't realize there was so much to feeding cats...
  • Me: well, there are plenty of animals that live relatively healthy mostly full life spans on this stuff but then there's the one cat that gets sick and needs $4000 emergency surgery--
  • Old Dude: lol I ain't spending that on a cat. If it was a dog maybe..
  • Me: ..................... then........ . Why do you have a cat?

anonymous asked:

Can you explain to me exactly how Kanda's tattoo works? I heard someone said it heals him using his 'life force' and it's like burning a candle from both ends. What is 'life force'? Is it like life span? Also, I know that Mugen's Triple, Forth and Fifth Illusion takes away his life force. I want to ask if this apply to Mugen's crystal form: Does those techniques also take away his life force when Mugen's in crystal form?

Kanda’s tattoo is first and foremost a mark bore by the ‘second exorcists’ Alma also had the symbol.

As we see in chapter 199, the symbol is pretty much the core of the second exorcists’ It’s their heart, so to speak. When Alma self destructs, the core is the only thing that remains behind and the body start to form around it.

It’s safe to say that, yes, once the core is completely destroyed, the host, aka Kanda will die. However, as we have seen, it takes quite the beating for that to happen. Alma’s core was still able to partially bring him back even after everything that happened. And while it has been mentioned that Kanda’s tattoo is taking it’s tool on him, it still manages to completely heal him, so there’s still a while to go. Though we aren’t entirely sure how much more Kanda can handle. 

So to answer your question, yes, the tattoo somewhat represents Kanda’s lifespan. ((life force’ has the same meaning as ‘life span’ but it usually refers to living things like plants, animals, humans, whereas ‘life span’ can also refer to a fridge or a computer, and it means the time period that said object is functioning))

Kanda hasn’t really used Mugen with its illusions since it’s evolution, so we can’t know for sure. It might still affect him, but it might also not. We’ll have to wait and see.

Specializing with particular species in Zoos

I received a question recently about the differences of working with species or sections within zoos. I thought i would post a small bit of a break down on various departments in order for people to perhaps know what to expect when working with particular species

Things do differ from collection to collection but the basic ethos is there. This is for people keen to know the core realities of management of particular sections.

Aquatics, Herpetology and Invertebrates 

these three departments are seen as somewhat more scientific than say, a mammal department. You have species that require such specific controls in temperature, light, and general habitat condition that there is a lot numbers and behavior to be recorded. there is lots of cleaning of tanks and holding boxes to be done, aquatic experience is often required even in reptile and invert departments these days as siphoning water and looking after some fish and crustacean species often fall in these departments these days..You also maybe with dealing with animals with an incredibly short life spans when working with inverts, however with some reptile departments, say a Galapagos maybe working with some incredibly old animals too! 

However there is just a phenomenal amount of work in terms of conservation breeding and studies done in these areas that, due to the animals not being cuddly and furry sometimes go unheard of. The reason for this is sometimes the cost of working to save a captive colony of Partula snail for example, is far more cost effective then say, a group of Bonobo. (food costs per animal or group etc) Arguably they can achieve far  more conservation work and stay in budget.

Birds And Mammals 

Working with birds will differ slightly in terms of species, such as if you are working with animals such as vultures or with Penguins. This goes without saying - There is always lots of scrubbing to be done Birds poo a lot so lots of cleaning of floors and rock faces. Aquatic experience is also often desired especially with penguins. 

There is often opportunities to hand rear birds and Train and fly birds for shows for the public and public feeds . In some organisations the opportunities to re-release birds back to the wild. 

Mammals I will try and breakdown a little bit as it seems to be a popular area of work. 

Small Mammals 

from rats and mice to bats and loris and tamarins. It can often mean working in small often dark enclosures, where you may have to contort yourselves through ropes and Liliana! often you will be sharing the enclosures with the animals while you clean and feed. along with Lots of damping down enclosures with a hose to keep the Humidity up.

