learn-english

Idioms in French and English

It’s a throwback to - Ça nous ramène à

To get to the bottom of things - Aller au fond des choses

You can’t put the clock back - Ce qui est fait est fait

It looks like a dead end street - On est dans l’impasse

To take a turn for the better - Prendre une meilleure tournure

To be scared to death - Avoir une peur bleue

That drives me crazy - Ça me prend la tête

He had a narrow escape - Il l’a échappé belle

They were beaten hands down - Ils ont été battus à plate couture

To throw money down the drain - Jeter de l’argent par les fenêtres

To face facts - Se rendre à l’évidence

An ace in the hole - Un avantage secret

At a drop of a hat - Sans hesitation

To start from scratch - Commencer à partir de zero

I worked my fingers to the bone - J’ai travaillé d’arrache-pied

Once in a blue moon - Tous les trente-six du mois

To buy something for a song - Acheter quelque chose pour une bouchée de pain

To do one’s utmost - Faire de son mieux

To face facts - Voir la vérité en face

To be all the rage - Être à la mode

To deter somebody from doing something - Dissuader quelqu’un de faire quelque chose 

To come into office - Prendre le pouvoir

To have a grip on something - Avoir une emprise sur quelque chose 

To cope with - Faire face à

To be on the edge of - Être sur le point de

To turn out to be - S’avérer

To devote oneself to doing something - Se consacrer à

To get one’s life back - Reprendre sa vie en main

To be short of - Être en rade de quelque chose

To resume work - Reprendre le travail

In the name of - Au nom de

To hit rock bottom - Toucher le fond

It’s the pot calling the kettle back - C’est l’hôpital qui se moque de la charité

Money can’t buy happiness - L’argent ne fait pas le Bonheur

When there’s a will there’s a way - Quand on veut on peut

To pass out - Tomber dans les pommes

To pretend to - Faire semblant de

Don’t judge a book by his cover - L’habit ne fait pas le moine

To make ends meet - Joindre les deux bouts

To cost an arm and a leg - Coûter les yeux de la tête

To look forward to - Être impatient de 

To be skating on thin ice - Avancer sur un terrain glissant

Let alone - Sans parler de

To keep pace with - S’adapter

Out of necessity - Par nécessité

Be it as it may - Quoi qu’il en soit

The flipside of the coin - Le revers de la médaille

To be on the brink of doing something - Être à deux doigts de faire quelque chose

In the wake -  A la suite de

10 Russian sayings borrowed from Krylov’s fables

Originally posted by yoursummerdreamz


Please note: I tried to find the closest Russian/English equivalents possible, but of course there are subtle nuances between the phrases. So if you feel like you have something to add to my translations/interpretations, or if you know/want to discuss better phrases/equivalents, please feel free to comment. If anything, we will be happy to see genuine and active participation!

1. А Васька слушает да ест.

Taken from: ’The Cat and The Cook (Кот и Повар)
Literal meaning: ‘And Vasya listens and continues eating’
Meaning: When someone ignores criticism, listens to advice but continues doing one’s own thing
English equivalent: to turn a deaf ear, like talking to a brick wall 

2. А ларчик просто открывался.

Taken from: A Little Box (Ларчик)
Literal meaning: ‘…and the box could be opened easily”.
Meaning: some seemingly difficult problem turned out to have a simple solution
English, I would say: there was nothing to it (after all), it wasn’t that hard. 

3. Да только воз и ныне там.

Taken from:  Swan, Pike and Crab (Лебедь, Щука и Рак)
Literal meaning: ‘the load is (still) there until the very day’
Meaning: refers to long and useless discussions that lead nowhere
English: everybody’s pulling and nothing’s moving, things aren’t moving, not much progress

4. Кто в лес, кто по дрова.

Taken from: Musicians (Музыканты)
Literal meaning: some went to the forest, some went for firewood
Meaning: cat’s concert; action with no coordination among the participants
English:  all at sixes and sevens

5. Как белка в колесе.

Taken from: The Squirrel and the Trush 
Literal translation: ‘like a squirrel in the wheel’
Meaning: to be very busy
English: busy as a bee

6. Рыльце в пуху/ пушку

Taken from: The Fox and the Marmot (Лисица и Сурок)
Literal translation: to have feathers in one’s snout
Meaning: to be involved in something (usually a dishonest, indecent matter)
In English, I’d say: a hypocrite

7. Слона-то я и не приметил.

Taken from: Любопытный
Literal translation: I didn’t see the elephant
Meaning: to overlook something obvious
Similar English phrases: can’t see forest for the trees

8. У сильного всегда бессильный виноват.

Taken from: The Wolf and the Lamb (Волк и Ягненок)
Literal translation: ‘always are the weak at fault before the strong’
Meaning: the stronger often blames the weaker (often referring to abuse of power/unjustified accusations by those in higher positions)

9. Хоть видит око, да зуб неймет.

