The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also known as “25 de Abril” occurred on April 25, 1974 in Lisbon, Portugal, ending the forty-eight years of dictatorial rule of António de Oliveira Salazar and his successor, Marcelo Caetano. It was a nearly bloodless military coup led by a left-wing political force. Even though the PIDE (the secret police) murdered four people before they were forced to surrender, this revolution was unlike any other because the rebels did not use direct violence to realize their goals.

The name “Carnation Revolution” comes from the fact no shots were fired and when the population started descending the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship and war in the colonies, carnation flowers were put into the muzzles of rifles and on the uniforms of the army. The Portuguese celebrate the national holiday of Freedom Day on 25 April every year to celebrate the revolution.


O ser humano se diferencia dos outros animais pelo telencéfalo altamente desenvolvido, pelo polegar opositor e por ser livre.
Livre é o estado daquele que tem liberdade. Liberdade é uma palavra que o sonho humano alimenta, que não há ninguém que explique e ninguém que não entenda.
—  Ilha das Flores