The Diana of Versailles, statue of the Greek goddess Artemis (Latin: Diana), with a deer, Louvre Museum in Paris. It is a Roman copy (1st or 2nd century AD) of a lost Greek bronze original attributed to Leochares, c. 325 BC.

Η Νταϊάνα των Βερσαλλιών, το άγαλμα της ελληνικής θεάς Αρτέμιδος (Λατινικά: Diana), με ένα ελάφι, Μουσείο του Λούβρου, στο Παρίσι. Είναι ένα ρωμαϊκό αντίγραφο (1ος ή 2ος αιώνας μ.Χ.) ενός χαμένου ελληνικού χάλκινου πρωτότυπου το οποίο αποδίδεται στον Λεωχάρη, περίπου. 325 π.Χ.


Monument of Craterus


4th century BCE

15.27 x 35 m, 4 m in height

The building was probably a portico with Ionic or Doric columns on the facade. On its rear wall was discovered a dedicatory inscription in ten verses, according to which the building was identified with a panhellenic sanctuary, known from the ancient sources as the ex voto of Craterus, the Macedonian general and close friend of Alexander the Great. Plutarch mentions that Craterus dedicated in Delphi a bronze sculpted complex, made by the famous 4th century B.C. sculptors Leochares and Lysippos. Pliny, however, attributes the work solely to Lysippos. The sculpture depicted the scene of a lion hunt, i.e. a well-known incident of Alexander’s life, when he was saved by Craterus during a lion hunt in the East. According to the inscription, the ex voto was dedicated not by Craterus himself, but by his son, after his father’s death, probably around 320 B.C., or at the end of the 4th century B.C.

The sculpture, lost today, would have been placed on a pedestal against the back wall of the building, whereas the figures would have been arrayed one next to the other. The attempts at a reconstruction are based on ancient sources as well as on some preserved works of art that seem to be inspired by the specific ex voto. For example, a base decorated in relief with the depiction of a lion hunt found in Messina and displayed now in the Louvre, is possibly copying the Delphi sculpture. It has also been suggested that the lion hunt scene from the mosaic pavement of the “House of Dionysus” in Pella repeats the same pattern. In the ex-voto of Delphi Alexander and Craterus either on horseback or on foot- probably stood to the right and left of the lion, engaged in a heroic battle against it. Another suggestion is that Craterus was on horseback and Alexander on foot. The work was a closed composition with the hunting scene developed in the centre.

Gold Saints : ideals of beauty

I’ve always had a headcanon that Gold Saints, in addition to being excellent warriors, were the most beautiful men amongst all the Saints. And if we add up this to beauty in ancient Greece, we can see that this could be effectively true.

General things

In the Classical Period, the ideal of beauty was very simple : it was gods. The masculine beauty was youthful and athletic. The respect of the proportions was essential (this included golden section). We can see this in the statues of the gods, or of Olympic athletes.

The Apollo of the Belvedere, a Roman marble copy of a bronze original made by the athenian sculptor Leochares

In the Hellenistic Period, the respect of the proportion was a little less important, the statues tended to have more muscles for example.The natural beauty is very important : the natural complexion must be good, not too fair as if the person stay indoor all the time, not too tanned as if the person stay too much outdoor. The complexion must show a « good health ».

The Laocoön and His Sons, made by the Rhodians sculptors Agesander, Athenodoros and Polydorus

Kalos kagathos : the ideal of beauty

« καλὸς κἀγαθός » (kalos kagathos) is an expression used in the ancient Greek litterature. It’s an shortened form of καλὸς καὶ ἀγαθός, which litteraly means « beautiful and good » (the Latin equivalent is mens sana in corpore sano). It refers to the ideal of harmony of the body and the mind. The Greek athlete is the model of this beauty.

We must point out that the adjective ἀγαθός (which means good) refers to the virtue of the person, to his bravery. It also has a political sense : to be good means to be a good citizen, and so to respect the duties of the citizen.

So to be beautiful, one must have an athletic body, culture and virtue. The Greek education took it into account : the sport was as much important as the mind, the education trained equally these two points. We can compare this to the training that receive Saints : it is very physical, but they also have a more theorical education. We can see this with Marin and Seiya (she teaches him about atoms and he falls asleep), also with Doko and Shiriyu.

Greek heroes

When speaking about the kalos kagathos, the biggest examples are the mythological Greek heroes (like Achilles, Adonis, Perseus). Most of them have some things in common :

  •  Athletic body (very tall, strong)
  • Long blond hair (like a lion’s mane)
  • Virtuous (kind, brave, sense of honor, …)
  • Good eloquence

Brad Pitt as Achilles in the movie « Troy »

Does this not remind you of some Saints ?

Effectively the Gold Saints could be based on mythological heroes. But for me none of them can really perfectly represent the real kalos kagathos. However the closest to pretend to this title is : Aiolos.

Aiolos is the archetype of the mythological hero :

  • He has an athletic body : he’s tall (1m87, 6'1’’), he’s built and he’s incredibly strong
  • He has blond hair (in the manga all the Gold Saints have blond hair, apart from Camus who is red-haired), although they are not very long.
  • He’s very virtuous : he still was chosen to be the next Pope
  • He has a relatively good eloquence (like most of the heroes of Saint Seiya imho)

Aiolos and Athena

Plus he did one of the most heroic things of all the series : he saved baby Athena and sacrificed his life for this. He’s in all case the representation of the kagathos.

If we speak more about the physical appearance I would say that Milo is the representation of the kalos.

A fanart of Milo, all credits to the artist

Furthermore the choose of the name « Milo » could refer to a famous wrestler of ancient Greece, Milo of Croton (he was said to have carried a bull on his shoulder). As I said above the athletes were the models of the Greek beauty.

Milo of Croton, by the sculptor Falconet

Chateau en Espagne by Carel Willink, 1939.

The statue in the foreground is the Apollo Belvedere, a marble statue believed to be a  Roman copy circa 120-140 C.E. of a lost bronze original made between 350 and 325 B.C.E. by the Greek sculptor Leochares. It is sometimes called the Pythian Apollo, because the figure is depicted in moment after the arrow has been let fly from the archer’s bow.


Silver Denarius of Augustus, Colonia Patricia(?) mint, c. 19 BC

The Temple of Jupiter Tonans shown on this coin was dedicated today (Sept. 1st) in 22 BC.

This denarius displays the bare head of Augustus facing left with his name inscribed CAESAR AVGVSTVS. On the reverse is the hexastyle (six-columned portico) Temple of Jupiter Tonans containing a statue of the god standing left, holding a thunderbolt and scepter; IOV TO[N] inscribed.

The Temple of Jupiter Tonans was promised by Augustus in 26 BC as gratitude for his narrow escape from lightening in the Cantabrian campaign. It was finally dedicated in 22 BC (Suetonius, Vita Augusti 29.91). The temple building was located near the Campus Maritus in Rome and was originally dedicated to Jupiter Fulgens. The statue of Jupiter Tonans shown inside the temple on this coin, was allegedly by the 4th century BC Greek sculptor, Leochares, according to Pliny (Hist. Nat. 39.79). The statue pictured above is a 1st century AD Roman copy of the original Greek.

Colonia Patricia (modern Córdoba) was a Roman military colony in Spain.