Taken from: the Fox and the Grapes (Лисица и Виноград)
Literal translation: even though the eye can see, the tooth can’t taste
Meaning: Desire of something impossible to obtain
Similar phrases in English: so near/close and yet so far

10. Что сходит с рук ворам, за то воришек бьют.

Taken from: Вороненок
Literal translation: things that great thieves can get away with are often the same things little thieves are punished for (please note the phrase: это сойдет тебе с рук: you will get away with something; also note the changed word order)
Meaning: truly expert criminals are never caught
Similar phrases in English: little thieves are hanged, but great ones escape

Synonyms for 95 Commonly Used Words
  1. Amazing — incredible, unbelievable, improbable, fabulous, wonderful, fantastic, astonishing, astounding, extraordinary
  2. Anger — enrage, infuriate, arouse, nettle, exasperate, inflame, madden
  3. Angry — mad, furious, enraged, excited, wrathful, indignant, exasperated, aroused, inflamed
  4. Answer — reply, respond, retort, acknowledge
  5. Ask — question, inquire of, seek information from, put a question to, demand, request, expect, inquire, query, interrogate, examine, quiz
  6. Awful — dreadful, terrible, abominable, bad, poor, unpleasant
  7. Bad — evil, immoral, wicked, corrupt, sinful, depraved, rotten, contaminated, spoiled, tainted, harmful, injurious, unfavourable, defective, inferior, imperfect, substandard, faulty, improper, inappropriate, unsuitable, disagreeable, unpleasant, cross, nasty, unfriendly, irascible, horrible, atrocious, outrageous, scandalous, infamous, wrong, noxious, sinister, putrid, snide, deplorable, dismal, gross, heinous, nefarious, base, obnoxious, detestable, despicable, contemptible, foul, rank, ghastly, execrable
  8. Beautiful — pretty, lovely, handsome, attractive, gorgeous, dazzling, splendid, magnificent, comely, fair, ravishing, graceful, elegant, fine, exquisite, aesthetic, pleasing, shapely, delicate, stunning, glorious, heavenly, resplendent, radiant, glowing, blooming, sparkling
  9. Begin — start, open, launch, initiate, commence, inaugurate, originate
  10. Big — enormous, huge, immense, gigantic, vast, colossal, gargantuan, large, sizable, grand, great, tall, substantial, mammoth, astronomical, ample, broad, expansive, spacious, stout, tremendous, titanic, mountainous
  11. Brave — courageous, fearless, dauntless, intrepid, plucky, daring, heroic, valorous, audacious, bold, gallant, valiant, doughty, mettlesome
  12. Break — fracture, rupture, shatter, smash, wreck, crash, demolish, atomize
  13. Bright — shining, shiny, gleaming, brilliant, sparkling, shimmering, radiant, vivid, colourful, lustrous, luminous, incandescent, intelligent, knowing, quick-witted, smart, intellectual
  14. Calm — quiet, peaceful, still, tranquil, mild, serene, smooth, composed, collected, unruffled, level-headed, unexcited, detached, aloof
  15. Come — approach, advance, near, arrive, reach
  16. Cool — chilly, cold, frosty, wintry, icy, frigid
  17. Crooked — bent, twisted, curved, hooked, zigzag
  18. Cry — shout, yell, yowl, scream, roar, bellow, weep, wail, sob, bawl
  19. Cut — gash, slash, prick, nick, sever, slice, carve, cleave, slit, chop, crop, lop, reduce
  20. Dangerous — perilous, hazardous, risky, uncertain, unsafe
  21. Dark — shadowy, unlit, murky, gloomy, dim, dusky, shaded, sunless, black, dismal, sad
  22. Decide — determine, settle, choose, resolve
  23. Definite — certain, sure, positive, determined, clear, distinct, obvious
  24. Delicious — savoury, delectable, appetizing, luscious, scrumptious, palatable, delightful, enjoyable, toothsome, exquisite
  25. Describe — portray, characterize, picture, narrate, relate, recount, represent, report, record
  26. Destroy — ruin, demolish, raze, waste, kill, slay, end, extinguish
  27. Difference — disagreement, inequity, contrast, dissimilarity, incompatibility
  28. Do — execute, enact, carry out, finish, conclude, effect, accomplish, achieve, attain
  29. Dull — boring, tiring„ tiresome, uninteresting, slow, dumb, stupid, unimaginative, lifeless, dead, insensible, tedious, wearisome, listless, expressionless, plain, monotonous, humdrum, dreary
  30. Eager — keen, fervent, enthusiastic, involved, interested, alive to
  31. End — stop, finish, terminate, conclude, close, halt, cessation, discontinuance