Preparing food for small mammals can be a chore. You often have to weigh fruit, vegetables and other feed such as pellet and seed mix very precisely. I always found it comical because sometimes their food dishes look like little salad bar servings! so it is very precise.

Elephants & Hoofstock

Full contact work with Elephants, going in with a herd and walking them is something which is very much dying out. Many reputable zoos are in the process of, or already have switched to Protective contact systems. In my opinion far too many keepers have been killed or seriously injured, and its not something that I deem is necessary to a herds well being. Most of the time it also means keepers have to discipline their elephants and again far too many times we hear stories in the press of elephants being abused. 

Working with Elephants you will be shoveling A LOT of heavy and large poo. the size of soccer balls. not to mention old browse, hay and bedding. It is really hard work so you must be willing to be fit, strong and healthy. 

There are opportunities to bottle feed young Elephants sometimes. 

I firmly believe that Elephants are probably some of the most dangerous animals that you can work with in a zoo, you must really have your wits about you. 

Care of Hoofstock is somewhat similar to elephants, you spend much time day to day shoveling and forking lots of bedding. Some would say its much like working on a farm. 

With both Elephants and hoof stock there are opportunities to train, for things like foot care of Okapi or zebra and such, and ear and trunk care in the case of elephants. 


Working with Primates is extremely Clinical. Be prepared for a heck of a lot of cleaning. Great apes especially can catch human disease and infection so there is a lot of scrubbing poo off floors, walls and climbing apparatus. It is of course extremely rewarding and your animals do give you a lot of interaction. Being close relatives it is a deep bond you make with your animals (that is not to say you do not with other species) but be prepared for some emotional times when animals are unwell or sadly pass away.. its not easy. Depending on where you work there is lots of opportunities to train animals also. Many good zoos will encourage a heavy amount of enrichment for their primates. 

Again the danger is always there. Apes and large monkeys especially will try and grab you. whether they mean to be aggressive or just playful they can do a lot of damage through protective mesh. safety and protocol is of utmost importance. Lock checking and a strict routines are in place such as accounting for all animals when going into an inside or outside animal area. in addition to ensure there is not a mistake made and an animal is able to escape. Primates  are smart enough to know what locks are for and are known to try and pull at them ! 


Working with large carnivores, Big cats and canines or bears is also fairly clinical. lots of scrubbing and blasting out animal areas with hoses! 

Its important to be aware of stereotyping from some carnivores can be particularly bad. they must have an enriched life in captivity. 

You will need to be comfortable with preparing large joints of meat and hanging them on poles and at heights within enclosures. Security is also important with carnivores very similar protocol will be in place when working with carnivores. When you have packs of dogs and wolves its important t head count all animals, and be able to keep an eye on all their health and well being. 

I’ve probably rambled somewhat off the subject in places but i hope it makes sense. I’ve obviously not covered all species or section areas but its a rough outline. If anyone has anything to add or an opinion to give let me know! 

                                    The Dark Ages in Zootopia

When I look at the picture above several things come to mind. First, good thing they changed the script because for a message going against prejudice it sure seems like they were setting up for Sheep to be Scapegoat of history (You shouldn’t be looking at predators as the problem…when it’s been the Sheep all along!!). Second, Osiris, Marduk, A Saint, and the Celtic Knot would have added a good amount of history to the setting. Third, and actually getting to the point, it makes me think of how the world of Zootopia functioned before Zootopia was actually built.

We don’t get a direct timeline on when the city came to be, only that it is actually still an incredibly unique concept in the world. Indeed presenting itself in a rather World’s Fair fashion. Due to the North American theme of Bunnyburrow and its relatively close distance to Zootopia, we can assume with fair certainty it’s also on the North American continent (insert U.S, melting pot of the world analogy here). From there we can also assess that given its eclectic nature it didn’t come until travel to other parts of the world was relatively common, IE no more than 200 years old and probably less.

