lenses

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Jean François Niceron - The Artificial Magic in Optical Distortions, “La Perspective Curieuse ou Magie Artificielle des Effets Merveilleux de l'Optique” (The Curious Perspective or Artificial Magic from the Marvellous Effects of Optics), 1663.

Catoptrics is an area of study concerned with the properties of reflection and the formation of images by reflecting light off mirrors.
Dioptrics is a branch of optics dealing with the refraction of light, especially by lenses.
Anamorphosis is a distorted projection of an image which only becomes clear when the observer’s point of view changes or it is viewed as a reflection produced by a specific curved mirror surface.

These 17th century book illustrations instruct artists about the basic geometrical properties involved in producing artworks with some types of projected and distorted perspectives and optical illusions.

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The Big Moon Illusion.

Photographs like the one above are not exactly real. A lot of people are disappointed that the Moon is not big enough. But hey, nowhere in the world is the moon an exact replication of the photographs!! 

They are done using the compression of a telephoto lens. Longer lenses will magnify the subject, so will make the moon look bigger. It will also make buildings and other objects bigger, but by moving yourself further away from those earthbound objects you can reduce them back to a smaller size. But you can’t really get further away from the moon, so it will remain the same size no matter where you move locally.