  32. Enjoy — appreciate, delight in, be pleased, indulge in, luxuriate in, bask in, relish, devour, savour, like
  33. Explain — elaborate, clarify, define, interpret, justify, account for
  34. Fair — just, impartial, unbiased, objective, unprejudiced, honest
  35. Fall — drop, descend, plunge, topple, tumble
  36. False — fake, fraudulent, counterfeit, spurious, untrue, unfounded, erroneous, deceptive, groundless, fallacious
  37. Famous — well-known, renowned, celebrated, famed, eminent, illustrious, distinguished, noted, notorious
  38. Fast — quick, rapid, speedy, fleet, hasty, snappy, mercurial, swiftly, rapidly, quickly, snappily, speedily, lickety-split, post-haste, hastily, expeditiously, like a flash
  39. Fat — stout, corpulent, fleshy, beefy, paunchy, plump, full, rotund, tubby, pudgy, chubby, chunky, burly, bulky, elephantine
  40. Fear — fright, dread, terror, alarm, dismay, anxiety, scare, awe, horror, panic, apprehension
  41. Fly — soar, hover, flit, wing, flee, waft, glide, coast, skim, sail, cruise
  42. Funny — humorous, amusing, droll, comic, comical, laughable, silly
  43. Get — acquire, obtain, secure, procure, gain, fetch, find, score, accumulate, win, earn, rep, catch, net, bag, derive, collect, gather, glean, pick up, accept, come by, regain, salvage
  44. Go — recede, depart, fade, disappear, move, travel, proceed
  45. Good — excellent, fine, superior, wonderful, marvellous, qualified, suited, suitable, apt, proper, capable, generous, kindly, friendly, gracious, obliging, pleasant, agreeable, pleasurable, satisfactory, well-behaved, obedient, honourable, reliable, trustworthy, safe, favourable, profitable, advantageous, righteous, expedient, helpful, valid, genuine, ample, salubrious, estimable, beneficial, splendid, great, noble, worthy, first-rate, top-notch, grand, sterling, superb, respectable, edifying
  46. Great — noteworthy, worthy, distinguished, remarkable, grand, considerable, powerful, much, mighty
  47. Gross — improper, rude, coarse, indecent, crude, vulgar, outrageous, extreme, grievous, shameful, uncouth, obscene, low
  48. Happy — pleased, contented, satisfied, delighted, elated, joyful, cheerful, ecstatic, jubilant, gay, tickled, gratified, glad, blissful, overjoyed
  49. Hate — despise, loathe, detest, abhor, disfavour, dislike, disapprove, abominate
  50. Have — hold, possess, own, contain, acquire, gain, maintain, believe, bear, beget, occupy, absorb, fill, enjoy
  51. Help — aid, assist, support, encourage, back, wait on, attend, serve, relieve, succour, benefit, befriend, abet
  52. Hide — conceal, cover, mask, cloak, camouflage, screen, shroud, veil
  53. Hurry — rush, run, speed, race, hasten, urge, accelerate, bustle
  54. Hurt — damage, harm, injure, wound, distress, afflict, pain
  55. Idea — thought, concept, conception, notion, understanding, opinion, plan, view, belief
  56. Important — necessary, vital, critical, indispensable, valuable, essential, significant, primary, principal, considerable, famous, distinguished, notable, well-known
  57. Interesting — fascinating, engaging, sharp, keen, bright, intelligent, animated, spirited, attractive, inviting, intriguing, provocative, though-provoking, challenging, inspiring, involving, moving, titillating, tantalizing, exciting, entertaining, piquant, lively, racy, spicy, engrossing, absorbing, consuming, gripping, arresting, enthralling, spellbinding, curious, captivating, enchanting, bewitching, appealing
  58. Keep — hold, retain, withhold, preserve, maintain, sustain, support
  59. Kill — slay, execute, assassinate, murder, destroy, cancel, abolish
  60. Lazy — indolent, slothful, idle, inactive, sluggish
  61. Little — tiny, small, diminutive, shrimp, runt, miniature, puny, exiguous, dinky, cramped, limited, itsy-bitsy, microscopic, slight, petite, minute
  62. Look — gaze, see, glance, watch, survey, study, seek, search for, peek, peep, glimpse, stare, contemplate, examine, gape, ogle, scrutinize, inspect, leer, behold, observe, view, witness, perceive, spy, sight, discover, notice, recognize, peer, eye, gawk, peruse, explore
  63. Love — like, admire, esteem, fancy, care for, cherish, adore, treasure, worship, appreciate, savour
  64. Make — create, originate, invent, beget, form, construct, design, fabricate, manufacture, produce, build, develop, do, effect, execute, compose, perform, accomplish, earn, gain, obtain, acquire, get
