lexington concord

5

Artistic representations of the battle of Lexington.

The first was produced just seven months after the battle by a Patriot militiaman, Amos Doolittle, who had fought during the British retreat from Concord and who had interviewed fellow militiamen present at Lexington. It shows dawn at Lexington Green, and a small gathering of militia being scattered by the regulars. 

During the 19th century images of the battle became increasingly divorced from reality. The militia become increasingly well-attired, with the work of  François Godefroy being the most extreme - the engagement has been transformed into a pitched battle between hundreds of uniformed soldiers, complete with flying colours, heavy artillery and blazing buildings. 

Some Historic Dates In April

April 15, 1912: sinking of the Titanic

Originally posted by ein-bleistift-und-radiergummi

April 16, 1746: Battle of Culloden Moor

Originally posted by thebookboyfriendharem

April 19, 1775: The beginning of the American Revolution with the “Shot Heard Round the World” (The Battle of Lexington and Concord)

Originally posted by bantarleton

Ok but seriously I need to give you the scoop on some of the ridiculousness that went down during Lexington and Concord because it was insane. These are just some of my favorites:

  • John Hancock and Samuel Adams are hiding out at Hancock’s cousin Lucy’s house in Lexington. When Paul Revere shows up to tell them to leave, William Munroe, a militiaman who was guarding the door, tells Revere to shut up and go away because everyone was asleep.
  • Hancock’s fiancee Dolly asks him to take her to Boston so that she can rescue her father. Hancock tells her that she isn’t allowed to go back there while the British are still occupying the city. She reminds him that they aren’t actually married yet so she can technically do whatever she wants without his permission.
  • Paul Revere and William Dawes meet a Concord doctor named Samuel Prescott, who just happens to be out at 1am because he had spent the day with his girlfriend and presumably got kicked out of her house. When a group of British soldiers chase them, Revere is captured, Dawes comically falls off his horse, and Prescott manages to get away with the alarm message to Concord. His getting the message across in time meant that there were enough soldiers in Concord to beat the British, meaning that his walk of shame basically caused us to win the battle.
  • Paul Revere tells the soldiers who captured him that there are hundreds or armed and angry country hicks converging on Lexington center who are prepared to slaughter the British; the soldiers get so scared they just let him and the other captives go and run away.
  • Elijah Sanderson, one of the Lexington militiamen, is sent out, unarmed, as a scout, and is captured. Luckily he is in the same group of captives as Revere and is also let go. After telling the Lexingtonians what is going on he is so exhausted that he sits down next to the fireplace in the tavern and falls asleep, only waking up when the drum starts beating. Once he gets outside he realizes that he had never actually gone home to get his gun and so has to hide in the tavern during the battle.
  •  Joseph Warren somehow sneaks out of Boston to join the fighting and almost get himself killed. At one point a bullet whizzes by so closely it knocks a bobby pin out of his wig.
  • After the battle at the North Bridge in Concord a man named Elias Brown, who was mentally disabled and did not really comprehend what was happening, starts wandering through the crowd selling hard cider to the soldiers on both sides and getting everyone drunk.
  • A British officer named Jeremy Lister was not assigned to the expedition, but had volunteered when another officer said he was sick and couldn’t go. He is shot at Meriam’s Corner and the bullet shatters his elbow, leaving his arm immobile for the rest of his life. After he recovers he is informed the other officer had been faking it to get out of work. 
  • A British soldier and an American soldier have a standoff in front of a well when they show up at the same time to get a drink. Both men pull out a gun and fire a shot; both of them die.
  • Samuel Whittemore, an 80 year old man from Menotomy, hides behind a wall and starts picking off British soldiers with dueling pistols. Eventually one of them manages to get through, shoot him in the face, and bayonet him several times. Some friends find him several minutes later still trying to reload his gun. They drag him home kicking and screaming, assuming that he will be dead soon. He lives to be 98.
  • A woman in Lexington, Mary Sanderson, hides in the woods with her family and then comes home to find a half-conscious British soldier lying in her bed. When her husband Samuel gets home he finds Mary raining obscenities upon the poor injured man. Samuel tells her that if they didn’t give him some food he will never have the energy to leave, but the soldier is so terrified of Mary he refuses to eat, only taking the food after making Samuel eat it to make sure it wasn’t poisoned. 

svfferign  asked:

ok asshat half the country has the era 3 test within the next week so tell us The Important Things in the shittiest meme-iest fashion ever go

Aight lets do this!!

1754-1763: French-Indian War - a mess, it’s England and France back at it again with the war thing

1754: a Young Wash™ loses Fort Necessity, goodbye General Braddock 😵

1763: Treaty of Paris pt. 1 - France loses A Lot of land (Canada, the Mississippi) but keeps the Money Islands in the Caribbean

1763: Proclamation of 1763 - the colonists can’t move to the land they fought for, they do it anyway because they are strong independent Americans who don’t need no rules

1764: Sugar Act - makes The Bostonians salty, but not much else happens, gets repealed

1765: Stamp Act my dudes, England needs The Monies™ and we gotta pay

1765: The Sons of Liberty gets lit, organized boycotts

1766: Declatory Act - “we rule you shut up” - parliament to the colonies

1767: disbands NY Assembly to make everyone agree not to mutiny, also starts the new taxes for the tea☕️, lead⛓, paint🎨, and paper📑(don’t anger the lawyers)

1770: The Boston Massacre - not really a massacre, but that’s not important once it hits Georgia (🖕🏻🖕🏻England). Like 5 people died. John Adams reps the soldiers