The picture of ancient battlefield popped in my mind of a Ram warrior Celtic garb charging at his predator foes with “For the Herd!” bellowing out of lungs. For even while being the most progressive city in the world, Zootopia is still stepped in species bias. So it’s hard to imagine universal peace was obtained the moment the first mammal stood upright.

When the first spear was crafted by prey, the herbivores became exponentially less viable as a food source. It also stands to reason that animals have generally human life spans (as otherwise there would be irreconcilable differences in the promotion of an inter-species civilization where “Anyone can do anything”) and prolonged infant-to-adult maturation rates would also put a damper on the primeval food chain.

I call the time between The Savage Age and Modern Zootopia the “Dark Ages”. While it obviously spans a time period greater the medieval Europe, it seems the least cumbersome title in getting to the point. In this age I imagine the world divided into three primary classes: Herd nations, predator empires, and vassal tribes. Herd Nations, where Ungulates of decent size and large populations (Sheep, Buffalo, Wildebeest, etc) are able to claim dominion over large portions of land. Vast predator empires, formed on the martial prowess. Then Vassal tribes, compromised of a large variety species under the rule of one of the other two.

Races like Sheep could spread and maintain themselves over a wide variety of lands, while one species would be unabashedly dominant, species of lesser influence could find common ground where they wouldn’t with a predator. Not that all relations would be a heartfelt stand against predator enemy. Simply bending the knee to biggest power and becoming a part of the protectorate because it’s a lost fight otherwise would be the most common reason for multi-species nations.

Spartan-like predator empires would be other balance of power. Due to their diet, predators like lions, wolves, and bears, couldn’t compete in a balanced society like the herds could. Instead almost all of the ruling species would be a part of the warrior class that has enslaved a good number of vassal races. The vassal races would in turn be directed to the production of alternative meat sources like the farming of birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and fish. While the threat of being eaten would be a constant cultural cornerstone, for practical reasons this would rarely happen and be mostly relegated to war, “criminal” punishment, and ritual.

Most species would be in the vassal category and it would include both predators and large mammals. Weasels wouldn’t have the size to compete Lions or Zebras. Races like Hippos and Elephants, despite their massive size and strength, would also not be able compete numerically with herd or predator powers on a continental scale. Though they would probably hold a higher status in any given society than, say, a lemming.

Much like our own history, the world would look as if it were on fire. Herd states would fight Herd states and predators would fight predators. Vassal tribes would switch allegiances or be conquered by a rising power. The fall of kingdoms and civilizations would be at least as common as it has been in our own world.

As technology progressed, however, the gap between what species were capable of  would diminish and this would cause the most permanent of change. Again, I envision a canvas painting. In the mesas of North America the European rabbits have fled the old world and begun their own conquest. Buffalo, towering hulks of muscle, pour over the land by the thousands. In the trenches outside their fort, rabbits in union blue stand eerily side by side with coyote tribesman against their long hated enemies. Despite both physical and numeric strength, it is a slaughter. Buffalo; spitefully and vainly charge into the rifle fire of the once meek bunnies who have to climb the bodies of fallen buffalo to take aim at their next targets.

That is the end of the Dark Age. Though religions might have preached the message for thousands of years before, where the spear turned those who were once food into slaves, the fire arm turned slaves into equals. It signaled the end of civilizations based on racial supremacy and gave way to civilizations who would ideologically strive for equality (and the struggle between Democracy and Communism would begin).

When Nick Wilde and Judy Hopps run through the museum we can see that indeed not all species made it through the struggle (here is to you, mammoth). Though I imagine Juddy has a much less cynical view on history. 


Amazing Discovery: Plant Blood Enables Your Cells To Capture Sunlight Energy

Posted By: Sayer Ji, Founder - May 12th 2015

Chlorophyll Enables Your Cells To Capture/Use Sunlight Energy: A Copernican Revolution In Biology, Medicine & Nutrition

What if conventional wisdom regarding our most fundamental energy requirements has been wrong all along and we can directly harness the energy of the Sun when we consume ‘plant blood’?

Plants are amazing, aren’t they?