  65. Mark — label, tag, price, ticket, impress, effect, trace, imprint, stamp, brand, sign, note, heed, notice, designate
  66. Mischievous — prankish, playful, naughty, roguish, waggish, impish, sportive
  67. Move — plod, go, creep, crawl, inch, poke, drag, toddle, shuffle, trot, dawdle, walk, traipse, mosey, jog, plug, trudge, slump, lumber, trail, lag, run, sprint, trip, bound, hotfoot, high-tail, streak, stride, tear, breeze, whisk, rush, dash, dart, bolt, fling, scamper, scurry, skedaddle, scoot, scuttle, scramble, race, chase, hasten, hurry, hump, gallop, lope, accelerate, stir, budge, travel, wander, roam, journey, trek, ride, spin, slip, glide, slide, slither, coast, flow, sail, saunter, hobble, amble, stagger, paddle, slouch, prance, straggle, meander, perambulate, waddle, wobble, pace, swagger, promenade, lunge
  68. Moody — temperamental, changeable, short-tempered, glum, morose, sullen, modish, irritable, testy, peevish, fretful, spiteful, sulky, touchy
  69. Neat — clean, orderly, tidy, trim, dapper, natty, smart, elegant, well-organized, super, desirable, spruce, shipshape, well-kept, shapely
  70. New — fresh, unique, original, unusual, novel, modern, current, recent
  71. Old — feeble, frail, ancient, weak, aged, used, worn, dilapidated, ragged, faded, broken-down, former, old-fashioned, outmoded, passé, veteran, mature, venerable, primitive, traditional, archaic, conventional, customary, stale, musty, obsolete, extinct
  72. Part — portion, share, piece, allotment, section, fraction, fragment
  73. Place — space, area, spot, plot, region, location, situation, position, residence, dwelling, set, site, station, status, state
  74. Plan — plot, scheme, design, draw, map, diagram, procedure, arrangement, intention, device, contrivance, method, way, blueprint
  75. Popular — well-liked, approved, accepted, favourite, celebrated, common, current
  76. Predicament — quandary, dilemma, pickle, problem, plight, spot, scrape, jam
  77. Put — place, set, attach, establish, assign, keep, save, set aside, effect, achieve, do, build
  78. Quiet — silent, still, soundless, mute, tranquil, peaceful, calm, restful
  79. Right — correct, accurate, factual, true, good, just, honest, upright, lawful, moral, proper, suitable, apt, legal, fair
  80. Run — race, speed, hurry, hasten, sprint, dash, rush, escape, elope, flee
  81. Scared — afraid, frightened, alarmed, terrified, panicked, fearful, unnerved, insecure, timid, shy, skittish, jumpy, disquieted, worried, vexed, troubled, disturbed, horrified, terrorized, shocked, petrified, haunted, timorous, shrinking, tremulous, stupefied, paralyzed, stunned, apprehensive
  82. Show — display, exhibit, present, note, point to, indicate, explain, reveal, prove, demonstrate, expose
  83. Slow — unhurried, gradual, leisurely, late, behind, tedious, slack
  84. Stop — cease, halt, stay, pause, discontinue, conclude, end, finish, quit
  85. Story — tale, myth, legend, fable, yarn, account, narrative, chronicle, epic, sage, anecdote, record, memoir
  86. Strange — odd, peculiar, unusual, unfamiliar, uncommon, queer, weird, outlandish, curious, unique, exclusive, irregular
  87. Take — hold, catch, seize, grasp, win, capture, acquire, pick, choose, select, prefer, remove, steal, lift, rob, engage, bewitch, purchase, buy, retract, recall, assume, occupy, consume
  88. Tell — disclose, reveal, show, expose, uncover, relate, narrate, inform, advise, explain, divulge, declare, command, order, bid, recount, repeat
  89. Think — judge, deem, assume, believe, consider, contemplate, reflect, mediate
  90. Trouble — distress, anguish, anxiety, worry, wretchedness, pain, danger, peril, disaster, grief, misfortune, difficulty, concern, pains, inconvenience, exertion, effort
  91. True — accurate, right, proper, precise, exact, valid, genuine, real, actual, trusty, steady, loyal, dependable, sincere, staunch
  92. Ugly — hideous, frightful, frightening, shocking, horrible, unpleasant, monstrous, terrifying, gross, grisly, ghastly, horrid, unsightly, plain, homely, evil, repulsive, repugnant, gruesome
  93. Unhappy — miserable, uncomfortable, wretched, heart-broken, unfortunate, poor, downhearted, sorrowful, depressed, dejected, melancholy, glum, gloomy, dismal, discouraged, sad
  94. Use — employ, utilize, exhaust, spend, expend, consume, exercise
  95. Wrong — incorrect, inaccurate, mistaken, erroneous, improper, unsuitable

