learning behavior

I know this is going to be unpalatable to parents, but “abusive parents” aren’t scary anomalies that exist only on the news, broadcast solely to make you feel better about your own faults. There are abusive parents in your neighborhood. There are probably abusive parents in your workplace, friend circle, and even among your family. If you want to be a good parent, then it’s your duty to learn what behaviors are abusive, learn the warning signs of abuse, and do the work to help when you learn that a child in your social sphere is being abused.

What Placements To Check For Various Zodiac Posts

Always check your Sun sign.

Check your Moon sign for any post that involves habits, immediate reactions, unconscious or involuntary actions, and immediate feelings.

Check your Mercury sign for any post that involves speaking, the mind and thoughts, school/learning, handwriting, hobbies, and behavior around friends.

Check your Venus sign for any post that involves relationships (that includes friends), expression of affection, fashion, colors, aesthetics, art, and love.

Check your Mars sign for any post that involves sex, arguments/fights, ambitions, passions, art, anger, hobbies, and sports.

Check your Jupiter sign for any post that involves good luck, generosity, morals, your career, school/learning, money, and growth.

Check your Saturn sign for any post that involves responsibilities, obligations, limits and boundaries, patience, discipline, bad luck, fear, and wisdom.

Check your Uranus sign for any post that involves rebellion, innovation, new ideas, originality, awareness, discovery, liberation, and technology.

Check your Neptune sign for any post that involves imagination, inspiration, music, compassion, acceptance, and atonement.

Check your Pluto sign for any post that involves power, transformation, cleansing, vulnerability, secrets, mystery, and forgiveness.

Check your Ascendant (1st house) sign for any post that involves first impressions, conscious actions and efforts, and general behavior.

Check your Midheaven (10th house) sign for any post that involves passions, art, inspiration, career, school/learning, ambitions, and appearance.

I had someone ask me via message on where to start in regards to adopting an “unadoptable” dog, and we had a rather pleasant conversation, but I feel like something needs to be said in public on this blog due to my history of having owned such a creature.

Ethical shelters and rescues do not label dogs unadoptable for no reason, in nearly all cases. There is something about the dog that will determine it being an extremely poor fit for 99% of homes that would be interested, and typically that 1% would need to make tremendous amounts of sacrifice in order to successfully own them. As nice as it sounds- wanting to give a dog everyone else has given up on a home- ethical rescues and shelters have a responsibility to take care of ALL of the dogs in their care and to not endanger those they adopt to or the general public with their adoptions. Taking in unadoptable dogs and keeping them until that 1% person shows up takes vast amounts of money away from perfectly adoptable dogs and ends up killing the friendly, healthy, young dogs that are deemed “more likely to be adopted”. Don’t believe me?

Someone I know from dobermantalk stopped fostering for her rescue when they took in 2 heartworm positive senior beagles to foster from a high kill shelter and left the young healthy beagle that had been surrendered with the older pair. The “adoptable” dog never got a foster. He also never got adopted. When his time was up, he was euthanized. The older pair did not survive their heartworm treatment. Three dogs died because of a focus on unadoptable dogs. Who does that help?

About five years ago, a woman took in two seriously dog aggressive presa canarios to foster. What was left of her body was found several days after the fact- she had been torn to pieces. It was hard for the authorities to determine if the presas had done the deed or if her personal dogs, one “pit bull” bbm and one frenchie, had contributed, but they guessed that the presas, two intact males known for engaging in serious fights with other dogs, had begun to fight and redirected on her when she tried to break them up. Due to their size, they would have overwhelmed her quickly, especially if the other two dogs joined in the frenzy. From there it’s hard to tell what bites were inflicted post-mortum, when the dogs ran out of food and turned to the only available source of meat, and what bites caused her death. Reports from those who found her described the scene as a bloodbath. All four dogs were euthanized. Who does that help?

A small breed puppy mill rescue dog I personally knew, deemed unadoptable for her extreme fear issues, was taken in by a well meaning family member. In a very short amount of time, this family member had been bitten multiple times for offenses as minor as walking by the dog while she was sleeping. Eventually, the dog slipped her harness after spooking due to a loud noise, ran into the road, and was killed instantly by a car. Obliterated. In front of her owner. Who does that help?

Skoll was a dog that had been failed by everyone in his short life. He’d come from known abuse and had clear abandonment issues. He had terrible health and his fear of people and his learned behavior of biting to make the scary things go away were ingrained into him long before he came to me. I gave him a chance anyway, I couldn’t sit by and watch a young dog be killed for something that wasn’t his fault. He mauled me without provocation and I euthanized him two months into our time together. He should have been euthanized on take in- he had a long, long list of documented bites well before he ever came to me, though I didn’t know it at the time. Who does that help?

Instead of focusing on these unadoptable dogs, there is a better solution. If you want to feel like you’re making a difference, find an ethical rescue or shelter and foster! Transport! Volunteer your photography skills! Learn their temperament and health testing process and volunteer there too! Make goods to sell at fundraisers and auctions! Organize a community donation pool! There are so many things you can do for dogs in need that aren’t things that, more often than not, end up with the dog dying anyway. But wanting to adopt a dog labeled, for good reason, unadoptable? Especially if you are not experienced in intense or extreme issues, temperament or health wise, in dogs? You are asking for a lot of heartbreak.

Adopt the adoptable dogs. Accept that we cannot save every unwanted dog. Accept that not every unwanted dog SHOULD be saved. It’s not the dogs’ faults, but neither is it the public’s for not being able to deal with these sorts of issues.

Katmai National Park and Preserve is world-renown for brown bear viewing. About 2,200 brown bears are estimated to inhabit the park, and more bears than people are estimated to live on Alaska Peninsula. For those who visit the park (or are frequent viewers of #BearCam), they can learn about a bear’s behavior – like this mama and her three cubs standing up. Bear cubs often imitate their mother’s every move, and standing on hind legs allows bears to get a better view or smell of what’s around them. Photo by A. Ramos, National Park Service.

The Ascendant

The ascendant is the sign that was rising on the horizon at the exact moment that we were born. Also known as the rising sign, it is our persona and operates as a mask that we reach for when we’re entering new situations, meeting new people, etc. It is the set of behaviors that we learned growing up that could help us navigate the world, and the lens through which we greet others. Often times it is related to the type of child our parents wished us to be.

Aries ascendant – The learned behavior is fiery and take-charge, the native was taught to lead with their passion.