They have no need to roam about hunting other creatures for food, because they figured out a way to capture the energy of the Sun directly through these little light-harvesting molecules known as chlorophyll; a molecule, incidentally, which bears uncanny resemblance to human blood because it is structurally identical to hemoglobin, other than it has a magnesium atom at its core and not iron as in red blooded animals.

The energy autonomy of plants makes them, of course, relatively peaceful and low maintenance when compared to animal life, the latter of which is always busying itself with acquiring its next meal, sometimes through violent and sometimes through more passive means.

In fact, so different are these two classes of creatures that the first, plants, are known as autotrophs, i.e. they produce their own food, and the animals are heterotrophs, i.e. they depend on other creatures for food.

While generally these two zoological classifications are considered non-overlapping, important exceptions have been acknowledged.

For instance, photoheterotrophs – a sort of hybrid between the autotroph and heterotroph – can use light for energy, but cannot use carbon dioxide like plants do as their sole carbon source, i.e. they have to 'eat’ other things.

Some classical examples of photoheterotrophs include green and purple non-sulfur bacteria, heliobacteria, and here’s where it gets interesting, a special kind of aphid that borrowed genes from fungi[1] to produce it’s own plant-like carotenoids which it uses to harness light energy to supplement its energy needs!

To learn more about this amazing creature read the study published in 2012 in Scientific Reports titled, “Light- induced electron transfer and ATP synthesis in a carotene synthesizing insect.”

A green carotenoid tinted aphid that is capable of capturing sunlight to produce energy. Interesting right?  

But we need not look for exotic bacteria or insects for examples of photoheterotrophy.

It turns out that animals, including worms, rodents and pigs (one of the closest animals to humans physiologically), have recently been found to be capable of taking up chlorophyll metabolites into their mitochondria, enabling them to use sunlight energy to 'super-charge’ the rate (up to 35% faster) and quantity (up to 16-fold increases) of ATP produced within their mitochondria.

In other words, a good portion of the animal kingdom is capable of 'feeding off of light,’ and should be reclassified as photoheterotrophic!

The truly groundbreaking discovery referred to above was published last year in the Journal of Cell Science in a study titled, “Light-harvesting chlorophyll pigments enable mammalian mitochondria to capture photonic energy and produce ATP”, [contact me for the full version:] which I reported on recently, and which completely overturns the classical definition of animals and humans as solely heterotrophic.

Light-harvesting chlorophyll pigments enable mammalian mitochondria to capture photonic energy and produce ATP

Animals are Not Just Glucose-Burning Biomachines, But Are Light-Harvesting Hybrids

For at least half a century it has been widely believed among the scientific community that humans are simply glucose-dependent biomachines that can not utilize the virtually limitless source of energy available through sunlight to supplement our energy needs.

And yet, wouldn’t it make sense that within the extremely intelligent and infinitely complex design of life, a way to utilize such an obviously abundant energy source as sunlight would have been evolved, even if only for the clear survival advantage it confers and not some ethical imperative (which is a possibility worth considering … vegans/Jainists, are you listening?).

As the philosopher of science Karl Popper stated, a theory can only be called scientific if it is falsifiable.

And indeed, the scientific theory that humans are solely heterotrophic has just been overturned in light of empirical evidence demonstrating that mammals can extract energy directly from sunlight.

Deeper Implications of the New Study

First, let’s start by reading the study abstract, as it succinctly summarizes what may be of the most amazing discoveries of our time:                                                                                                                          

Sunlight is the most abundant energy source on this planet.

However, the ability to convert sunlight into biological energy in the form of adenosine-59-triphosphate (ATP) is thought to be limited to chlorophyll-containing chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms.

Here we show that mammalian mitochondria can also capture light and synthesize ATP when mixed with a light-capturing metabolite of chlorophyll.

The same metabolite fed to the worm Caenorhabditis elegans [earthworm] leads to increase in ATP synthesis upon light exposure, along with an increase in life span.