If you still think that you are not able to transfer some of your emotions and thoughts to your friends or family in a perfect way and feel very uncomfortable about that feelings you may take a look:

http://dunyaminsinirlari.tumblr.com/post/127982187867/pratik-kelime-listesi-useful-word-list

“In the first place, we should insist that if the immigrant who comes here in good faith becomes an American and assimilates himself to us, he shall be treated on an exact equality with everyone else, for it is an outrage to discriminate against any such man because of creed, or birthplace, or origin. But this is predicated upon the person’s becoming in every facet an American, and nothing but an American … There can be no divided allegiance here. Any man who says he is an American, but something else also, isn’t an American at all. We have room for but one flag, the American flag … We have room for but one language here, and that is the English language … and we have room for but one sole loyalty and that is a loyalty to the American people." 

Theodore Roosevelt 1907

Arabic education vocabulary

Arabic education vocabulary

  • Human sciences العلوم الإنسانية
  • history التاريخ 
  • political science العلوم السياسية
  • sociology علم الاجتماع
  • psychology علم النفس 
  • literature الأدب
  • linguistics اللسانيات
  • phonetics  اللغويات
  • philosophy الفلسفة
  • accounting المحاسبة
  • business administration إدارة الأعمال
  • journalism الصحافة
  • engineering الهندسة
  • civil engineering الهندسة المدنية
  • computer engineering هندسة الحاسوب 
  • electrical engineering الهندسة الكهربائية
  • industrial engineering الهندسة الصناعية
  • nuclear engineering الهندسة النووية
  • architecture العمارة
  • economics الاقتصاد
  • home economics الاقتصاد المنزلي
  • law الحقوق
  • fine arts الفنون الجميلة
  • art فن  
  • music الموسيقى
  • dance الرقص
  • science علم (pl.) علوم
  • biology الأحياء
  • microbiology الأحياء الدقيقة
  • chemistry الكيمياء
  • biochemistry الكيمياء الحيوية
  • physics الفيزياء 
  • astronomy الفلك
  • mathematics الرياضيات
  • statistics الإحصاء
  • algebra الجبر
  • geology الجيولوجيا
  • geography الجغرافيا
  • anthropology علم الانسان
  • archaeologyعلم الآثار
  • computer science علم الحاسوب
  • agricultural sciences العلوم الزراعية
  • earth sciences علوم الأرض 
  • environmental science علم البيئة
  • botany علم النبات
  • veterinary science الطب البيطري
  • forensic medicine الطب الشرعي
  • psychiatry الطب النفساني
  • medicine الطب
  • nursing التمريض
  • public health الصحة العامة
  • dentistry طب الأسنان
  • optics البصريات
  • pharmacy الصيدلة
  • language لغة   لغات
  • grammar قواعد 
  • vocabulary مفردات
  • synonym مرادف (pl.) مرادفات
  • spelling تهجئة

~ I sincerely hope you find this list helpful, if you have any questions feel free to ask me Inbox

Body idioms!

Originally posted by lauranowlin

To cost an arm and a leg: дословно “стоить ноги и руки”, то есть быть очень дорогим

  • I’d like to buy a car, but they cost an arm and a leg these days: я хотел бы купить машину, но они сейчас ужасно дорогие. 

To scratch someone’s back: дословно “почесать чью-то спину”. Значение: оказать кому-то помощь в надежде, что тебе помогут в ответ. 

  • I’ll scratch your back if you scratch mine: я помогу тебе, если ты мне поможешь

Scatterbrain / Scatterbrained: рассеянный человек (you’re so scatterbrained)

Keep your chin up: дословно “дежать подбородок высоко”, то есть оставаться на позитиве, несмотря на трудные ситуации

  • Keep your chin up! Not everything is lost yet: Выше нос! Еще не все потеряно.

Keep eyes peeled: быть начеку

  • Keep your eyes peeled, he will come soon! Будь начеку, он скоро придет!

Itchy feet: дословно “зуд ноги”, т.е. человек, который не может стоять на одном месте, которому всегда надо путешетвовать 

  • Hearing the train whistle at night gives me itchy feet

A pain in the neck: дословно “боль” в шее, то есть надоедливый человек

  • Emma is such a pain in the neck. I can’t wait to get out of here: Эмма такой надоедливый человек - жду не дождусь, пока не уеду отсюда.

Pull someone’s leg: врать

  • Are pulling my leg?! I don’t believe you! Ты врешь мне, что ли?! Не верю!

To have a thick skin: дословно “иметь толстую кожу”, то есть быть невосприимчивым к оскорблениям

  • You need to have a thick skin to do this job: чтобы выполнить эту работу, надо быть довольно толстокожим

Word of mouth: аналог русского “из уст в уста”

  • How did you find out about this? - Easy. Word of mouth. 

blind as a bat: слепой, как летучая мышь (указывает на плохое зрение)

  • I need my glasses. I am blind as a bat without them: Мне нужны очки - без них я слеп, как летучая мышь

dead as a doornail: мертвый

  • Did you even take care of my plants? They’re dead as a doornail! Ты вообще поливал мои цветы? Они все умерли!

to be tongue-tied: лишиться дара речи (от стеснительности, стыда и т.д.)