Taurus ascendant – The learned behavior is steady and serene, the native was taught to remain calm in all circumstances.

Gemini ascendant – The learned behavior is bubbly and energetic, the native was taught to engage with their environment in order learn about their surroundings.

Cancer ascendant – The learned behavior is protective and emotional, the native was taught to enter cautiously and trust their instincts.

Leo ascendant – The learned behavior is boisterous and warm, the native was taught to lead with a smile and their ego.

Virgo ascendant – The learned behavior is cool and analytical, the native was taught to dissect their environment in order to learn about their surroundings.

Libra ascendant – The learned behavior is charming and approachable, the native was taught to engage by being inquisitive and lighthearted.

Scorpio ascendant – The learned behavior is calculated and intense, the native was taught to read between the lines in any situation.

Sagittarius ascendant – The learned behavior is positive and upfront, the native was taught to be forthright and believe in themselves.

Capricorn ascendant – The learned behavior is careful and considered, the native was taught to put their best face forward in all situations, and to be wary of showing undesirable traits.

Aquarius ascendant – The learned behavior is erratic and intelligent, the native was taught to shake up their surroundings to get a feel for what’s genuine.

Pisces ascendant – The learned behavior is nebulous and changeable, the native was taught to adapt to any environment in order to fit in.

opalescent-potato  asked:

You seem like the right person to ask this question: do spiders have to practice spinning webs to get good at it? Do young spiders fuck up their webs sometimes?

This is a really interesting question, and it took a bit of digging to find the right answer, which is… sort of yes and sort of no?

The ‘no’ part comes from the fact that spiders are born knowing how to spin webs- there’s no stepwise process of learning. They actually have, encoded within their genes, very specific algorithms to use when constructing webs.

Below are two figures from a paper that successfully imitated the process of building a spider web using a computer program by splitting the process into a few very simple rules:

So despite how complex the process seems to our eyes (and it would take a human some practice to get it right) evolution has split the process up into easily-encoded chunks for the spider brain to have ready from the get-go.

(This all applies to ORB webs, though. I didn’t find much information on how the construction of funnel webs, tangle webs, etc. are encoded- one would assume it’s similar, though.)

However, I DID say that the answer to your question is both yes and no. Despite the fact that the process of making a web is essentially hardwired into a spider from birth, there is still a surprising degree of plasticity (i.e., flexibility) to the behavior.

There is a lot of value to this for web-spinners because many species will build new webs every day. Studies have found that the spider’s personal experiences will modulate how they construct certain details within their webs.

For example, one study found that spiders which had recently eaten used less capture silk (that’s the sticky stuff) when they made their next web, probably because they didn’t feel like expending the extra energy when they were already full. (You and me both, spiders.)

In another study, researchers compared the number of webs a spider had spun over its lifetime with their top-bottom asymmetry. Let me explain that real quick before we go further: spiders tend to have better prey capture success when their webs have larger bottom halves than top halves. This is because orb webs are oriented vertically, meaning that a spider sitting in the very center of the web is going to reach the bottom faster than the top because of- well- gravity. Faster prey grabbing means prey are less likely to escape while the spider is scrambling over to it.

Here’s an asymmetrical web with a larger bottom half (left) compared to a more symmetrical one (right).

The researchers found two things: first, the more experienced a spider was overall, the bigger the bottom half of her web was compared to the top. However, when researchers placed more prey into the top half of the web than the bottom half, the spiders responded by making more symmetrical webs, i.e., putting resources back into the top half that they would have used in the bottom half.

Taken together, these two observations suggest that experience and learning do play a role in how a spider constructs her web, even if the main gist of it is encoded from the beginning. And that’s pretty neat!

Refs-

Heiling, A. M., & Herberstein, M. E. (1999). The role of experience in web-building spiders (Araneidae). Animal Cognition, 2(3), 171-177.

Herberstein, M. E., & Heiling, A. M. (1999). Asymmetry in spider orb webs: a result of physical constraints?. Animal behaviour, 58(6), 1241-1246.

Krink, T., & Vollrath, F. (1997). Analysing spider web-building behaviour with rule-based simulations and genetic algorithms. Journal of theoretical Biology, 185(3), 321-331.

Venner, S., Pasquet, A., & Leborgne, R. (2000). Web-building behaviour in the orb-weaving spider Zygiella x-notata: influence of experience. Animal Behaviour, 59(3), 603-611.

Personality Disorder: Masterpost

What are personality disorders? How many are there? If you need help to self dx or are just curious as I was while researching this, I hope this post helps you.

Personality Disorders: An Overview

Each of us has a unique personality made up of traits that come from both our genetic make-up and our life experiences and is a vital part of what makes us who we are and how we interact with others.  

A personality disorder is a type of mental disorder in which you have a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning and behaving. A person with a personality disorder has trouble perceiving certain things, such as relationships, people in general and emotions. However, that does not make you dumb, broken or worse.

Personality disorders usually become noticeable in adolescence or early adulthood, but sometimes start in childhood. They can make it difficult for those affected to start and keep friendships or other relationships, and they may find it hard to work effectively with others. They may find other people very scary, and feel very alienated and alone.

In general, individuals with personality disorders may have difficulty sustaining close or intimate relationships. They may experience chronic interpersonal problems, or have difficulties in establishing a coherent sense of self or identity. Others may perceive them to be impulsive, irritable, fearful, demanding, hostile, manipulative, or even violent. Problem alcohol or drug use, mood disorders, certain anxiety or eating disorders, self-harm, suicidal thoughts or attempts, and sexual problems often accompany personality disorder.

The diagnosis applies if you have personality difficulties which affect all aspects of your life, all the time, and make life difficult for you and for those around you.

The different types of personality disorders

Psychiatrists in the UK tend to use an American system of diagnosis which identifies 10 different types of personality disorder. These types can be grouped into three categories, which are usually called ‘clusters’:

♦ Suspicious ♦ - Cluster A ( odd, eccentric )

  • Paranoid
  • Shizoid
  • Shizotypal

The common features of the personality disorders in this cluster are social awkwardness and social withdrawal. These disorders are dominated by distorted thinking. 

♦ Emotional and impulsive ♦ -  Cluster B ( dramatic, emotional, and erratic )

  • Borderline
  • Histrionic
  • Narcissistic
  • Antisocial

Disorders in this cluster share problems with impulse control and emotional regulation. 