We further demonstrate the same potential to convert light into energy exists in mammals, as chlorophyll metabolites accumulate in mice, rats and swine when fed a chlorophyll-rich diet.

Results suggest chlorophyll type molecules modulate mitochondrial ATP by catalyzing the reduction of coenzyme Q, a slow step in mitochondrial ATP synthesis.

We propose that through consumption of plant chlorophyll pigments, animals, too, are able to derive energy directly from sunlight.“

And so, to review, the new study found that animal life (including us, mammals) are capable of borrowing the light-harvesting capabilities of 'plant blood,’ i.e. chlorophyll and its metabolites, and utilize it to photo-energize mitochondrial ATP production.

This not only helps to improve energy output, but the research found several other important things:

Despite the increased output, the expected increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that normally attends increased mitochondrial function was not observed; in fact, a slight decrease was observed.

This is a highly significant finding, because simply increasing mitochondrial activity and ATP output, while good from the perspective of energy, may accelerate aging and other oxidative stress (ROS) related adverse cellular and physiological effects. Chlorophyll, therefore, appeared to make animal mitochondria function in a healthier way.

In support of the above finding, worms administered an optimal range of chlorophyll were found to have significant extended life span.

This is in accordance with well-known mechanisms linked to improved mitochondria function (in the absence of increased ROS) that increases cell longevity.

The last point in the abstract above is especially interesting to me.

As a fan of coenzyme q10 supplementation for sometime, I have noticed profound differences qualitatively between ubiquinone (the oxidized form) and ubiquinol (the reduced, electron rich form), the latter of which has lead me to experience far greater states of energy and well-being than the former, even at far lower quantities (the molecular weight of a USP isolate does not reveal its bioavailability nor biological activity).

The study, however, indicates that one may not need to take supplemental coenzyme Q10, even in its reduced form as ubiquinol, because chlorophyll-mediated sunlight capture and subsequent photo-energization of the electron transport chain will naturally 'reduce’ (i.e. donate electrons) ubiquinone converting it into ubiquinol, which will result in increased ATP production and efficiency.

This may also explain how they observed no increase in ROS (reactive oxygen species) while increasing ATP production: coenzyme q10 in reduced form as ubiquinol is a potent antioxidant, capable of donating an electron to quench/neutralize free radicals.

This would be a biological win-win: increased oxidative phosphyloration-mediated energy output without increased oxidative damage.

Finally, in order to grasp the full significance of the study, one must read the authors’ conclusion:

Both increased sun exposure (Dhar and Lambert, 2013; John et al., 2004; Kent et al., 2013a; Kent et al., 2013b; Levandovski et al., 2013) and the consumption of green vegetables (Block et al., 1992; Ferruzzi and Blakeslee, 2007; van’t Veer et al., 2000) are correlated with better overall health outcomes in a variety of diseases of aging.

These benefits are commonly attributed to an increase in vitamin D from sunlight exposure and consumption of antioxidants from green vegetables.

Our work suggests these explanations might be incomplete.

Sunlight is the most abundant energy source on this planet.

Throughout mammalian evolution, the internal organs of most animals, including humans, have been bathed in photonic energy from the sun.

Do animals have metabolic pathways that enable them to take greater advantage of this abundant energy source?

The demonstration that:

(1) light-sensitive chlorophyll-type molecules are sequestered into animal tissues;

(2) in the presence of the chlorophyll metabolite P-a, there is an increase in ATP in isolated animal mitochondria, tissue homogenates and in C. elegans, upon exposure to light of wavelengths absorbed by P-a; and

(3) in the presence of P-a, light alters fundamental biology resulting in up to a 17% extension of life span in C. elegans suggests that, similarly to plants and photosynthetic organisms, animals also possess metabolic pathways to derive energy directly from sunlight.

Additional studies should confirm these conclusions.                                  

I think it is obvious that there are a wide range of implications this discovery holds for the fields of nutrition, medicine, and cell and evolutionary biology, to name but a few disciplines that will inevitably be profoundly affected, if not entirely transformed.