  • I felt tongue-tied with embarrassment. It was the worst moment of my life! Я лишился дара речи от стыда. Это был худший момент моей жизни!

lips are sealed: “рот на замке”. Больше используется в контексте “это секрет, не могу сказать”

  • I can’t tell you, sorry. My lips are sealed.
What’s Up with “Hanged” and “Hung”?

When it comes to regular objects such as paintings and articles of clothing, we use “hung” as the past tense of “hang”:

  • The doctor hung his lab coat inside his office wardrobe before he went home.

When it comes to the form of death (either execution or suicide), we use “hanged”:

  • The music world mourned when Ian Curtis hanged himself.

TL;DR:

The past tense of “hang” in the phrase “hang up the phone” is “hung,” e.g., “I hung up on her.” 📞

The past tense of the phrase “hang out” is “hung out,” as in “The Eleventh Doctor and his friends hung out yesterday and ate fish fingers and custard.”

Academic word list

The Academic Word List (AWL) contains 570 word families which were selected because they appear with great frequency in a broad range of academic texts. The list does not include words that are in the most frequent 2000 words of English (the General Service List), thus making it specific to academic contexts. 

Group 1

sector • available • financial • process • individual • specific • principle • estimate • variables • method • data • research • contract • environment • export • source • assessment • policy • identified • create • derived • factors • procedure • definition • assume • theory • benefit • evidence • established • authority • major • issues • labour • occur • economic • involved • percent • interpretation • consistent • income • structure • legal • concept • formula • section • required • constitutional • analysis • distribution • function • area • approach • role • legislation • indicate • response • period • context • significant • similar •

Group 2

community • resident • range • construction • strategies • elements • previous • conclusion • security • aspects • acquisition • features • text • commission • regulations • computer • items • consumer • achieve • final • positive • evaluation • assistance • normal • relevant • distinction • region • traditional • impact • consequences • chapter • equation • appropriate • resources • participation • survey • potential • cultural • transfer • select • credit • affect • categories • perceived • sought • focus • purchase • injury • site • journal • primary • complex • institute • investment • administration • maintenance • design • obtained • restricted • conduct •

Group 3

comments • convention • published • framework • implies • negative • dominant • illustrated • outcomes • constant • shift • deduction • ensure • specified • justification • funds • reliance • physical • partnership • location • link • coordination • alternative • initial • validity • task • techniques • excluded • consent • proportion • demonstrate • reaction • criteria • minorities • technology • philosophy • removed • sex • compensation • sequence • corresponding • maximum • circumstances • instance • considerable • sufficient • corporate • interaction • contribution • immigration • component • constraints • technical • emphasis • scheme • layer • volume • document • registered • core •

Group 4

overall • emerged • regime • implementation • project • hence • occupational • internal • goals • retained • sum • integration • mechanism • parallel • imposed • despite • job • parameters • approximate • label • concentration • principal • series • predicted • summary • attitudes • undertaken • cycle • communication • ethnic • hypothesis • professional • status • conference • attributed • annual • obvious • error • implications • apparent • commitment • subsequent • debate • dimensions • promote • statistics • option • domestic • output • access • code • investigation • phase • prior • granted • stress • civil • contrast • resolution • adequate

Group 5

alter • stability • energy • aware • licence • enforcement • draft • styles • precise • medical • pursue • symbolic • marginal • capacity • generation • exposure • decline • academic • modified • external • psychology • fundamental • adjustment • ratio • whereas • enable • version • perspective • contact • network • facilitate • welfare • transition • amendment • logic • rejected • expansion • clause • prime • target • objective • sustainable • equivalent • liberal • notion • substitution • generated • trend • revenue • compounds • evolution • conflict • image • discretion • entities • orientation • consultation • mental • monitoring • challenge •

Group 6

intelligence • transformation • presumption • acknowledged • utility • furthermore • accurate • diversity • attached • recovery • assigned • tapes • motivation • bond • edition • nevertheless • transport • cited • fees • scope • enhanced • incorporated • instructions • subsidiary • input • abstract • ministry • capable • expert • preceding • display • incentive • inhibition • trace • ignored • incidence • estate • cooperative • revealed • index • lecture • discrimination • overseas • explicit • aggregate • gender • underlying • brief • domain • rational • minimum • interval • neutral • migration • flexibility • federal • author • initiatives • allocation • exceed •