♦ Anxious ♦ - Cluster C

  • avoidant
  • depedent
  • obsessive compulsive

One person may meet the criteria for several different types of personality disorder, while a wide range of people may fit the criteria for the same disorder, despite having very different personalities. 

Quick overview of all the different personality disorders

••Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)••

This is characterised by a lack of regard for the rights and feelings of others, and a lack of remorse for actions that may hurt others. People with this diagnosis frequently ignore social norms of acceptable behaviour; they may disregard rules and break the law. Consequently, if you have this diagnosis you may also have a criminal record; you may also have problem drug or alcohol use. Sadly, this kind of behaviour is also likely to result in difficulties in relationships, with rejection (given or received) a major feature.  

Antisocial personality disorder signs and symptoms may include:

  • Disregard for right and wrong
  • Persistent lying or deceit to exploit others
  • Being callous, cynical and disrespectful of others
  • Using charm or wit to manipulate others for personal gain or personal pleasure
  • Arrogance, a sense of superiority and being extremely opinionated
  • Recurring problems with the law, including criminal behavior
  • Repeatedly violating the rights of others through intimidation and dishonestyImpulsiveness or failure to plan ahead
  • Hostility, significant irritability, agitation, aggression or violence
  • Lack of empathy for others and lack of remorse about harming others
  • Unnecessary risk-taking or dangerous behavior with no regard for the safety of self or others
  • Poor or abusive relationships
  • Failure to consider the negative consequences of behavior or learn from them
  • Being consistently irresponsible and repeatedly failing to fulfill work or financial obligations

Adults with antisocial personality disorder typically show symptoms of conduct disorder before the age of 15. 

Treatment:

Cognitive therapy — first developed to help patients with depression — has recently been applied to ASP.

Medication:

No medications are routinely used or specifically approved for ASP treatment. Several drugs, however, have been shown to reduce aggression, a common problem for many antisocials.The best-documented medication is lithium carbonate, which has been found to reduce anger, threatening behavior and combativeness among prisoners. More recently, the drug was shown to reduce behaviors such as bullying, fighting and temper outbursts in aggressive children.Phenytoin (Dilantin), an anticonvulsant, has also been shown to reduce impulsive aggression in prison settings.Other drugs have been used to treat aggression primarily in brain-injured or mentally retarded patients. These include carbamazepine, valproate, propranolol, buspirone and trazodone.  Antipsychotic medications also have been studied in similar populations. They may deter aggression, but potentially induce irreversible side effects. Tranquilizers from the benzodiazepine class should not be used to treat people with ASP because they are potentially addictive and may lead to loss of behavioral control.

••Avoidant (anxious) personality disorder•• 

Typically, a person with this diagnosis fears being judged negatively by others, leading to feelings of discomfort in group or social settings. You may come across as being socially withdrawn, a ‘loner’. Fear and anxiety may mean that you have difficulty in holding down a job, as well as experiencing difficulties in relationships. This can be very painful for you as you can feel lonely and isolated, while at the same time, fearful of those relationships and situations that might make you feel more included and engaged with a community or circle of family or friends.

You are likely to:

  • avoid work or social activities that mean you must be with others 
  •  expect disapproval and criticism and be very sensitive to it 
  • worry constantly about being ‘found out’ and rejected 
  • worry about being ridiculed or shamed by others 
  • avoid relationships, friendships and intimacy because you fear rejection
  • feel lonely and isolated, and inferior to others 
  • be reluctant to try new activities in case you embarrass yourself.

People with avoidant personality disorder experience long-standing feelings of inadequacy and are extremely sensitive to what others think about them. These feelings of inadequacy leads to the person to be socially inhibited and feel socially inept. Because of these feelings of inadequacy and inhibition, the person with avoidant personality disorder will seek to avoid work, school and any activities that involve socializing or interacting with others. 

Treatment:

Treatment of avoidant personality disorder typically involves psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. 

Medication:

Anti-anxiety agents and antidepressants should be prescribed for avoidant PD only when another psychiatric problem co-occurs (e.g., anxiety or depression). 

••Borderline personality disorder (BPD)•• 

This is the most commonly diagnosed personality disorder. The term borderline originally referred to symptoms being on the borderline between psychosis and neurosis. Typically, with a diagnosis of BPD, you are likely to have a poor self-image and unstable personal relationships, which are likely to result from mood swings that may involve angry outbursts, which tend to drive people away. Conversely, you may find it difficult to break away from damaging relationships as you are frightened of being alone. Others may find it difficult to relate to you, as your response tends to be unpredictable, or people may be afraid of your anger. While seeking contact and support with others, you may also be quite rejecting of this, which makes it hard for people to engage with, or relate to you. While in some ways inviting rejection, you also find it hard to be rejected and may act impulsively in reaction to this, sometimes threatening, or carrying out self-destructive behaviour such as selfharm or suicide attempts. Life can be very difficult and painful, both for you, and for those who care about you. You may have feelings of emptiness and fear abandonment by friends or partners.      

A person with this disorder will also often exhibit impulsive behaviors and have a majority of the following symptoms:

  • Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
  • A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationshipscharacterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation
  • Identity disturbance, such as a significant and persistent unstable self-image or sense of self
  • Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating)
  • Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior
  • Emotional instability due to significant reactivity of mood (e.g., intense episodic dysphoria, irritability, or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days)
  • Chronic feelings of emptiness
  • Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights)
  • Transient, stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociative symptoms

Treatment:

Types of psychotherapy used to treat BPD include:

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT can help people with BPD identify and change core beliefs and/or behaviors that underlie inaccurate perceptions of themselves and others and problems interacting with others. CBT may help reduce a range of mood and anxiety symptoms and reduce the number of suicidal or self-harming behaviors.
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): This type of therapy utilizes the concept of mindfulness, or being aware of and attentive to the current situation and moods. DBT also teaches skills to control intense emotions, reduce self-destructive behaviors, and improve relationships. DBT differs from CBT in that it integrates traditional CBT elements with mindfulness, acceptance, and techniques to improve a person’s ability to tolerate stress and control his or her emotions. DBT recognizes the dialectical tension between the need for acceptance and the need for change.
  • Schema-Focused Therapy: This type of therapy combines elements of CBT with other forms of psychotherapy that focus on reframing schemas, or the ways people view themselves. This approach is based on the idea that BPD stems from a dysfunctional self-image—possibly brought on by negative childhood experiences—that affects how people react to their environment, interact with others, and cope with problems or stress.
  • Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a type of group therapy that aims to educate family members, significant others, and health care professionals about BPD and gives them guidance on how to interact consistently with the person with the disorder using the STEPPS approach and terminology. STEPPS is designed to supplement other treatments the patient may be receiving, such as medication or individual psychotherapy.

