Okay, maybe they aren’t that annoying, but they sure are confusing.
I’m talking about abbreviated Latin terms used in English.
For example, i.e., e.g., vs, etc. etc. etc.
There are so many of these that it’d be a waste of a tumblr post—just google them or go to Wikipedia! So instead, I’ll just cover the most frequently used ones.
1) etc. (et cetera)
This Latin term is used at the end of a phrase or a sentence to show that there is more stuff included in the list, but you don’t want to list it all. For example: Summer is good for swimming, jogging, picnicking, strolling, etc.
*When you read “etc.” out loud, pronounce it as “et-sé-te-rah.”
2) i.e. (id est)
This abbreviation is used to explain something further. Basically, it’s the same as “What I mean is…” For example: Summer is good for fun things, i.e. leisurely activities that you don’t get to do while working.
*When reading “i.e.” out loud, pronounce it as “ai-ee.”
3) e.g. (exampli gratia)
Don’t confuse this with i.e.! While “i.e.” is used for explaining something, “e.g.” is used for giving specific examples. For example: Summer is good for fun things, e.g. swimming, jogging, picnicking, strolling, etc.
*When reading “e.g.” out loud, pronounce it as “ee-jee.”
4) vs. (versus)
This is something you’ve probably seen in sports or any other competitions. “Vs” basically means “against.” For example: This summer’s biggest baseball event is the Phillies vs. Red Sox match.
*When reading aloud, read as “ver-sus.”
5) cf. (confer)
If you see this, you’re probably reading a very smart book. “Cf.” means “refer to…” when the author wants you to look at some other source that talks about something in more detail (or just gives another perspective on an issue). For example: Summer is a great time for outdoor activities (cf. John Smith for various types of summer pastimes).
*When reading aloud, read as “see-ef.”
6) et al (et alii)
“et al” usually comes right after a name, and means “and others.” It is used when there are too many names to list, but you still want to give credit to everybody. For example: Johnson et al. = Johnson and others.
*When reading out loud, say “et-al.”
7) P.S. (post scriptum)
Most non-English speaking people already know what “P.S.” means, since it’s so widely used. Still, I’m including it here for your reference. “P.S.” indicates an addition to the main text (usually a letter). For example: Dear Johnny, I love you. Julie P.S. Just kidding!
*When reading out loud, say “pee-es.”
There are many-many more, but I feel like these are the ones you’re more likely to encounter in everyday life. Although Latin is a dead language, it’s still widely used in English writing and even speaking (i.e., it’s everywhere)! ^^
“In the first place, we should insist that if the immigrant who comes here in good faith becomes an American and assimilates himself to us, he shall be treated on an exact equality with everyone else, for it is an outrage to discriminate against any such man because of creed, or birthplace, or origin. But this is predicated upon the person’s becoming in every facet an American, and nothing but an American … There can be no divided allegiance here. Any man who says he is an American, but something else also, isn’t an American at all. We have room for but one flag, the American flag … We have room for but one language here, and that is the English language … and we have room for but one sole loyalty and that is a loyalty to the American people."
The Academic Word List (AWL) contains 570 word families which were selected because they appear with great frequency in a broad range of academic texts. The list does not include words that are in the most frequent 2000 words of English (the General Service List), thus making it specific to academic contexts.
