December 8th in 1174 saw the release of William I ‘the Lion’ under the terms of the Treaty of Falaise, following a five-month imprisonment after invading Northumberland.
Under the treaty the Scots were taxed to pay the costs of the occupying English army and the English were to retain control of key Scottish castles like Stirling and Edinburgh. The treaty also stipulated that William acknowledge Henry II of England as his feudal superior. As a result, in 1186 Henry arranged for William to be married to Ermengarde de Beaumont, a granddaughter of King Henry I of England. Her dowry was Edinburgh Castle the modern translation of the text goes…..
“William, king of Scots, has become the liege man of the lord king against every man, for Scotland and for all his other lands; and has done him fealty as to his liege lord, as his other vassals are accustomed to do to him. Likewise he has done homage to king Henry, his son; and fealty, saving his faith to the lord king, his father. And all the bishops and abbots, and the clergy of the land of the king of Scots, and their successors, shall do to the lord king as to their liege lord, fealty for all for which he wishes to have it, as his other bishops are accustomed to do to him; and to king Henry, his son, and to their heirs. And the king of Scots, and David; his brother, and his barons and his other vassals, have granted to the lord king that the church of Scotland shall make to the church of England henceforth such subjections as she ought to make to her, and used to make in time of the kings of England, his predecessors. Likewise Richard, bishop of St. Andrew, and Richard, bishop of Dunkeld, and Geoffrey, abbot of Dunfermline, and Herbert, prior of Coldingham, have granted also that the church of England shall have the right in the church of Scotland which by right she ought to have; and that they will not oppose the right of the church of England… And for the sure observance of this agreement and compact, by the king of Scots and his heirs to the lord king and to Henry, his son, and his heirs, the king of Scots has delivered to the the lord king the castle of Roxburgh, and the castle of Berwick, and the castle of Jedburgh, and the castle of the Maidens*, and the castle of Stirling, at the mercy of the lord king… Morerover for the fulfilment of the aforesaid agreement and compact, the king of Scots has delivered up to the lord king his brother David as hostage, and earl Duncan, and earl Waldeve [and several others]. And when the castles have been rendered, William, king of Scots, and David his brother shall be released… ”
In 1189 Henry II was succeeded by Richard I. In order to finance the third Crusade, Richard, The Lionheart, sold England’s rights under the Treaty of Falaise back to William I for the sum of 10,000 marks (a mark was an accounting unit roughly equal to two-thirds of an English pound or one-and-a-half Scottish pounds) under the Quitclaim of Canterbury.
The Treaty of Falaise is the earliest Anglo‐Scottish treaty whose terms are known in full