1772: The Sons of Liberty gets lit again, burns down the HMS Gaspee

1773: The Boston Tea Party 🐸☕️- because causing millions of dollars in losses is the American Way (Sam Adams burns down more boats), mostly because of the Tea Act

1774: The Intolerable Acts - stops the govt, closed Boston, lets British soldiers sleep in houses. ITS TIME FOR REVOLUTION!!!! 🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸🇺🇸

1774: the First Continental Congress, wants reconciliation, sends list of receipts on Britain, starts low-key making an army, really doesn’t do that much after that

1775: shots fired 🔫🔫Lexington and Concord. Paul Revere does the thing (HE SAID THE REGULARS ARE COMING NOT THE BRITISH ARE COMING MY DUDES)

1775: a New, Older Wash™ is appointed Commander in Chief, only bc he promised to fight for free (also, him big™)

1775: Bunker Hill, a loss for America, a mess, Siege of Boston, a win for America, but still a mess

1776: The Instigator Year, everything goes down. Common Sense, Washington loses New York, Battle of Trenton, Cross the Delaware,

1776: The Congress says “suck it England” and signs the Declaration

1777: Saratoga, General Burgoyne surrenders to Gates, France begins to notice (also, Lafayette gets shot in the leg at Brandywine and doesn’t notice)

1777: A gay Prussian saves the Army (von Steuben)

1778: Sugar Daddy France agrees to give us money and huge boats, with guns….gunboats

1781: British surrender at Yorktown, Cornwallis is salty and doesn’t come to negotiations

1783: Treaty of Paris pt. 2 - Adams, Jay, and Franklin end the war

1785: Northwest Ordinance, sets out how to become a state, how to divide land (why a lot of western states are squares)

1786: Shays’s Rebellion, the grand old tradition of hating taxes is back, they close the courts at Boston to stop them taking farms

1787: The shitshow that is the Constitutional Convention begins. Federalists v. Anti-Federalists is big govt. vs. small govt. Hamilton talks for 6 hours, cannot shut up

1787: The Federalist Papers, 85 essays defending the Constitution. HAMILTON WROTE. THE OTHER 51!!!

1787: The 3/5 Compromise for reps in the house, finally gets the constitution passed

1789: a Very Tired Wash™ is elected president

1791: Ham man wants his financial plan passed (National Bank, whisky tax, assume states debts, industry), but the Democratic Republicans don’t want it. Only gets passed because they agree to move the capital south (the room where it happens)

1790s: political parties happen divided over the French Revolution (Republicans love it, the Federalists hate it). Republicans led by The Jeffs and Jemmy Mads

1793: The Neutrality Proclamation gets tested by Citizen Genet. Wants to recruit for fighting for France. A Mess™

1794: Jay’s Treaty sort of fails, but gets us trade with England. He’s burned in effigy, Ham is stoned by a mob defending it

1795: Pinckney’s Treaty gets access to the Mississippi

1796: His Rotundy (Adams) gets elected, The Jeffs is VP. It’s messy.

1797: The XYZ Affair, they want the money, we don’t want to give them the money to negotiate. Messy

1798: The Alien and Sedition Acts - don’t be mean to Adams, it makes him cry. It’s harder to become a citizen

1798-1799: The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions want to nullify the unconstitutional Acts, which in itself is unconstitutional, so…..

1800: The Election “Revolution” of 1800 is probably the messiest election ever. Adams says Jefferson is dead, Jeffs retaliates, its awful

1800: The Electoral College has a tie with Jeffs and AyyAyyron Burr, Hamilton ends up breaking the tie. This works out great. (It doesn’t, he gets shot 4 years later)

I’ve been thinking about the strange claim among some circles that the American colonists in 1775 were plucky underdogs who went toe-to-toe with the world’s most powerful empire and defeated it. While it’s true that Britain probably was the world’s foremost power in 1775, it was only so because the Spanish were approaching the tail-end of their own abilities and France was in its post-Seven Years War slump. But even disregarding the fact that revolutionary victory was dependent on the world’s second and third most powerful empires backing the colonists up against the first, it’s really a huge reach to describe the Whigs as underdogs. 

The first reason for this is that the British Army plus German allies totaled 194,000 men at its height during the war, though 42,000 of those were militiamen relegated to Britain. That left 152,000 soldiers to not only defend a global empire against attacks from two other global empires (three if we count the lukewarm Dutch support for the American revolutionaries) but also suppress a rebellion among a population of well over 2,000,000 people (approaching 3,000,000 by 1780). It is estimated that of this total 6.5% of the population were actively involved in the revolutionary struggle against Britain - over 130,000 men. In its most simplistic terms, the revolutionaries in the Thirteen Colonies were able to muster almost as many soldiers as the entirety of the British empire, and that’s before said imperial forces were divided across the globe or kept in Britain to defend against a French invasion. This is also without factoring in the tens of thousands of French and Spanish forces either supplied to assist the revolutionaries directly or deployed separately against other British holdings. 

The upshot of all this is that Crown forces were outnumbered in almost every single battle and skirmish of the revolution. Britain was only able to deploy, at the height of the war, around 70,000 soldiers to North America without overextending itself elsewhere, and even with the support of Loyalists (who were far less active militarily than the revolutionaries) they would still be outnumbered at a ratio of nearly 2:1, even before the inclusion of French and Spanish forces. This disparity really comes out in the sources - British commanders like Cornwallis were continually aware of their parlous state, frequently stranded in hostile territory, surrounded and heavily outnumbered. That sort of situation, repeated as it was so frequently, is not the natural state of a superior fighting force. 