Medication:

There are no known medications that can treat BPD as a whole. A mental health professional may recommend medications to treat specific symptoms, such as mood swings, depression, or other disorders that may occur with BPD.  
••Dependent personality disorder (DPD)•• 

With this diagnosis you are likely to take a passive position with regard to your own life, allowing others to assume responsibility for many areas of your life. You are likely to lack selfconfidence, assuming that the needs of others take precedence to yours. You may find it very hard to even recognise that you have rights and needs. This can leave you in a very vulnerable position as you are reliant on others looking out for your needs and not abusing the position you take within relationships. Other people are more likely to identify this vulnerability as they recgonise your passivity and submissiveness .
People with this disorder do not trust their own ability to make decisions and feel that others have better ideas. They may be devastated by separation and loss, and they may go to great lengths, even suffering abuse, to stay in a relationship. Other symptoms include:

  • Difficulty making decisions without reassurance from others
  • Extreme passivity
  • Problems expressing disagreements with others
  • Avoiding personal responsibility
  • Avoiding being alone
  • Devastation or helplessness when relationships end
  • Unable to meet ordinary demands of life
  • Preoccupied with fears of being abandoned
  • Easily hurt by criticism or disapproval
  • Willingness to tolerate mistreatment and abuse from others

Complications of this disorder may include depression, alcohol and drug abuse, and susceptibility to physical, emotional and sexual abuse.

Treatment:

Psychotherapy is the preferred form of treatment for people with dependent personality disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on patterns of thinking that are maladaptive, the beliefs that underlie such thinking and resolving symptoms or traits that are characteristic of the disorder, such as the inability to make important life decisions or the inability to initiate relationships. Improvements are usually seen only with long-term therapy or treatment.

Medication:

Certain types of drugs such as antidepressants, sedatives and tranquilizers are often prescribed for patients with dependent personality disorder to treat co-occurring conditions.

••Histrionic personality disorder (HPD)•• 

This disorder is characterised by extreme or over-dramatic behaviour, with a need to be the centre of attention. If you have this diagnosis, you may form relationships quickly, but be demanding and attention-seeking. You may also flirt or behave provocatively in order to ensure you attract or retain the attention of others. To others you may appear to be self-centred, with shallow emotions. While you crave attention, this may also be difficult as you may feel you have to entertain others, be the life and soul of the party and that you are dependent on the approval of other people.

You are likely to: 

  • feel very uncomfortable if you are not the centre of attention
  • feel much more at ease as the ‘life and soul of the party’
  • feel that you have to entertain people
  • flirt or behave provocatively to ensure that you remain the centre of attention
  • get a reputation for being dramatic and overemotional
  • feel dependent on the approval of others
  • be easily influenced by others

Treatment:

Treatment can be difficult if you have HPD. Like many people with HPD, you might think you don’t need treatment, or you might find the routine of a treatment program to be unappealing. However, therapy — and sometimes medications — can help you cope with HPD. Psychotherapy is the most common and effective treatment choice for HPD. This kind of therapy involves talking to a therapist about your feelings and experiences. Such talks can help you and your therapist determine the reasoning behind your actions and behaviors. Your therapist may be able to help you learn how to relate with people in a positive manner, instead of continually trying to get attention from them.

Medication:

If the patient experiences depression or anxiety as a part of their HPD, their primary care provider might put them on antidepressants or antianxiety medication.

••Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)••

People with Narcissistic Personality Disorder have significant problems with their sense of self-worth stemming from a powerful sense of entitlement. This leads them to believe they deserve special treatment, and to assume they have special powers, are uniquely talented, or that they are especially brilliant or attractive. Their sense of entitlement can lead them to act in ways that fundamentally disregard and disrespect the worth of those around them.

You are likely to: 

  • believe that there are special reasons that make you different, better or more deserving than others
  • have fragile self-esteem, so that you rely on others to recognise your worth and your needs
  • feel upset if others ignore you and don’t give you what you feel you deserve
  • resent other people’s successes
  • put your own needs above other people’s, and demand they do too
  • be seen as selfish and ‘above yourself’
  • take advantage of other people. 

Treatment:

Narcissistic personality disorder treatment is centered around talk therapy, also called psychotherapy. Psychotherapy can help you:

  • Learn to relate better with others so your relationships are more intimate, enjoyable and rewarding
  • Understand the causes of your emotions and what drives you to compete, to distrust others, and perhaps to despise yourself and others

Medication:

There are no medications specifically used to treat narcissistic personality disorder. However, if you have symptoms of depression, anxiety or other conditions, medications such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs may be helpful. 

••Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)•• 

A person with this disorder tends to have difficulties in expressing warm or tender emotions to others. They are frequently perfectionists, things must be done in their own way. They often lack clarity in seeing other perspectives or ways of doing things, and their rigid attention to detail may prevent them from completing tasks. OCPD is separate from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), which describes a form of behaviour rather than a type of personality.   

You are likely to:

  • need to keep everything in order and under control
  • set unrealistically high standards for yourself and others
  • think yours is the best way of making things happen
  • worry when you or others might make mistakes
  • expect catastrophes if things aren’t perfect
  • be reluctant to spend money on yourself or others
  • have a tendency to hang on to items with no obvious value. 

Treatment:

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common type of mental health counseling. During CBT, you meet with a mental health professional on a structured schedule. These regular sessions involve working with your counselor to talk through any anxiety, stress, or depression. A mental health counselor may encourage you to put less emphasis on work and more emphasis on recreation, family, and other interpersonal relationships. Relaxation training involves specific breathing and relaxation techniques that can help decrease your sense of stress and urgency. These symptoms are common in OCPD. Examples of recommended relaxation practices include yoga, tai chi, and Pilates.

Medication:

Usually, a SSRI type medication is prescribed to decrease inflexible and detail-oriented thinking. 

••Paranoid personality disorder (PPD)•• 

People with this diagnosis are often emotionally detached and suspicious of other people and their motives. They may hold longstanding grudges, and believe that other people are not trustworthy, are deceiving, threatening, or making plans against them.