sector • available • financial • process • individual • specific • principle • estimate • variables • method • data • research • contract • environment • export • source • assessment • policy • identified • create • derived • factors • procedure • definition • assume • theory • benefit • evidence • established • authority • major • issues • labour • occur • economic • involved • percent • interpretation • consistent • income • structure • legal • concept • formula • section • required • constitutional • analysis • distribution • function • area • approach • role • legislation • indicate • response • period • context • significant • similar •
community • resident • range • construction • strategies • elements • previous • conclusion • security • aspects • acquisition • features • text • commission • regulations • computer • items • consumer • achieve • final • positive • evaluation • assistance • normal • relevant • distinction • region • traditional • impact • consequences • chapter • equation • appropriate • resources • participation • survey • potential • cultural • transfer • select • credit • affect • categories • perceived • sought • focus • purchase • injury • site • journal • primary • complex • institute • investment • administration • maintenance • design • obtained • restricted • conduct •
So I found this really cool channel. It’s mostly aimed at foreigners who are learning Russian, but the subtitles are in both languages, so I think it’ll be useful for both. In each video, the crew walks around the streets and interviews different people on a random topic, (which includes: ‘What makes you happy?’, ‘Who is your favourite writer?’). The idea is that it is possible (and necessary) to learn Russian ‘from the streets’. Their videos are always incredibly entertaining and positive, so I suggest you guys take a look - you won’t regret it, I promise :)
In this episode, Anya asks people about their favourite Russian sayings. Here are a few that were mentioned in this video:
век живи, век учись: live an learn / it’s never too late to learn кончи дело - гуляй смело: business before pleasure язык мой - враг мой: my tongue is my enemy/ a man’s ruin lies with his tongue/ i am my worst enemy чужая душа - потемки: a stranger’s heart is a deep well без труда не вытащишь рыбку из пруда/ под лежачий камень вода не течет: no pains, no gains/ no sweet/ without sweat тише едешь - дальше будешь: slow and steady wins the race в чужом глазу соринку разгляжу, в своем бревна не замечу:
Hunchback does not see his hump, but sees his companion’s
насильно мил не будешь: love cannot be compelled.
To “take (something) with a grain of salt”is a common idiom that means to ‘consider something to be not completely true or right.’ For example, if one of your friends always exaggerated her stories, you would take what she says with a grain of salt.
Please note: I tried to find the closest Russian/English equivalents possible, but of course there are subtle nuances between the phrases. So if you feel like you have something to add to my translations/interpretations, or if you know/want to discuss better phrases/equivalents, please feel free to comment. If anything, we will be happy to see genuine and active participation!
1. А Васька слушает да ест.
Taken from: ’The Cat and The Cook (Кот и Повар) Literal meaning: ‘And Vasya listens and continues eating’ Meaning: When someone ignores criticism, listens to advice but continues doing one’s own thing English equivalent: to turn a deaf ear, like talking to a brick wall
2. А ларчик просто открывался.
Taken from: A Little Box (Ларчик) Literal meaning: ‘…and the box could be opened easily”. Meaning: some seemingly difficult problem turned out to have a simple solution English, I would say: there was nothing to it (after all), it wasn’t that hard.
3. Да только воз и ныне там.
Taken from: Swan, Pike and Crab (Лебедь, Щука и Рак)
Literal meaning: ‘the load is (still) there until the very day’ Meaning: refers to long and useless discussions that lead nowhere
English: everybody’s pulling and nothing’s moving, things aren’t moving, not much progress
4. Кто в лес, кто по дрова.
Taken from: Musicians (Музыканты) Literal meaning: some went to the forest, some went for firewood Meaning: cat’s concert; action with no coordination among the participants English: all at sixes and sevens
5. Как белка в колесе.
Taken from: The Squirrel and the Trush Literal translation: ‘like a squirrel in the wheel’ Meaning: to be very busy English: busy as a bee
6. Рыльце в пуху/ пушку
Taken from: The Fox and the Marmot (Лисица и Сурок) Literal translation: to have feathers in one’s snout Meaning: to be involved in something (usually a dishonest, indecent matter) In English, I’d say: a hypocrite
7. Слона-то я и не приметил.
Taken from: Любопытный Literal translation: I didn’t see the elephant Meaning: to overlook something obvious
Similar English phrases: can’t see forest for the trees
8. У сильного всегда бессильный виноват.
Taken from: The Wolf and the Lamb (Волк и Ягненок) Literal translation: ‘always are the weak at fault before the strong’
Meaning: the stronger often blames the weaker (often referring to abuse of power/unjustified accusations by those in higher positions)
9. Хоть видит око, да зуб неймет.
Taken from: the Fox and the Grapes (Лисица и Виноград) Literal translation: even though the eye can see, the tooth can’t taste Meaning: Desire of something impossible to obtain Similar phrases in English: so near/close and yet so far
10. Что сходит с рук ворам, за то воришек бьют.
Taken from: Вороненок Literal translation: things that great thieves can get away with are often the same things little thieves are punished for (please note the phrase: это сойдет тебе с рук: you will get away with something; also note the changed word order) Meaning: truly expert criminals are never caught Similar phrases in English: little thieves are hanged, but great ones escape