The maths provides the first reason why the Whigs weren’t the underdogs. The second comes from the nature of the fighting men themselves. The British Army in 1775 was no well-oiled machine. The last major conflict it had been involved in had ended 12 years earlier, and the intervening period had seen the government all-but purge the military in a series of huge cost-cutting exercises that reduced it to barely 20,000 men. The only soldiers with experience were a scattering of officers and NCOs. Almost all the regulars had never seen action before 1775. Ironically, the colonists had more military experience due to the intimate nature of the Seven Years War in North America. Many militia officers had served against the French and Indians. It has been estimated that at Lexington and Concord, the militia - the supposed underdogs - had more military expertise than the green regulars sent to face them. Both sides learned to fight as the war progressed, and while the pre-existing structures of the British Army gave it a certain advantage over the more amateur Continentals, man-for-man there was very little separating both sides. The British were certainly not a highly experienced and immaculately drilled fighting force.

tl;dr Britain wasn’t an exceptionally powerful empire and the American colonists were more numerous and experienced than popular history allows. Also France. 

April 19, 1775

The American Revolutionary War began with a series of military engagements between the towns of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. This became known as the “Shot Heard ‘round the World” and marks the outbreak of armed conflict between Great Britain and the American colonies.

On April 18th, Gage was ordered to send his army to Concord to destroy a stash of Militia military supplies (including weapons and gunpowder). Upon hearing of these orders and believing that the objective was the capture of Samuel Adams and John Hancock, Doctor Joseph Warren sent William Dawes and Paul Revere to warn them. 

After making sure Adams and Hancock were safely hidden and protected, it was agreed that they would continue to Concord and make sure the supplies were safe. So Dawes, Revere and several other riders rode out to spread word and raise the militias. On the way, Dawes and Revere came across Samuel Prescott who was on his way home to Concord and decided to join them men in alerting the colonists. The three of them made it halfway to Concord when they were detained by British patrol. Dawes and Revere were captured (later released to make their way back to Lexington) but Prescott got away and continued on to Concord.

The British Army’s advanced guard, under Pitcairn, were met at Lexington by the Lexington militiamen on April 19, 1775. Amongst a great deal of confusion and yelling a shot rang out as the two armies met. Nobody knew then, nor knows today, who fired but that shot was to be the first shot of the American Revolution. This is what is now known as the “Shot Heard ‘round the World”. 

The Lexington militiamen were defeated and the British troops moved forward towards Concord. The militiamen at Concord were ready for the British Army thanks to the raised alarm and managed to encircle the regulars who were advancing on Concord. After numerous casualties, the British commander ordered his troops to return to Boston. The British regulars, having been routed by the militiamen, began their march back to Lexington and Boston.

On their return march, they were faced with several groups of militiamen who caused a great deal of damage to their troops. The total number of losses were roughly 300 British and 100 Americans. The battles of Lexington and Concord roused New Englanders to begin the Siege of Boston which resulted in the British evacuation by March 1776 and thus beginning the American War for Independence. 

anonymous asked:

Do you have any interesting facts about Thomas Paine?

  • Because his father was a Quaker and his mother was Anglican, Thomas Paine’s parents would often argue about religion making it a focal point in his life.
  • He was unsuccessful as an apprentice to his father, a privateer, a corset shop owner and a custom’s officer before he moved to America.
  • Although he served some time in the army and monetarily supported the American Revolution, it was not his success as a soldier, but his writings that inspired colonists to continue their revolt against the British.
  • His first marriage ended in tragedy when his wife and child died during birth. 
  • At some point while living in England Thomas changed his birth name of Pain to Paine. 
  • Thomas Paine began his writing career while still living in England. He was involved in political matters and in 1772 published The Case of the Officers of Excise. This 21 page article was asking for higher pay for excise officers.
  • Thomas Paine married for the second time on March 26th, 1771, to Elizabeth Olive, the daughter of his landlord.
  • In 1774 Thomas Paine lost his job as an excise officer and in order to avoid debtor’s prison he sold all of his possessions. His second marriage ended soon after.
  • Thomas Paine moved to London and met Benjamin Franklin, who encouraged him to move to America and provided him with a letter of recommendation. 
  • While working as editor at Pennsylvania Magazine Thomas Paine began writing articles that were politically motivated. He wrote “African Slavery in America” in which he condemned the practice. He signed the article under the pseudonym ‘Justice and Humanity’.
  • Following the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, Thomas Paine wrote a 50 page pamphlet titled “Common Sense”, in which he suggested that America should revolt against Britain and demand its complete independence. It was printed on January 10, 1776.
  • “Common Sense” sold more than 500,000 copies within a few months of its first printing.
  • During the Revolutionary War Thomas Paine traveled with General Nathanael Greene of the Continental Army, as his personal assistant. During this time he wrote 16 “Crisis” papers which were published between 1776 and 1783.
  • 1777 Thomas Paine was appointed Secretary to the Committee for Foreign Affairs, but following a few missteps he was expelled from the committee two years later.
  • Thomas Paine eventually returned to England, and became involved once again in politics. He narrowly escaped execution in 1794.
  • Thomas Paine continued to write, until his death in 1809. For more than 100 years his image was tarnished, until 1937 when the truth was written in the Times of London, giving him credit for all his work and impact on the American Revolution.
7

On Memorial Day 2017, I would like to celebrate by looking back at our very first fallen veterans. In the 1860s, Revolutionary War veterans were beginning to disappear for good. Wanting to capture their photographs one last time for history to remember, one photographer set out to photograph the very last survivors he could find alive. This tiny set of 7-8 pictures is all that we have left of this remarkable generation. Some of these men were there at the battles of Lexington and Concord, one was a drummer boy for General Washington himself, and others fought and suffered injuries for their service; all of this nearly 240 years ago! Please reblog to share these little seen photographs because I honestly think Americans need and deserve to see their history with their own eyes in order to even begin to comprehend how real it was.