  • People with this disorder assume that others are out to harm them, take advantage of them, or humiliate them in some way.
  • They put a lot of effort into protecting themselves and keeping their distance from others.
  • They are known to preemptively attack others whom they feel threatened by.
  • They tend to hold grudges, are litigious, and display pathological jealously.
  • Distorted thinking is evident. Their perception of the environment includes reading malevolent intentions into genuinely harmless, innocuous comments or behavior, and dwelling on past slights.
  • Their emotional life tends to be dominated by distrust and hostility.
  • For these reasons, they do not confide in others and do not allow themselves to develop close relationships.

Treatment:

talk therapy or psychotherapy are helpful. These methods will:

  • help the individual learn how to cope with the disorder
  • learn how to communicate with others in social situations
  • help reduce feelings of paranoia

Medication:

Medications may include:

  • antidepressants
  • benzodiazepines
  • antipsychotics

Combining medication with talk therapy or psychotherapy can be very successful.

••Schizoid personality disorder•• 

People diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder tend to have difficulties in expressing emotions, particularly around warmth or tenderness. They often feel shy in company, but may come across as aloof or remote, and have difficulty in developing or maintaining social relationships.

  • They almost always chose solitary activities, and seem to take little pleasure in life.
  • These “loners” often prefer mechanical or abstract activities that involve little human interaction and appear indifferent to both criticism and praise.
  • Emotionally, they seem aloof, detached, and cold.
  • They may be oblivious to social nuance and social cues causing them to appear socially inept and superficial.
  • Their restricted emotional range and failure to reciprocate gestures or facial expressions (such a smiles or nods of agreement) cause them to appear rather dull, bland, or inattentive.

The Schizoid Personality Disorder appears to be rather rare.

Treatment:

Cognitive behavioral therapy is designed to change behavior. It can be successful in treating this condition because you will learn how to act in social situations. This may reduce anxiety and reluctance to pursue social relationships. Group therapy is another option and can help you practice your social skills. This will help you become more comfortable in social situations.

Medication:

Medication is generally not used unless other treatment methods are not working. Bupropion may be used to increase feelings of pleasure. Antipsychotic medications can be used to treat feelings of indifference. These medications can also help encourage social interactions.

••Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD)•• 

A person with this disorder typically has problems around developing interpersonal relationships. The condition is characterised by thought disorders and paranoia. To others they may appear odd or eccentric; they may dress or behave inappropriately, for example talking to themselves in public.

  • Unlike the Schizoid Personality Disorder, they also experience perceptual and cognitive distortions and/or eccentric behavior.
  • People with Schizotypal Personality Disorder have odd beliefs, for instance, they may believe they can read other people’s thoughts, or that that their own thoughts have been stolen from their heads.
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder tends to be found more frequently in families where someone has been diagnosed with Schizophrenia; a severe mental disorder with the defining feature of psychosis (the loss of reality testing). There is some indication that these two distinct disorders share genetic commonalities
  • These perceptual abnormalities may include noticing flashes of light no one else can see, or seeing objects or shadows in the corner of their eyes and then realizing that nothing is there.
  • These odd or superstitious beliefs and fantasies are inconsistent with cultural norms.

Treatment:

Several types of therapy can help treat STPD. Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, can help you learn how to form relationships. You can get this type of therapy along with social skills training to help you feel more comfortable in social situations.

Cognitive behavioral therapy can help you address some of the behaviors associated with your condition. Your therapist can help you learn how to act in social situations and respond to social cues. They can also help you learn to recognize unusual or harmful thoughts and change them.

Family therapy may be helpful, especially if you live with others. It can help you strengthen your relationships with family members. It may also help you to feel more supported by your family.

Medication:

No medications are designed to treat STPD specifically. However, some people with this condition benefit from taking antipsychotic or antidepressant drugs if they’re experiencing symptoms that their doctor thinks be improved with these medications. 

healingmagicandaspirin  asked:

I know you like Bakugou and all, but like...I wish he'd gotten off a little less easy for this, sorry. It's getting frustrating for me to watch him being coddled and all of his abusive actions being excused (a bad mental health day/week/month/whatever does NOT excuse the harm someone does to people) and him constantly getting off with a slap on the wrist or no punishment at all for bullying people. Kind of wish the school would just tell him they'll expel him if he doesn't get his act together.

Bakugou has been kidnapped, used as a hostage, all but molested (i mean, what else would you call what the Sludge villain did to him?) all at the age of 14, then he lost to someone he had a superiority complex over for nearly a decade and nearly (or did, depending on your point of view of how that scene went) had an emotional breakdown because of it, won the Sports Festival only because Todoroki couldn’t use his full power against him and Bakugou won in a way that was utterly unsatisfactory to him and felt like Todoroki couldn’t even bother to fight Bakugou at his fullest b/c Bakugou wasn’t worth it, went to Best Jeanist to train and instead basically wasted time and had his hair and clothes styled/changed for him, was forced to swallow his pride and work with Izuku to beat All Might which frustrated him to the point of tears (and he nearly gave up instead, which, for a boy who’s very model of what a hero is is based on Always Winning, this is a Big Thing), was kidnapped AGAIN by Shigaraki and was terrified out of his mind during it, was kidnapped IMMEDIATELY AFTARWARDS by AFO and had to be rescued by his classmates so he wouldn’t become a burden for All Might, and then blamed himself for All Might losing his powers and retiring, failed the Provisional Licence exam because of his bad behavior, breaks down again because all the guilt, the shame, the frustration to losing to Izuku, and confusion and struggle and everything, was finally too much for him to handle and he literally had no idea what to do until All Might showed up and explained everything.

from the very first chapter, Bakugou has been systematically punished by the narrative, over and over and over again. not specifically for his treatment of Izuku, but it’s not as if he’s been unpunished for his actions, either, and i’m sure that this is Horikoshi’s intent for having all of this happen to Bakugou in the first place.