For example, as far as implications to the hotly debated field of ascertaining the ideal, ancestrally-based human diet, if animal cells evolved to be able to harness the energy of sunlight through the help of the 'blood’ of our plant allies, then isn’t it reasonable to believe that in order to optimize our biological potential nutritionally we require a certain amount of chlorophyll to take advantage of sunlight for our energy needs and perhaps evade sole reliance on the glucose-dependent energy pathways of the body whose over-expression and carbohydrate-rich dietary correlate are linked to conditions like cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease?

When one considers the potential of sunlight (a regular, daily, guaranteed source of energy) to contribute to our daily metabolic energy needs (and therefore the survival advantage conferred by regular consumption of chlorophyll-rich plant material), shouldn’t the Paleo community, which is highly fixated on animal tissue consumption, now be compelled towards putting chlorophyll on a higher level of importance versus conventional 'Paleo’/heterotrophic sources of sustenance, e.g. forged/hunted food?

Also, what are the implications for the increasing ambivalence within public awareness concerning sunlight exposure, where on the one hand it is viewed as a vital, if not life-saving source of vitamin D, while on the other hand a vector of lethality in skin cancer causation, against which especially pigment deficient races slather on various petrochemical preparations to defend themselves against?

What if sunlight (as was evidenced in the earthworm model) is toxic when no chlorophyll is present in our diet and tissues, but promotes both increased ATP and longevity when found there in optimal doses?  

These are just a few of the questions that are now on the table, following these recent discoveries.

Of course, there are many other implications of the study, and likely far more questions than answers now that should be investigated further.

I hope you the reader will help provide additional insight and share it below or in follow up articles that you are welcome to submit for publication by emailing us here.  

How to Put The Research Into Practical Application?

How do we translate this study into real life application?

This has been a common question for those loyal followers of "I love the research, but what do I do with it?”

First, green vegetables and their juices should no longer viewed simply as sources of antioxidants, alphabetic vitamins, nutrients, minerals etc., but carriers of essential mitochondrial cofactors without which our body can not optimally and efficiently produce ATP, and without which our body can not realize its biological potential for maximal longevity.

Of course, if you have been long time followers , you know we also look at ancestral foods (i.e. those which have been in the human diet for over 10,000 years) as highly dense and vitally important sources of biologically useful information which have become indispensable regulators of gene expression.  

This means that when you are consuming a glass of green vegetable juice, for instance, it is likely the most precious health promoting elixir on the planet and should be considered something of a nutritional 'bridge’ we, heterotrophs, can cross to become photoheterophic or light-capturing organisms, if we choose to be.  (Interested further in the human relationship to light?

Read: Biophotons: The Human Body Emits, Communicates with, and is Made from Light).

Here is my suggestion.

On top of increasing the consumption of green foods and/or vegetable juices, add in a liquid or encapsulated supplement that provides at least 200mg of additional chlorophyll daily.

In combination, make sure to get additional sunlight and engage in energy intensive, outdoor activities simultaneously.

If you like, visualize sunlight entering into the tissues of your body reaching deep down into your chlorophyll-metabolite saturated mitochondria.

Then observe and assess how you feel energetically following this exercise.

Do you feel more energy?

Less exhausted afterwards?

Please report back your experiences in the comments below so we can compare notes and continue to explore how to apply this finding to our daily lives in a useful way.

This study, along with several others more recent papers, represent a Copernican-type revolution in cellular bioenergetics.

What if chlorophyll, water, and our body’s own melanin produced were capable of producing most of our body’s energy needs?

Stay tuned for further reporting on this topic, including guest posts by noted scientists and clinicians who are also aware of the importance of this research and wish to help flesh out the theoretical implications and real world applications to human health.

[1] Moran, N. A. & Jarvik, T. Lateral transfer of genes from fungi underlies carotenoid production in aphids. Science (New York, NY) 328, 624–627 (2010).