John Singleton Copley (1738-1815)
“Portrait of Margaret Kemble Gage”
(1771)
Oil on canvas
Located in the Timken Museum of Art, San Diego, California, United States

Margaret Kemble Gage (1734–1824) was the wife of General Thomas Gage, who led the British Army in Massachusetts early in the American Revolutionary War.

Some historians believe that Margaret Kemble Gage may have had a hand in causing the first fired shots of the American Revolution (the Battle of Lexington and Concord). A secret informant had provided “intelligence of their whole design” – “to seize Samuel Adams and John Hancock, who were known to be at Lexington, and burn the colonists’ military stores at Concord.” Instead, Paul Revere had been dispatched, and set off a chain reaction of alarm riders across Massachusetts and even to adjoining colonies.Though the evidence is slim and circumstantial, many historians feel that the leading suspect is Margaret Kemble Gage.

The state of New York used the anniversary of the Battles of Lexington and Concord to host “Wake up America Day” encouraging men to enlist in the military. Also on April 19, Americans fired their first shots in anger in the First World War when a merchant vessel in the Atlantic fired on a submerged German submarine, smashing its periscope and driving it away.

anonymous asked:

Does HBO John Adams miniseries have any historical inaccuracies?

  • There was a incorrect, wrong-headed depiction of Samuel Adams as a dangerous and corrupt mob-master, complete with a fictitious schism between Sam and his more moral cousin John. 
  • John Adams is depicted as still suspicious of his cousin Samuel and Samuel’s allies, worrying they are plotting to take over the government for their own ends.  In reality, John in these years was a consistent political ally of Samuel.
  • When Adams joins the delegates to the first Continental Congress in 1774, the delegates listed are actually those sent to the second Congress the following year.
  • Adams is shown riding into the immediate aftermath of the bloody fighting at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775; this is false- by his own account, he only rode out some days later to the militia encampment at Cambridge.
  • News of Bunker Hill, sent by Abigail allows John to rally the Congress and achieve the establishment of a continental army, with George Washington as its commander. In reality, Adams was central in urging the creation of a continental army, but Congress voted to do so on June 14, appointing Washington its commander on the 15th- two days before Bunker Hill even happened. 
  • The militia, withdrawing from Bunker Hill, passed directly by Abigail Adams’s door and she sees the mutilated body of Joseph Warren drawn by in a cart. But, Bunker Hill was on the opposite side of Boston Harbor, and the Adams home was entirely off the militia’s line of march.
  • General Henry Knox rides by Abigail’s door with the cannon captured from Fort Ticonderoga when in fact, his route took him nowhere near her.
  • The committee to prepare a declaration of independence is shown being created as a casual afterthought: in fact, this committee was established by a proper vote of Congress.
  • Dickinson did oppose John Adams, but the New York delegation- shown as violently hostile to Adams and his opinions- actually supported independence, though they still lacked authorization to vote for it.
  • The initial vote was not 9-4, but 9-2 with two abstentions (New York and Delaware).
  • Abigail and her children did not undergo the smallpox innoculation in isolation, but with relatives in Boston. The virus was not taken from the gory pustules of the dying but from those less severely afflicted, in hopes that inoculation would produce as mild a reaction as possible.
  • The hostility of South Carolina’s Edward Rutledge is exaggerated.
  • Adams did not fire the first shot in the engagement between a ship pursuing his in the Atlantic crossing. The officer shown dying was actually wounded later, when a cannon exploded while saluting a French vessel, and the stricken officer only died a week after that.
  • Adams’s lack of French: while this was true at first, he quickly became proficient.
  • He did not go to straight to Holland in search of loans: he instead returned briefly to Massachusetts.
  • October 1779, after John completed his service with the Massachusetts constitutional convention, he was sent back to France by Congress, appointed to negotiate peace-terms with Britain should opportunity arise.  He took his son John Quincy with him, as he had in 1778 and he also took Charles.
  • In 1784, it was not just Abigail Adams who joined her husband in Europe, but also their daughter Nabby abandoned.
  • In reality, she first rejoined him in London. Only later did they take a house in France and go there together, along with Nabby and John Quincy.  
  • Nabby’s presence in England is omitted (John Quincy had now returned to America), as is her courtship in London with Adams’s aide, Colonel William Smith, whom she in fact married there in 1786. 
  • The “Citizen Genêt” affair is exaggerated, made both a factor in the 1792 election (Genêt actually arrived in the Spring of 1793).
  • The ratification of the Jay treaty was distorted not only of fact. In the series, the Senate is deadlocked 15 to 15 on ratification. Vice President Adams is thus forced to step in and cast the tie-breaking vote, saving the treaty for the Washington administration. But according to the Constitution, then and now, treaties must be ratified by two-thirds of the Senate. There was not and could not be a tie. The Jay Treaty passed with exactly the required two-thirds, 20-10.  Adams had no vote. 
  • Adams, for example, is shown after his inauguration, suggesting that Jefferson serve as a special emissary to France. In reality, Adams made this proposal months earlier, before his inauguration.
  • Adams is shown as being caught off guard by the Alien and Sedition Acts. Congress sends to him the bills for signature; he seems anguished, reluctant to approve such harsh employment of government power. Finally, urged on by Abigail, he signs them. While it is true that Adams did not specifically urge the Alien and Sedition Acts on Congress, he was aware of them while they were under discussion.
  • In the series, Adams angrily rejects Smith’s requests for posts in the new national army, declaring openly that he has lost all confidence in Smith due to the latter’s financial speculations. Despite reservations about his son-in-law’s character, Adams did recommend Smith for the new army’s general staff: it was the Senate that rejected the appointment because of Smith’s questionable private affairs. Despite the embarrassment this had already caused him, Adams then pressed to get Smith a colonel’s commission, which the Senate reluctantly approved.
  • The last episode depicts the death of Nabby Adams from breast cancer.  An on-screen caption marks the start of Nabby’s ordeal as “1803.”  In fact, the cancer was diagnosed in 1810; her mastectomy followed in 1811.
  • It also emphasizes Benjamin Rush’s personal examination of Nabby in Quincy, and his personal performance of her mastectomy.  In reality, the tumor was diagnosed before Nabby returned to her parents’ home, Rush consulted on the case only by letter, and the surgery was performed by local Boston doctors.
  • What the series shows is Abigail Adams dies in 1818; John’s friend Benjamin Rush urges that he write to Jefferson about his loss, hoping the two elder statesmen can provide each other with comfort in their final years; Adams does so; Jefferson’s first reply is dated to 1819; the correspondence flowers, friendship is renewed. This entire sequence is very untrue. Rush was indeed was instrumental in renewing contact between Adams and Jefferson, but he was definitely not available to counsel Adams after Abigail’s death in 1818: Rush had died five years earlier. Rush had, in reality, worked carefully to bring the two former presidents back into harmony, but his efforts had culminated in 1812- it was then that the Adams-Jefferson correspondence actually resumed, and Abigail herself was personally involved in the exchange for its first six years.  
  • John Adams never went to see John Trumbull’s painting. “Do not let our posterity be deluded with fictions under the guise of poetical or graphical license.” This scene itself is actually partly fictionalized: the quote comes from a letter written several years earlier, when Adams first heard of Trumbull’s project.
Writing Research: American Revolution