Bakugou is going to apologize and make up for his actions towards Izuku, i know he will. but you can’t force him to do it because he’s not ready to as of right now. 

but he is going to make up for it somehow, because that is where the narrative is heading, and he’s already heading there as of the last chapter.

he’s giving Izuku advice. he’s framing it in an insulting way, but he’s giving Izuku advice on how to improve his fighting style. he never would have done that before all of this. 

the narrative is basically hitting Bakugou where it hurts constantly, over and over again, and forcing him to change and learn from his behavior, whether he wants to or not. 

i’m not excusing what he did to Izuku, because he did a lot of horrible things and he needs to make up for his actions. but in the span of just a few months, this kid has been through a lot and he has indeed been punished and put down by the narrative in many, many different ways that are specifically designed to hit him in the places it’ll hurt him the most

i’ve never excused his actions, but he’s just a kid, and kids can only take so much before they begin to break. god, he’s just a 15 year old child.

and again, it’s not as if he’s been unpunished by his behavior. he was absolutely punished for his bad attitude during the Provisional License exam by failing it, and he’s going to have to take extra classes in order to make up for it. if he were being coddled, he would’ve still passed regardless his bad attitude towards the victims. 

Horikoshi does him no favors.

he’s been punished enough by the narrative, and i do think that Aizawa gave them a fair punishment for their actions. their whole fight was framed as a schoolyard fight between two frustrated kids, after all.

it wasn’t really about the fight. it wasn’t about who beat who. the whole fight was there just so that these characters, these two children, could finally have an outlet for their emotions because they’ve never tried to talk to each other before, and this was the only way.

they’ve never tried to express their emotions to each other before. they’ve never tried to listen. this is something both of these characters needed.

being told that he’ll be expelled isn’t going to help his behavior. it’ll do the opposite, if anything. any more punishment than what they received would be overkill.

they acted like children, so they’re being treated like children. they’re doing chores and cleaning just like any kids who broke the rules would. 

Aizawa gives fair punishments. if he doesn’t think someone has potential, he expels them. 

and also, please note: neither Izuku or Bakugou were seriously injured from their fight. otherwise, Aizawa would’ve sent them to Recovery Girl. all they got were some scratches, cuts, and bruises. 

when Bakugou challenged Izuku and Todoroki, i wouldn’t be surprised if Aizawa was considering the idea of expulsion. however, Izuku and Bakugou were forced to be partners and, after a while, they were able to work together and pass the End of Term exam, so whatever might’ve happened otherwise was dropped.

but make no mistake, Bakugou’s behavior here was noted by Aizawa, and Bakugou was forced to move past this attitude and work with Izuku as punishment.

back to the events of the recent chapters, All Might even says that the events that happened between Bakugou and Izuku were just as much the adult’s fault as it was the kid’s. the children’s mental and emotional health is just as important as their strength and growth as heroes, and Bakugou seriously needed some help with that. 

and, not to mention, All Might let them fight it out. he eavesdropped long enough to know about Bakugou’s guilt, and let Bakugou and Izuku fight and express their emotions this way, because honestly, i don’t think they could’ve been able to talk it out in any other way. i’m not saying this is healthy behavior, because god knows it isn’t, but for these two it may have been the only way for them to clear the air. 

and it worked.

they’re both on their way to having a much, much less toxic relationship than what they had before. they might not be friends, but their relationship is much more positive compared to what it was before, because they finally let out all of those nasty emotions.

Bakugou and Izuku are much more calm, and are able to have a conversation now without it turning violent or angry. they got all of those complicated emotions out of their system and finally talked it out, if at least a little, and both are going to be better from it. 

hell, Bakugou even fully admitted that he threw the first punch. in no way is he blaming izuku for what happened. Bakugou is taking full responsibility for what he did. 

and again, Bakugou is giving Izuku advice. he’s helping Izuku in a very backwards, round about way, because it’s the only way he knows. but he’s still helping Izuku, something he absolutely would never have done before. 

Bakugou is growing. he’s learning. whether he wants to or not, he’s changing for the better, and he’s starting to realize that he is changing. that maybe he has to change. maybe he needs to.

he’s already showing a positive change after this fight. he’s taking responsibility for his actions, he’s not blaming Izuku, he’s giving Izuku advice, and he’s worrying about All Might’s secret getting out. punishing him for any more would be overkill, and it wouldn’t have anymore positive outcomes then what’s already been achieved.

he’s just a kid. he acted like a kid. he’s getting punished like any kid would be.

related metas:

One of my favorite presentations at the National American Association of Zoo Keepers conference two weeks ago was Denver Zoo’s exercise plan for an Asian small-clawed otter. Along with learning multiple high-energy behaviors that staff could use to guide him through a “workout”, Jilin Kalong was also taught to run on a cat exercise wheel! He liked it so much he’s been seen using it even outside of exercise sessions, so keeper staff moved the wheel on exhibit so he could use it during the day.

We’ve talked before on the blog about how these wheels can be used as enrichment for domestic animals, so I wanted to share this innovative use of them with an exotic animal.

8

Major Schools of Thought in Psychology

References

Hothersall, D. (1995). History of Psychology, 3rd ed. New York: Mcgraw-Hill.

Schacter, D. L., Wegner, D., and Gilbert, D. (2007). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers

BPD Symptoms and Features

**please note: the following post was originally posted by kellyann-graceful-warrior and has been reposted here by me and bolded and italicized to reflect which symptoms i feel apply to myself**

BPD is a chronic mental disorder of emotional dysregulation+hypersensitivity due to factors such as:

-A result of an overactive autonomic nervous system (fight or flight- functions associated to panic, anxiety, anger reactions, etc)
-An under-active parasympathetic nervous system (The system that is responsible to regulate the autonomic nervous system)
-Less active and smaller in volume abnormalities in the limbic system which has functions linked to: emotional reactions, memory, decision making, motivation, behavior, learning and developmental ability, thought pattern, instincts, psychotic symptoms, seizures, and senses/the way the body perceives external stimuli.
-Reduced volume in frontal lobe which has functions linked to: decision making, communication responses, ability to comprehend consequences, emotional-based memories and triggers, and relations to people, events and situations.
-Abnormal blood flow to parts of the brain that control emotions, resulting in one to be more reactive
-Emotional reactions firing off 20% longer
-A ton of other factors

Here are the 9 main symptoms noted in the criteria and research.

1. Extreme reactions to real or perceived/feared abandonment, rejection, or criticism

2. Splitting and idealization/devaluation

3. Identity disturbance- impoverished self image/self esteem and sense of self, dysphoria, despising ones self, and extreme instability and no direction towards the future, aspirations, goals, [career] plans, values, etc

4. Impulsive behavior- a sense of urgency to relieve intensity of emotions from stimuli, often self damaging (spending sprees, binge eating, steal, substance abuse, etc).