Group 7

intervention • confirmed • definite • classical • chemical • voluntary • release • visible • finite • publication • channel • file • thesis • equipment • disposal • solely • deny • identical • submitted • grade • phenomenon • paradigm • ultimately • extract • survive • converted • transmission • global • inferred • guarantee • advocate • dynamic • simulation • topic • insert • reverse • decades • comprise • hierarchical • unique • comprehensive • couple • mode • differentiation • eliminate • priority • empirical • ideology • somewhat • aid • foundation • adults • adaptation • quotation • contrary • media • successive • innovation • prohibited • isolated •

Group 8

highlighted • eventually • inspection • termination • displacement • arbitrary • reinforced • denote • offset • exploitation • detected • abandon • random • revision • virtually • uniform • predominantly • thereby • implicit • tension • ambiguous • vehicle • clarity • conformity • contemporary • automatically • accumulation • appendix • widespread • infrastructure • deviation • fluctuations • restore • guidelines • commodity • minimises • practitioners • radical • plus • visual • chart • appreciation • prospect • dramatic • contradiction • currency • inevitably • complement • accompany • paragraph • induced • schedule • intensity • crucial • via • exhibit • bias • manipulation • theme • nuclear •

Group 9

bulk • behalf • unified • commenced • erosion • anticipated • minimal • ceases • vision • mutual • norms • intermediate • manual • supplementary • incompatible • concurrent • ethical • preliminary • integral • conversely • relaxed • confined • accommodation • temporary • distorted • passive • subordinate • analogous • military • scenario • revolution • diminished • coherence • suspended • mature • assurance • rigid • controversy • sphere • mediation • format • trigger • qualitative • portion • medium • coincide • violation • device • insights • refine • devoted • team • overlap • attained • restraints • inherent • route • protocol • founded • duration •

Group 10

whereby • inclination • encountered • convinced • assembly • albeit • enormous • reluctant • posed • persistent • undergo • notwithstanding • straightforward • panel • odd • intrinsic • compiled • adjacent • integrity • forthcoming • conceived • ongoing • so-called • likewise • nonetheless • levy • invoked • colleagues • depression • collapse •

youtube

So I found this really cool channel. It’s mostly aimed at foreigners who are learning Russian, but the subtitles are in both languages, so I think it’ll be useful for both. In each video, the crew walks around the streets and interviews different people on a random topic, (which includes: ‘What makes you happy?’, ‘Who is your favourite writer?’). The idea is that it is possible (and necessary) to learn Russian ‘from the streets’. Their videos are always incredibly entertaining and positive, so I suggest you guys take a look - you won’t regret it, I promise :)

In this episode, Anya asks people about their favourite Russian sayings. Here are a few that were mentioned in this video:

век живи, век учись: live an learn / it’s never too late to learn
кончи дело - гуляй смело: business before pleasure 
язык мой - враг мой: my tongue is my enemy/ a man’s ruin lies with his tongue/ i am my worst enemy
чужая душа - потемки: a stranger’s heart is a deep well
без труда не вытащишь рыбку из пруда/ под лежачий камень вода не течет:  no pains, no gains/ no sweet/ without sweat
тише едешь - дальше будешь: slow and steady wins the race
в чужом глазу соринку разгляжу, в своем бревна не замечу:  Hunchback does not see his hump, but sees his companion’s
насильно мил не будешь:  love cannot be compelled.

How I got proficient in ENGLISH

(without ever going to an English speaking country)

So, earlier today, @aspoonfuloflanguage asked me (thank you) to talk about how I got proficient in English, give some tips on certain things. Here they are! And if you feel like I could expand on something or I didn’t touch on something you want to know about, please just ask me! 

I know this is so long, I’m so sorry! But I hope you like it!

Keep reading

What’s Up with “Assume” and “Presume”?

HERE ARE SOME MORE EXAMPLES:

  • If you go to take the SAT without #2 pencils, snacks, a calculator, or water because you assume that the testing center will provide them, you’ll have a bad time. (You would be foolish to assume such a thing when even the school you attend every day doesn’t provide them for free.) 🤦🏻‍♂️
  • If you go on a blind date without bringing your wallet because you assume that the other person (whom you’ve never met) will pay for dinner, you will probably have an awkward moment when the check arrives.
The 70 most commons irregular verbs

This is a list of the most common irregular verbs in English. (Pre-intermediate level) 