The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.

Starting in 1765, members of American colonial society rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them without any representatives in the government, and resisted renewed British attempts to collect duties on goods such as sugar and molasses that for many years had gone uncollected through widespread smuggling by colonists. During the following decade, protests by colonists—known as Patriots—continued to escalate, as in the Boston Tea Party in 1773 during which patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea from the East India Company. The British responded by imposing punitive laws—the Coercive Acts—on Massachusetts in 1774 until the tea had been paid for, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. In late 1774 the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Britain, while other colonists, known as Loyalists, preferred to remain subjects of the British Crown.

Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, after which the Patriot Suffolk Resolves effectively replaced the Royal government of Massachusetts, and confined the British to control of the city of Boston. The conflict then evolved into a global war, during which the Patriots (and later their French, Spanish and Dutch allies) fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). Patriots in each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism. Claiming King George III’s rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists’ “rights as Englishmen”, the Continental Congress declared the colonies free and independent states in July 1776. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, and proclaimed that all men are created equal. Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. [1]

Names

  • ModernMom - Popular Baby Names in the 1700s
  • British Baby Names - Curiosities of the Seventeenth Century
  • Medieval Naming Guides - Early 17th Century English Names
  • Internet Archive - Early census making in Massachusetts, 1643-1765, with a reproduction of the lost census of 1765 (recently found) and documents relating thereto;
  • Olive Tree Genealogy - Irish Passenger Lists: 1765, no ship name, arriving from Ireland in Boston, Massachusetts
  • Trail Of Our Ancestors - Names of German Pioneers to Pennsylvania: 
    Passenger Ships’ Lists, 1750
  • USGenWeb Archives -  Names of Pioneers from the Palatinate Germany to Pennsylvania, 1754
  • RootsWeb’s Guide - Given Names in Early America
  • GIGA - Name Chronological List, 1760 - 1779