5. Reoccurring suicidal behavior/ideations (gestures, extensive thoughts, planning, role playing) and self-harm

6. Intense rapid cycling of affective instability due to hypersensitivity+dysregulation reactions

7. Depressive symptoms- chronic feelings of emptiness, frequent feelings of being miserable, shame, self-inferiority, and extreme difficulty recovering from such feelings

8. Intense anger and/or aggression reactions- frequent anger easily triggered from incidents

9. Paranoia/panic and dissociation reactions (often in response to stresses/anxieties)
[People with BPD may often experience reactions/episodes of psychosis- paranoia, hallucinations, delusions, body dysmorphic figures, etc, as well]

Then there are hundreds of other symptoms and features to this very complex, and unfortunately, highly stigmatized and misunderstood disorder. Here are a few indicated in research.
(Note- One with the disorder may display some or most of these, but nothing is guaranteed as each person with the disorder is an individual, so don’t use these as assumptions. Some may not have the same symptoms as others, and no person with it is portrayed the same way.
They are rather a guideline to mental health workers because they are often seen and developed from the disorder and symptoms).

(ALSO NOTE- Others without it can obviously ‘display/relate’ to some of this from time to time once you take a look, but the reasoning, cause, severity, and pattern is different and this is a chronic disorder.Please note it’s completely different than that and that this post is just for awareness/education purposes since not many know about it- how to deal, what to expect, etc.
Percentages show that 8/10 of these individuals attempt suicide, while 1/10 complete it. Stigma and assumptions don’t help, but awareness does.

10. Anxiety, nervousness

11. Headaches/migraines are common

12. Seizures

13. Higher nociception (pain tolerance)- Studies show alterations in pain processing in over 50% of those with BPD. The result of this comes from different systematic responses and antinociception and may be a result of long-term self harm behavior in some cases).

14. Distorted/irregular eating patterns- reduced food intake, impoverished diet, etc

15. Obsessive compulsive features- intrusive thoughts in the thought pattern/processes, repetitive behavior as a result of self harm, paranoia, distress, etc, and repetitive speech, to name a few

16. Self discipline/work orientation as a result of OCD features

17. Attachment

18. Extreme reckless-daring behavior

19. Baiting

20. Unstable relationships

21. “Always” and “Never” statements/reactions (splitting)

22. Sleep deprivation or irregular sleeping patterns

23. Voice changing

24. “Acting out”

25. Extreme curiosity and interest  

26. Dependency

27. Sarcasm

28. Promiscuity

29. Mimicking/mirroring

30. Flashbacks

31.
Nightmares  

32. Difficulty processing information

33. Difficulty focusing and concentrating and poor attention span

34. Consistent/radical change of appearance

35. Certain feelings of fear, negativity, or rejection of authority/people of “high importance” in their mind.

36. Alluring/seductive behavior

37. Extreme need for acceptance

38. A need to prove themselves over and over as identity may be graded on a scale of what was done that very day

39. Extreme apathy, boredom, dullness, and indifference

40. ‘Flat affect”- lack of emotional reactivity and inability to express/show emotions due to depression, absence of emotional response

41. Creative thinking

42. Studies show some are able to read others easily from such hypersensitivity; however, often mistaking neutrality as anger probably as a result of symptoms


43. Isolation

44. Defensive


45. Magical thinking (assumed correlation, interconnection, etc)

46. Fantasizing

47. Panic attacks

48. Anxiety Attacks


49. Hypersensitivity to caffeine, alcohol, some sugars and foods. Often described as being “allergic” to such things as it causes reactions from hypersensitivity and symptoms.

50. Memory lapses- a result of dissociation, intense reactions, etc

51. Extreme perfectionism

52. Avoidance

53. Euphoric reactions

54. Detachment

55.
Avoidance of eye contact

56. Difficulty transitioning with life aspects such as changes to plans and arrangements

57. Difficulty with awareness

58. Sensitivity to senses- light, sounds, temperatures, etc- from hypersensitivity  

59. Resistance

60. Difficulty with decision making, poor decisions, and/or indecisiveness, insecurity

61. Difficulty completing tasks

62.Rapid” or excessive speech

63. Restlessness, difficulty relaxing, feelings of “being on edge.”

64. Extreme sense of security, comfort, and connection with animals/nature and inanimate objects such as transitional objects

65. Undermining a goal, success, or relationship

66. Often occurs with PMDD (Premenstrual dysphoric disorder) or worse reactions to menstrual cycles because of the hypersensitive and systematic changes

67. Extreme difficulty and lack of object consistency (inability to recall that people or objects are ‘still there,’ consistent, and reliable when they are not currently being physically seen/there and difficulty maintaining these feelings

68. Flight of ideas, racing thoughts, rapid thought patterns

69. Brief remission of symptoms in response to certain events (positive reactions)

70. Disrupted or delayed life aspects- education, relationships, jobs, etc

No particular order. If you may need a source, example, description/explanation for more understanding for any of these, feel free to ask :)

straight people overanalyze and dissect gay relationships so much they’re so fucking nosy and they hold gay relationships to a different standard and i fucking hate it. if a couple is open to showing their affection then they’re rubbing peoples noses in it. being too obnoxious. making people uncomfortable “why can’t they keep it to themselves”. but when a couple keeps their affection private, often because of the homophobia gay couples face, ive really seen people say they don’t “see the chemistry” and the couple “just seem just like friends”. it’s so invalidating and you all ignore that being private is a literal defense mechanism out of safety and learned behavior after listening to so much homophobia throughout the years. you really can’t please straight people. leave us alone honestly!!!!!!!!!

5 things only people who are perscribed to Vyvanse/Adderall understand

1. Being physically, but not mentally, hungry.

You hear your stomach growl. You know that you need to eat so you head to your pantry. You scan everything in it, but nothing appeals to you. On a good day, you might find something that interests you. But after a few bites, you’re already full. When you’re prescribed Vyvanse, every day is a battle of forcing yourself to eat, just so you can take in the calories you need. Many may think this sounds ideal, a simple way to suppress your appetite and lose a few pounds. But when your ribs start to show and your doctor is hassling you about being underweight, or when people ignorantly assume you have an eating disorder, it’s not so fun. Vyvanse makes us completely repulsed of something so simple that we once loved: food.