Verb (infinitive) →  Past simple  →  Past participle

become → became → become

begin → began → begun

break → broke → broken

bring → brought → brought

build → built → built

buy → bought → bought

catch → caught → caught

choose → chose → chosen

come → came → come

cost → cost → cost

cut → cut → cut

do → did → done

draw → drew → drawn

drink → drank → drunk

drive → drove → driven

eat → ate → eaten

fall → fell → fallen

feed → fed → fed

feel → felt → felt

fight → fought → fought

find → found → found

fly → flew → flown

forget → forgot → forgotten

forgive → forgave → forgiven

get → got → got (BrE) / gotten (AmE)

give → gave → given

go → went → gone

grow → grew → grown

have → had → had

hear → heard → heard

hide → hid → hidden

hit → hit → hit

hold → held → held

know → knew → known

learn → learned → learnt/learned

leave → left → left

lend → lent → lent

lose → lost → lost

make → made → made

mean → meant → meant

meet → met → met

pay → paid → paid

put → put → put

read → read → read

ride → rode → ridden

rise → rose → risen

run → ran → run

say → said → said

see → saw → seen

sell → sold → sold

send → sent → sent

set → set → set

show → showed → shown

sing → sang → sung

sit → sat → sat

sleep → slept → slept

speak → spoke → spoken

spend → spent → spent

stand → stood →stood

steal → stole → stolen

swim → swam → swum

take → took → taken

teach → taught → taught

tell → told → told

think → thought → thought

throw → threw → thrown

understand → understood → understood

wear → wore → worn

win → won → won

write → wrote → written

How to improve English pronunciation

(Author: our favourite person ever, @jk-my-words)

I thought it would be good to share with you a fun skill that helped me out a while back.

Language accustoms our mouth, lips and tongue to creating sounds unique and common for it. This is especially true with first languages and many people struggle to shake off their initial accent because of this fact. For instance, Russian speakers are encouraged to produce firm sounds, so when it comes to navigating English pronunciation, they tend to sound a little too rigid and tense.

But wouldn’t it be cool to impress your examiner? Could it be that you are self-conscious about your accent and would like to sound closer to native speakers? Do not fret, we have a tip!

Stick a pencil between your teeth and try reading! :)

As comical as it sounds, this method dates back to Ancient Greece, where speakers would put their heart and soul into proper annunciation, and pebbles — in their mouths. To follow their steps in a more conventional way, insert the pencil horizontally between your teeth and hold on to it tight. Try not to hurt yourself in the process! Now pick up a book, preferably in English, and try reading it without letting go of the pencil. It will be difficult at first but gradually your lips will loosen up: by giving them a bit of a challenge, they become more flexible and allow you to annunciate better. After reading for about 5 minutes, have a go at those expressions that always came out slightly awkwardly — this method works a miracle!

And don’t forget, practice makes perfect

to help (someone) out: помочь, выручить (кого-то)
a while back: некоторое время назад
to accustom: приучить
first language: родной язык
to struggle: бороться
to shake (something) off: избавиться (от чего-то)
initial: изначальный
firm: твердный
to navigate: ориентироваться
rigid: жесткий
tense: напряженный
impress: впечатлить
to date back to: брать начало, датироваться
annunciation: в этом контексте - объявление. 
pebbles: камешки
conventional: общепринятый, традиционный
to insert: вставить
to let go: отпустить
gradually: постепено
to loosen up: расслабиться
have a go at: попробовать(сделать что-то)

as + adjective + as + noun + verb: устойчивое выражение, аналог русского как бы ни…

  • as comical as it sounds: как бы смешно это ни звучало

put (their) heart and soul: вложить сердце и душу
to work a miracle: творить чудеса
to hold on tight: крепко держаться
practice makes perfect: пословица, дословно - “практика приводит к совершенству”, аналог русского “повторенье - мать ученья”
self-conscious (about): стесняться (чего-то) 
Don’t fret!: Не отчаивайтесь!

vocabulary: Humour

Originally posted by yourreactiongifs

Humour can be…

dry /draɪ/ сухой 
black /
blæk/  черный 
corny /
ˈkɔːni/ банальный, заезженный
vulgar /
ˈvʌlɡə/ вульгарный
at someone else’s expense /
ət ˈsʌmwʌn ˈelsəz ɪkˈspens/  в ущерб кому-то другому
close to home /
kləʊs tə həʊm/ злободневный
lame
 /leɪm/ слабый, жалкий
offensive
 /əˈfensɪv/ оскорбительный
dirty /
ˈdɜːti/ грязный, непристойный

Someone who is funny can also be…

amusing /əˈmjuːzɪŋ/ забавный
hilarious /
hɪˈleərɪəs/ очень смешной (в некоторых контекстах можно прямо перевести - ржачный)
witty /ˈwɪti/ остроумный
goofy /ˈɡuːfi/ бестолковый, дурашливый
prankster /præŋkstə/ шутник
quirky /ˈkwɜːki/   необычный, причудливый

I’ll cross that bridge when I come to it” is a common idiom that means ‘I won’t worry about a potential problem until it becomes an actual problem.’ For example, “I might need a lawyer, but I’ll cross that bridge when I come to it.” (Translation: I won’t worry about needing a lawyer until this situation becomes so bad that I need to hire one.) 👨‍⚖️