Society & Life

  • History.com - The American Revolution Begins: April 19, 1775
  • History.com - American Revolution
  • History Channel - American Revolution History (Video)
  • PBS - Liberty! The American Revolution
  • PBS - Africans in American: The Revolutionary War, Part 2
  • The History Place - American Revolution
  • The History Place - Prelude to Revolution, 1763 to 1775
  • The History Place - The American War for Independence: 1775 to 1776 Conflict and Revolution
  • University of Houston - Overview of the American Revolution
  • Library of Congress - The American Revolution
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica - American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - The American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - The American Revolution, 1763-1783
  • America’s Library - Revolutionary Period, 1764-1789
  • Coastal Heritage Society - American Revolution
  • About.com - American Revolution
  • United States Department of State - 1776-1783: American Revolution Timeline
  • United States Military Academy - American Revolution
  • British Library - The American Revolution from 1763 - 1787
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - Voices of the American Revolution
  • University of Groningen - Was the American Revolution a Revolution?
  • Independence Hall Association - Revolutionary War Timeline
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Reasons behind the Revolutionary War
  • Social Studies For Kids - Causes of the Revolutionary War
  • Mount Vernon -  Ten Facts about Washington and the Revolutionary War
  • Cracked - 5 Myths About the Revolutionary War Everyone Believes
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 7 Myths about the Boston Tea Party
  • University of Notre Dame - Revisiting America’s Revolutionary Myths and Realities
  • History Net - Debunking Boston Tea Party Myths
  • Smithsonian - Myths of the American Revolution
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution
  • The Washington Post - The American Revolution Was Not A Whites-only War
  • University of Houston - Slavery, the American Revolution, and the Constitution
  • Colonial Williamsburg -  African Americans During The American Revolution: Teacher Reference Sheet (PDF)
  • Rutgers University - African Americans in the Revolution
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: African Americans
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - African Americans and the Revolution
  • University of California, Irvine - African American Soldiers and the American Revolution
  • Colorado College - Blacks and the American Revolution
  • History Net - Black History
  • Wikipedia - African Americans in the Revolutionary War
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - The Native Americans’ Role in the American Revolution: Choosing Sides
  • Independence Hall Association -  Revolutionary Limits: Native Americans
  • History Wiz -  Native Americans and the American Revolution
  • ABC-CLIO - American Revolution, Native American Participation
  • University of Houston - Native Americans and the American Revolution
  • Prezi - Contributions of African Americans, Native Americans and Women during the American Revolution (Video)
  • PBS - Liberty! The American Revolution: Daily Life in the Colonies
  • Ducksters - Daily Life During the Revolution War
  • Independence Hall Association - The Revolution on the Home Front
  • Library of Congress - Revolutionary War: The Home Front
  • American History - Colonial Daily Life During the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: An Everyday Life Perspective
  • ABC‑CLIO - Daily Life During the American Revolution
  • ABBE Regional Library System - The Lives of Children During The Revolutionary War (PDF)
  • Wikipedia - Children of the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - Children’s Rights and the American Revolution
  • Teachinghistory.org - Colonial Teenagers
  • The Santa Fe New Mexican Newspaper -  Fighting Spirit: Teenagers in the American Revolution
  • Google Books - The Brave Women and Children of the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service -  Patriot Families’ Role in Effecting American Independence and the American Revolution’s Effect on their Family Life (PDF)
  • U.S. National Park Service -  Life during the Colonial Period and the American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Assessing Change: Women’s Lives in the American Revolutionary Era
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Lucy Knox on the home front during the Revolutionary War, 1777
  • American Revolution - Women in the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Women in the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 10 Amazing Women of the Revolutionary War
  • History of Massachusetts - The Roles of Women in the American Revolutionary War
  • Women History Blog - Women’s Role in the American Revolution
  • Social Studies - Roles of Women in the American Revolution and the Civil War
  • Independence Hall Association - Revolutionary Changes and Limitations: Women
  • Annenberg Media - Women of the American Revolution (PDF)
  • About.com - Women and the American Revolution
  • The Examiner - The Role of Women in the American Revolution
  • Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media - Women and the Revolution
  • Prezi - Women’s Roles During the American Revolution Outlined by Hannah Schierl (Video)
  • United States Army - Women in the Army
  • Atlanta Blackstar - 5 Extraordinary Black Women Who Played Major Roles In The American Revolution
  • Women History Blog - Women’s Rights After the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Marriages Gone Bad
  • National Women’s History Museum - American Revolution
  • American In Class - Civilians in the American Revolution
  • National Humanities Center - Religion and the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries -  The American Revolution: Religion
  • Library of Congress - Religion and the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - Religion and the American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Religion and the American Revolution
  • Social Studies For Kids - Religion and the Church in the 13 American Colonies
  • Social Studies For Kids - Education in the 13 American Colonies
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: Education
  • Oregon State University - Education in the Revolutionary Era
  • Prezi - Education During the Revolution Period (Video)
  • Wikipedia - Education in the Thirteen Colonies
  • Chesapeake College - Early National Education
  • Mackinac Center for Public Policy - Early Colonial Period to the American Revolution
  • Noah Webster House - Life in 1770s Connecticut
  • Rutgers University - The American Revolution in New Jersey 
  • Wikipedia - New Jersey in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - South Carolina in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Pennsylvania in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Virginia in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Maryland in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Georgia in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Massachusetts in the American Revolution
  • United States History - Massachusetts and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Connecticut in the American Revolution
  • Connecticut History - Revolutionary War, 1775-1783
  • United States History - Delaware and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - New Hampshire in the American Revolution
  • United States History - New Hampshire and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - North Carolina in the American Revolution
  • United States History - North Carolina and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Rhode Island in the American Revolution
  • United States History - Rhode Island and the American Revolution
  • Internet Archive - New York City during the American Revolution
  • Early America - New York City During the First Year of the Revolution
  • AM New York Newspaper - NYC Has A Lot More Revolutionary War History Than You Might Think
  • Wikipedia - Germans in the American Revolution
  • McGill University - Why Canada Did Not Join the American Revolution
  • Canadian War Museum - The American Revolution, 1775-1783
  • History Net - Invasion of Canada During the American Revolutionary War
  • Biography - Famous People in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - George Washington in the American Revolution
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Life as a Revolutionary War Soldier
  • Independence Hall Association - The War Experience: Soldiers, Officers, and Civilians
  • The Countryman Press - Soldier of the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution: Military Perspectives
  • Prezi - Daily Life of an American Soldier During The Revolutionary War (Video)
  • Independence Hall Association - American Revolution: Selections from the Diary of Private Joseph Plumb Martin
  • JSTOR Database - Journal of a British Officer During the American Revolution 
  • U.S. National Park Service - Privateers in the American Revolution
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What did the people of Great Britain think of men like George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson during the American Revolution?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What was popular British opinion of the American Revolution?
  • Reddit: Ask - British Redditors, how were you taught the American Revolution?
  • Study - British Loyalists vs. American Patriots During the American Revolution (Video)
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Patriots and Loyalists
  • Independence Hall Association - Loyalists, Fence-sitters, and Patriots
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History -  A patriot’s letter to his loyalist father, 1778
  • Wikipedia - American Revolution: Patriot
  • Wikipedia - Patriots in the American Revolution
  • Independence Hall Association - The Boston Patriots
  • Wikipedia - American Revolution: Loyalist
  • United States History - The Loyalists
  • Wikipedia - Loyalists in the American Revolution
  • University of Groningen - Loyalists During the American Revolution
  • Women History Blog - Loyalist Women of the American Revolution
  • PBS - After the Revolution: A Midwife’s Tale
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Facts About British Soldiers
  • History.com - Tea Act: American Revolution
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - After the American Revolution: Free African Americans in the North
  • West Virginia Division Culture and History - Revolutionary War and Its Aftermath
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - American Revolution- Part 6: A Troubled Aftermath
  • Brown University - The American Revolution and its Aftermath
  • About.com - The Effects of the American Revolutionary War on Britain
  • Prezi - The American Revolution and its Aftermath (Video)
  • NPR (National Public Radio) - What Happened To British Loyalists After The Revolutionary War?
  • The Atlantic - What If America Had Lost the Revolutionary War?
  • Teachinghistory.org - What If…? Reexamining the American Revolution
  • The Huffington Post - What If We’d Lost the American Revolution?
  • How Stuff Works - What if America had lost the Revolution?