2. Being an asshole.

For those who take Adderall/Vyvanse recreationally, it can make them feel unusually talkative and social. For us ADD/ADHD-ers, it calms us down, and sometimes even makes us the opposite of social. If we’re trying to get something done, don’t take it the wrong way when we come off as an asshole for not wanting to be social with you. When we’re focused on something and you’re repeatedly clicking your pen, please don’t take our death stare the wrong way. We’re just irritable because you’re distracting us from what the Vyvanse is telling us we need to do: focus.

3. Hyperfocusing on exactly what we’re not supposed to be focusing on.

For those of us who have ADD/ADHD, Vyvanse doesn’t magically make us limitless. Sometimes although we are able to focus, it’s on the wrong thing (Example: Me writing this article during class). Whatever it is that we are hyperfocusing on, has to be perfect. And this can take a while, distracting us from what really needs to be done. For us, overcoming distractions and ADD/ADHD is more than just taking a pill a couple times a day. It also takes serious willpower and learned cognitive behavioral skills in order to filter out the loads of irrelevant stimuli that flood our brains.

4. Becoming a zombie.

You’re not really sure where your personality went. You’re not really sure when the last time you smiled was because you’re feel so serious. You’ve been intently staring for so long that you remind yourself to blink. Your jaw is clenched. Someone may ask you if you’re okay or if you’re in a bad mood. You’re fine of course; the Vyvanse just makes you feel flat.

5. Being physically, but not mentally, exhausted.

Your body is sore and your eyes burn. Lying down feels so good, but sleep is out of the question. Your eyes won’t stay closed and your mind is still alert. Every day requires strategically not taking your meds too late, otherwise you will be miserable come bedtime, staring at the ceiling for hours. Naps during the day? Say goodbye to those.

Basically, we just want you to understand even though you maybe never will.

Vyvanse isn’t fun. Dealing with all of the above almost daily isn’tideal. And dealing with a real ADD/ADHD diagnosis is FAR fromlucky. Vyvanse isn’t a drug to joke about or buy in the library. It’s a medication that helps struggling individuals every day, and despite the negative side effects, we need that help

“I don’t like to be handed things.”

Can we talk about the implications of those words? Like, what happened to Tony that made him weary of taking something from someone else’s hands? Is it just a weird quirk, one of those things that people have but can’t explain? Or is it something more.

Like just imagine:

Young Tony Stark, so desperate for his fathers attention, would do anything he could to spend time with his father. So imagine young Tony, helping his father in the lab, but because Howard is Howard he doesn’t treat Tony like a kid, he just treats Tony as he would any other genius assistant.

“Here, hold this,” he says, as he holds out a soldering iron by the hot end. Howard had never given Tony any protective gear and Tony don’t want to irritate his father by pointing this out and risk getting kicked out of the lab, not able to help anymore. So he takes it. It burns like nothing he’s ever felt before, and he fights against the reflexive urge to drop it, to cry out and cradle his hand. He puts it down calmly and uses his shoulder to wipe away the tears before Howard can notice. Howard has already moved on.

Jarvis tisks over the burns as he bandages them later, pursing his lips, but he doesn’t say anything because he knows Howard would never listen and this is one of the few ways he’ll spend anytime with his son. And it’s not his place because, unfortunately, young Master Anthony is not his is child.

Tony’s older now. Fourteen. Away at MIT, away from his fathers disapproving stares, away from Maria’s despondent smiles as she lays in bed, unable to gather the energy to face the day, away from that look Jarvis gets on his face whenever Howard starts to talk about Captain Rogers again.

He’s at a party, surrounded by people, surrounded by girls - and some boys - beautiful people who give Tony attention, affection, something he’s never had before so he doesn’t know how to deal with it. He’s already had a few drinks and is a little tipsy, but he’s fine. A few drinks never hurt anybody. “Puts some hair on your chest,” he remembers his father saying when he was younger, eleven maybe twelve, pressing a glass of iced amber liquid into his hand.

A boy comes over and presses a drink into his hand. Stone, he thinks his name is, Tiberius Stone. He seemed nice, had been kind to Tony when he first arrived a couple months ago, younger than his peers and afraid of rejection. “Drink this,” Ty says, “it’ll make you feel better.” He takes it and drinks and the rest of the night is a blur, he doesn’t remember much after that, but he does remember waking up in a room he doesn’t recognize with no memory of how he got there.

It’s the little things that add up, he thinks, when suddenly one day he’s looking down at the file in his new assistants hand - Pepper, he thinks, but he knows that’s not her real name - and he can’t bring himself to take it. It’s harmless, a simple paper file and all he has to do it sign it. And he knows he can trust this girl, hired her himself after she barged into his office with - or technically without - the threat of pepper spray to his security. But the thought of lifting his hand makes his stomach turn, makes his body grow cold, and he can’t figure out why suddenly reaching out and taking a file from someone’s hand is now such a struggle.

“I don’t like to be handed things,” he says slowly, eyeing the file and trying to relax his body.

Pepper doesn’t seem to notice his struggle, simply putting the folder down on the desk by his hand, moving on to the next item on her list. She brushes it off as one of those weird billionaire eccentricities and doesn’t question it again.

~

Weird billionaire quirk or learned aversive behavior stemming from a subconscious fear of being harmed by those around him? I think about this all the time.

tips for helping psychotic people

  • don’t force them to tell you what their delusions or hallucinations are. they could be afraid to tell you because they feel they’re being spied on, they’re ashamed, w/e. just respect their boundaries.
  • don’t treat them like a child. treat them like you would any other person, they’re human, too.
  • don’t immediately dismiss their delusions/hallucinations just because you think they should be able to tell they’re not real. the psychotic might not know at all, because hallucinations look and sound SO real to us.
  • listen to what they have to say. if they say there is a camera in the room, cover where they say it is with tape. if they say they can’t go somewhere for whatever reason, don’t force them to go there. if they think their food is poisoned, prove to them it isn’t.
  • don’t get offended if they don’t trust you. they’re delusional, and can’t help it. they want you to be on their side so prove you can be trusted.
  • communication is key. ask them what you can do to help, because even the most extensive list of coping tools and methods isn’t 100% inclusive of everyone’s exact needs.
  • don’t use their illness against them. don’t tell them lies. don’t joke about it (unless they say it’s okay).
  • don’t allow them to abuse you. like any relationship, you can choose to leave whenever for whatever reason. learn to recognize abusive behaviors.

feel free to add on.