Commerce

  • JSTOR Database - Prices and Inflation During the American Revolution, Pennsylvania, 1770-1790
  • The Food Timeline -  Colonial America & Fare
  • Wikipedia - Financial Costs of the American Revolutionary War
  • British Library - The American Revolution: The Costs of Empire - The Seven Years’ War and the Stamp Act Crisis
  • Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies - Revolutionary Money
  • Independence Hall Association - Following the Money
  • Ludwig von Mises Institute - Inflation and the American Revolution

Entertainment & Food

  • Massachusetts Historical Society - Newspapers from 1765 
  • Mount Vernon - Reporting the Revolutionary War
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Revolutionary War Newspapers
  • Assumption College - Newspapers in Revolutionary Era America & The Problems of Patriot and Loyalist Printers
  • Wikipedia - American Literature: Revolutionary Period
  • The Examiner - Literature of the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: Music
  • University of Houston - Music and the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution - Revolutionary War Music
  • Independence Hall Association - Songs of the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Songs of the American Revolutionary War
  • Smithsonian Folkways - American Revolutionary War Songs to Cultivate the Sensations of Freedom
  • Smithsonian - The Food the Fueled the American Revolution
  • National Museum of American History - What did soldiers eat during the Revolutionary War?
  • Wikipedia - Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies
  • American Revolution for Kids - Revolutionary Recipes
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Colonial Foodways
  • Independence Hall Association - Firecake Recipe
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Drinking in Colonial America
  • Serious Eats - 5 Colonial-Era Drinks You Should Know
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Dessert: A Look into the World of the 18th-century Confectioner!
  • Social Studies For Kids - Food in the 13 American Colonies
  • Wikipedia - 1760 in Poetry
  • Wikipedia - 1765 in Poetry
  • Prezi - Leisure Activities and Sports During the American Revolution (Video)
  • Journal of Sport History - Sports and Games of the American Revolution (PDF)
  • National Museum of American History - What did Revolutionary War soldiers have in their pockets?
  • Journal of the American Revolution - The Role of Dancing
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Dance During the Colonial Period

Hygiene, Health & Medicine

  • New York University Libraries - Health and Medicine in Revolutionary America
  • United States Department of the Air Force - Military Medicine During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
  • Tredyffrin Easttown Historical Society - Medicine in the Revolutionary War
  • Prezi - Health and Dental Care During the American Revolution (Video)
  • The Dallas Morning News -  Medical Care in the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution - Medicine
  • Office of Medical History - Medical Men in the American Revolution
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Medical Men in the American Revolution 1775-1783
  • JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association - Naval and Maritime Medicine During the American Revolution
  • MedPage Today - George Washington, Smallpox, and the American Revolution
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information -  Drug Therapy in Colonial and Revolutionary America
  • Minnesota Wellness Publications -  The Revolutionary War: The History of Medicine
  • American Revolution - George Washington: A Dental Victim
  • Mount Vernon - The Trouble with Teeth
  • Project Gutenberg - Drug Supplies in the American Revolution
  • Colonial Williamsburg - To Bathe or Not to Bathe: Coming Clean in Colonial America
  • Revolutionary War Museum - Medicine and Hygiene
  • Independence Hall Association - Surgeons and Butchers
  • eHow - About Hygiene in Colonial Times
  • Legacy - Life and Death in The Liberty Era 1750-1800
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Revolutionary Fever: Disease and War in the Lower South, 1776–1783
  • Wikipedia - Disease in Colonial America
  • Army Heritage Center - A Deadly Scourge: Smallpox During the Revolutionary War
  • PBS - The 9 Deadly Diseases That Plagued George Washington
  • Mental Floss - Biological Warfare in the American Revolution?
  • Prezi -  Health Care And Hospitals During The American Revolution (Video)
  • Wikipedia - Physicians in the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Surgery
  • Campbell University - The Colonial Family In America
  • Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation - Colonial Medicine (PDF)
  • WebMD - Warm Up to Ginger
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Apothecary
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Th Art and Mystery of Apothecary
  • ehow - What Tools Did Apothecary Use in Colonial Times?
  • Williamsburg Tours - 18th Century Medical Practices in Colonial Williamsburg, VA.
  • ehow - How Did Colonial Doctors Work?
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Eighteenth-Century Medical Myths

Fashion

  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Outfitting an American Revolutionary Soldier 
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Introduction to Eighteenth-Century Clothing
  • American Revolution - Clothing 1770 - 1800
  • History of American Wars - Revolutionary War Uniforms
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Soldiers Uniforms and Gear
  • American Revolution - The Revolution And The New Republic, 1775-1800: Colonial Clothing
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Men’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Women’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Girl’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • ehow - Makeup & Hairsyles of the 1700s
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Stuff and Nonsense: Myths That Should by Now Be History
  • Wikipedia - 1775-95 in Western Fashion

Dialogue

  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Glossary and Terms
  • Colonial Quills - The Art of the Olde-Fashioned Insults
  • History of Redding - Exploring Period Vocabulary & Slang
  • Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation - Military Slang of the Revolutionary War Era
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Puttin’ on the Dog: Adventures in the Idioms of Our Mother Tongue
  • Shmoop - The American Revolution Terms
  • HyperVocal - 38 Vulgar Terms From the 19th-Century Urban Dictionary

Justice & Crime

  • Wikipedia - Prisoners of War in the American Revolutionary War
  • Mount Vernon - Prisoners of War
  • Wikipedia - Militia Generals in the American Revolution
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Colonial Crimes and Punishments
  • History.com - Redcoats kill sleeping Americans in Paoli Massacre: September 20, 1777
  • H‑Net: Humanities and Social Sciences Online - The Fate of Britain’s Convicts after the American Revolution
  • Early American Crime -  An Exploration of Crime, Criminals, And Punishments From America’s Past
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Cruel and Unusual: Prisons and Prison Reform
  • Slate - Did the Brits Burn Churches?
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Convict Labor During the Colonial Period
  • Wikipedia - Laws Leading to the American Revolution
  • Sam Houston State University - Military Punishments in the Continental Army
  • History.com - Pennsylvania militiamen senselessly murder Patriot allies: March 8, 1782
  • Mount Vernon - American Spies of the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Boston Massacre
  • National Archives and Records Administration -  The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription
  • Wikipedia - United States Declaration of Independence
  • Independence Hall Association - Declaration of Independence
  • University of Groningen -  The Final Text of the Declaration of Independence July 4 1776
  • Library of Congress - Declaration of Independence
  • History.com -  Declaration of Independence: American Revolution
  • Independence Hall Association - When Does the Revolution End?
  • Study - Effects of the American Revolution: Lesson & Quiz
  • Net Industries - The Early Years of American Law - Colonial Freedom, Britain’s Push For Greater Control, A New Start, A New Criminal Court System
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 10 Facts About Prisoners of War
5

Paul Revere (December 21, 1734 O.S. – May 10, 1818)

American silversmith, engraver, early industrialist, and a Patriot in the American Revolution. He is best known for alerting the colonial militia to the approach of British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poem, “Paul Revere’s Ride” (1861). (Wikipedia)

From our stacks: 1. Cover detail. 2. “The Boston Massacre, perpetrated on March the 5th, 1770. Printed in colors. Photogravure, after the original engraving by Paul Revere. Size of the original engraving, including the inscription, 97/8x85/8 inches.” 3. Title-page Designed and engraved on copper by E. Davis French in the style classed by book-plate collectors as Jacobean.” 4. “Head-band. Seal of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, of which Revere was one of the founders and first President.” 5. “An Indian Gazette. From the illustration in the Royal American Magazine. Size of the original 71/4x63/4 inches.” from Paul Revere and his Engraving By William Loring Andrews. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1901.

Meanwhile in Massachusetts

Meanwhile in Massachusetts Jack Kennedy dreamed
Walking the shore by the Cape Cod Sea
Of all the things he was going to be.
 
He breathed in the tang of the New England fall
And back in his mind he pictured it all,
The burnished New England countryside
Names that a patriot says with pride
Concord and Lexington, Bunker Hill
Plymouth and Falmouth and Marstons Mill
Winthrop and Salem, Lowell, Revere
Quincy and Cambridge, Louisburg Square.
This was his heritage—this was his share
Of dreams that a young man harks in the air.
The past reached out and tracked him now
 
He would heed that touch; he didn’t know how.
Part he must serve, a part he must lead
Both were his calling, both were his need.
 
Part he was of New England stock
As stubborn, close guarded as Plymouth Rock
He thought with his feet most firm on the ground
But his heart and his dreams were not earthbound
He would call New England his place and his creed
But part he was of an alien breed
Of a breed that had laughed on Irish hills
And heard the voice in Irish rills.
 
The life of that green land danced in his blood
Tara, Killarney, a magical flood
That surged in the depth of his too proud heart
And spiked the punch of New England so tart
Men would call him thoughtful, sincere
They would not see through to the Last Cavalier
 
He turned on the beach and looked toward his house.
On a green lawn his white house stands
And the wind blows the sea grass low on the sands
There his brothers and sisters have laughed and played
And thrown themselves to rest in the shade.
The lights glowed inside, soon supper would ring
And he would go home where his father was King.
But now he was here with the wind and the sea
And all the things he was going to be.
 
He would build empires
And he would have sons
Others would fall
Where the current runs
 
He would find love
He would never find peace
For he must go seeking
The Golden Fleece
 
All of the things he was going to be
All of the things in the wind and the sea.
   – Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy