law of conservation of energy

More Than You Ever Wanted to Know About Mechanical Engineering: The First Law of Thermodynamics

If we’re going to talk about heat transfer, we’ve got to talk a little bit about thermodynamics. We’ll take it one law at a time.

The first law of thermodynamics just boils down to conservation of energy.

In a closed system, the total energy present remains constant. The only way the amount of energy present can change is if energy is put into the system or taken out. There are two ways to make energy cross system boundaries like this: either by heat transfer or by work done. So for a closed system, the total change in energy of the system is the net amount of heat put in minus the net amount of work out.

In addition to a closed system, this principle can also be applied to a control volume - that is, a defined region of space that mass can enter and leave. Mass entering will carry energy in with it, and mass leaving will carry energy out with it.

In the situation in which you are considering a control volume in the midst of a constant flow of incompressible fluid, you can consider the heat transfer occurring to be a function of the temperature difference between the fluid entering and the fluid exiting, the mass flow rate of the fluid (mass transferred per unit time), and the specific heat of the fluid, c, which is a physical property of the fluid - basically, how much energy you have to put into it to raise its temperature.

This is a simplified equation, and many situations involving fluid flow require consideration of additional factors, but for now it’ll work for us. We’ll get into the more complicated stuff later.

Broad Summary of Thermodynamics: Sometimes seeing the Bigger Picture helps you Put together the smaller pieces and connect the dots b/w Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. 

Thermodynamics

Zeroth law (concept of temperature)

0th law of thermodynamics basically says that heat flows from hot objects to cold objects to achieve thermal equilibrium.
Mathematically, if TA = TB, and TB = TC, then TA = TC. Where T is temperature.

First law (ΔE = q + w, conservation of energy)

1st law of thermodynamics is based on the principle of conservation of energy, and it basically says that the change in total internal energy of a system is equal to the contributions from heat and work.
ΔE is the same thing as ΔU, which is the change in internal energy.
Q is the contribution from heat
Q is positive when heat is absorbed into the system (ie. heating it).
Q is negative when heat leaks out of the system (ie. cooling it).
W is the contribution from work.
W is positive when work is done on the system (ie. compression).
W is negative when work is done by the system (ie. expansion).

Equivalence of mechanical, chemical, electrical and thermal energy units

If it’s energy, it’s Joules. It doesn’t matter if it’s potential energy, kinetic energy, or any energy - as long as it’s energy, it has the unit Joules.
Energy is equivalent even if they are in different forms. For example, 1 Joule of mechanical energy can be converted into 1 Joule of electrical energy (ignoring heat loss) - no more, no less.

Second law: concept of entropy

The 2nd law states that the things like to be in a state of higher entropy and disorder.
An isolated system will increase in entropy over time.
An open system can decrease in entropy, but only at the expense of a greater increase in entropy of its surroundings.
The universe as a whole is increasing in entropy.
ΔS ≥ q / T
q is the heat transferred.
T is the temperature in Kelvin.
For reversible processes ΔS = q / T.
For irreversible processes ΔS > q / T.
Real processes that occur in the world are never reversible, so entropy change is always greater than the heat transfer over temperature.
Because of the irreversibility nature of real processes, as long as anything occurs, the entropy of the universe increases.

Oh my god 

Okay I know RT didn’t put this much thought into the Grimm 

But If we go with the “pocket of negative energy given motion and drive” idea… what if the “negative energy” thing isn’t just negative emotions 

What if Dust violates the Law of Conservation of energy, and the universe is balancing its checkbook? 

 See, the Law of Conservation of Energy is bent all the time in our own universe. Simply put, it states matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed… 

Which isn’t entirely true. Particles pop into and out of existence all the time. But they’re always balanced out by an identical but negative particle. (Not anti-matter, that’s different) 

 To put it in easier terms… 352 = 352 We know that’s true. 352 + 1 - 1 =352 is also true. In this case, however, we’re getting an extra positive 1… and a negative 1 to counteract the positive. 

So, what if as Dust is formed, Grimm are formed to make up for the extra energy that now exists in the universe? 

According to the law of conservation of energy, energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only transform into another form of energy.

Angels are made of energy, as we all are to varying degrees, but angels are specifically made from electromagnetic energy or light.

Now along with this and my personal knowledge regarding angels, angels very rarely die. Angels are creatures of war and are very powerful beings, but in the small chance that one has been attacked and harmed to the point where it could be considered “death” that angel’s energy scatters or breaks apart from the whole it once was. But even then the angels will work very hard to bring back the shattered angel to its whole form again.

Why I think the Three-fold Law is Bogus:

The law of the conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed.

Put a rock on the edge of a cliff, and it has potential energy. Push it off the cliff, and it becomes kinetic energy.

The Three-fold Law states that whatever energy you send out comes back to you times three. That would mean that energy was somehow created to triple the amount of energy that you put out. How is that possible?

It’s not.

The Alchemy of Vibration

“Nature may reach the same result in many ways. Like a wave in the physical world, in the infinite ocean of the medium which pervades all, so in the world of organisms, in life, an impulse started proceeds onward, at times, may be, with the speed of light, at times, again, so slowly that for ages and ages it seems to stay, passing through processes of a complexity inconceivable to men, but in all its forms, in all its stages, its energy ever and ever integrally present. A single ray of light from a distant star falling upon the eye of a tyrant in bygone times may have altered the course of his life, may have changed the destiny of nations, may have transformed the surface of the globe, so intricate, so inconceivably complex are the processes in Nature. In no way can we get such an overwhelming idea of the grandeur of Nature than when we consider, that in accordance with the law of the conservation of energy, throughout the Infinite, the forces are in a perfect balance, and hence the energy of a single thought may determine the motion of a universe.

If you wish to understand the universe, think of energy, frequency, and vibration

Nikola Tesla

Image Credit-The Alchemy of Vibration, by Borda

Nature may reach the same result in many ways. Like a wave in the physical world, in the infinite ocean of the medium which pervades all, so in the world of organisms, in life, an impulse started proceeds onward, at times, may be, with the speed of light, at times, again, so slowly that for ages and ages it seems to stay, passing through processes of a complexity inconceivable to men, but in all its forms, in all its stages, its energy ever and ever integrally present. A single ray of light from a distant star falling upon the eye of a tyrant in bygone times may have altered the course of his life, may have changed the destiny of nations, may have transformed the surface of the globe, so intricate, so inconceivably complex are the processes in Nature. In no way can we get such an overwhelming idea of the grandeur of Nature than when we consider, that in accordance with the law of the conservation of energy, throughout the Infinite, the forces are in a perfect balance, and hence the energy of a single thought may determine the motion of a universe.
—  Nikola Tesla

okay so the “Final Choice” that our boys are gonna have to make is between the two futures of the black tar and the gray barren land right? the black tar being The Hunger the is caused by the presence of life? so the choice boils down to a universe with life that is fated to be destroyed or a universe without life at all. Or maybe not.

What if The Hunger is caused by the use of magic? The law of the conservation of energy says that all energy must come from somewhere so what if the magic of the material plane is stolen energy from The Hunger, causing it to continue to want to regain its power? and the longer that cycle goes the more magic it uses and the more the black tar wants its power back. And The Hunger eats all the planes that stole its power and the cycle begins anew.

So when our favorite boys are asked if they want the cycle to continue without end or if they want to stop all life from living (stopping the cycle because no magic will be used if no one is around to use it), the third option would be to remove all magic from the universe?? idk it’s like 4am this is a crack theory with like no evidence whatsoever

Reminder to you that you are amazing no matter what other people think

Your worth cannot be determined by other people–or rather, it must not (plenty of people after all, even some who would be considered great, rely on the recognition of other people and that’s why they can break when people’s opinions change).

You already have worth.

Humans are born out of miracles, a majestic formula made by an almighty God. Nothing can replace you, because we were all made uniquely (which is awesome tbh) and have different directions and potentials.

If you don’t believe in a Christian God or in any other one, in any case, then I give you this:

You know the law of conservation of energy, right? That thing also applies to everything on Earth. Every planet, comet, meteor, galaxy–everything in the universe–all from the same source, which is still not known today.

You are made from the very same source as the stars.

Isn’t that cool?

You are family with the very things in the universe that has baffled scientists and amazed stargazers for as long as humans existed.

Your existence compares to that of black holes, of galaxies, of freaking life itself.

Don’t get yourself down if you still find it hard to think you are worthy. It takes a lot to get there, really. I too, haven’t really gotten even halfway there.

Knowing it by mind is different from knowing it by heart and soul, but hey, it’s always a start. Baby steps.

I hope that one day, you learn to love yourself.

Have a good day! Cheers to life!

Imperial Astrophysics 101 (or The Death Star: The Weapon that Just Kept Destroying Stuff)

I was in the shower today, soaping up my hair, when I had a sudden thunderstruck of a horrible realization. The Death Star’s destruction wouldn’t have stopped with Alderaan’s obliteration–in fact, the Death Star’s single blast, which reduced a planet to ash and rubble in mere seconds, would have had a devastating impact that lasted for thousands of years. And I don’t just mean impact as in “there isn’t a planet anymore.”

It all boils down to a very crucial law of physics: the Law of Conservation of Energy. Basically, energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Thus, when the Death Star fired its laser blast of doom which destroyed the planet of Alderaan, all of the energy from the laser would have had to go somewhere. A not insignificant portion of it probably went into thermal energy, etc. (sorry, I’m running off of basic high school physics and an intro to astronomy class here), but there would still be a massive amount unaccounted for. So where would it have gone?

Well, as we see in A New Hope, the Death Star didn’t so much disintegrate the planet as it did explode it. Which yes, means some of Alderaan is certainly particles and atoms. But that also means that there are large chunks of planet still intact–which, again, we get to actually see in ANH. 

So where did all that leftover energy go? Into the massive debris field that was just created.

And that, my friends, is problematic.

Any moon that orbited Alderaan? Well, if it didn’t go in the Death Star’s blast, you can almost guarantee that it’s gone now. Debris of that mass, moving at that kind of velocity, would absolutely destroy any small satellite orbiting a planet.

Any neighboring rock-based planets in the system? Well, they probably wouldn’t be destroyed, but you can bet that all of them would be radically and devastatingly altered. If there was any semblance of life or ecosystem on any other planet in the system? Think KT Asteroid extinction level events. As in the thing that wiped out the dinosaurs. Imagine multiple of them. Within days, weeks, or months of each other. And even if there wasn’t any life or ecosystem on nearby planets, you can sure bet that the topography of the nearby planets is going to be radically changed. For instance, we suspect that the Hellas Basin on Mars (which is ~5,000km across–that’s a little over 3,100 miles for my fellow Americans–which, for comparison, is a little bit more than the distance from the east to west coast of the USA) and the corresponding Tharsis Bulge on the opposite side of the planet (which is ~10km–a little over 6 miles–high) was likely formed by a meteor impact. Think about that happening to Alderaan’s next-door neighbors. But not just once, or even twice, but probably half a dozen times or more.

It wouldn’t just be the nearby planets that would be affected, though. Even if none of the debris made it that far out into the solar system, an entire planet was just destroyed. That is certainly going to mess with the gravity field in the system. Planets (as a generalized group) are the second largest gravity producers in a solar system (the first being the sun/star). Thus you wouldn’t have any planets flying off their orbits or anything, but given that one of the key gravitational factors was just very instantaneously eliminated from the gravitational balance, you can be certain that orbits are about to go weird. And that doesn’t even just go for the other planets and their moons, but also comets and asteroids, which tend to hang out in nice large belts and/or fields.

And speaking of asteroid fields, let’s go back to the remains of Alderaan. Give it a few (hundred? thousand?) years, and you’re going to have a nice asteroid belt smack dab in the middle of the Goldilocks Zone (aka habitable zone) of the star system. That’s…not really good. That will probably basically ensure that nothing else is ever going to be able to sustain life in the system again, due to meteor strikes on any body that could try.

Though, fun side note, there actually might be a few pieces of Alderaan big enough that they would be able to generate enough gravity to begin to accrete. (Basically that means attract other pieces of rock and smush it together to form a larger body.) Now, I doubt it would ever have enough mass to form a full planet again–but you might be able to get a dwarf planet, which is defined as being unable to clear its orbit. (New Old Alderaan maybe?)

Anyway. My point is, the Alderaan system would have suffered for years (like, thousands of years) to come due to the Death Star. And you know what? I bet the Empire knew that. I bet that was meant to be part of the true power of the Death Star. Because what’s even worse than being able to destroy a planet? Being able to destroy a planet and then, when anyone returns to the site of the horrible crime in the next…oh, few thousand years, seeing even more devastation, more ruin, and being reminded again of the power and might of the Empire which, even after all these years, is reaching forward and punishing the land for its inhabitants’ crimes.

There is no more life. There is no more hope of life. There is fire, and ice, and planets and their moons moving and shifting in their orbits. There are explosions–new volcanoes, new canyons, new mountains, new plateaus–and the constant, grinding crush of where there once had been vibrancy and light and a thriving peoples.

And I don’t know about you, but I find that absolutely terrifying.

Science side of tumblr, I have a question

The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed

The law of inertia states that an object in motion will tend to stay in motion. This means that in a vacuum, and object will move indefinitely until it hits something.

And faraday’s law states that moving a magnet through a coil of wire will create an electric current, so long as the magnet it’s moving.

Electricity is a form of energy.


We all agreed there, all on the same page? Good. Here’s where my question comes in

Let’s say we got an extremely long coil of wire, I’m talking lightyears long, put it in space and hooked it up to a battery that could collect any electric current produced. Then we put a magnet at one end, and gave it a little tap.

According to the law of inertia, that magnet should move indefinitely, as there’s no air or any other matter to provide resistance. And faraday’s law states that the whole time it’s moving, it’ll be creating an electric current in the wire.
Since that magnet will never stop, at some point, the electricity it produces will overtake the energy expended to give it the initial push.

Does my scenario, which I understand is hypothetical, break the law of conservation of energy? As it would return more energy than was expended.

Or do I have a misunderstanding of one of these laws? I have no formal education in physics so that’s a very likely possibility. And I’m sorry if this question is stupid.

The Paradoxes That Threaten To Tear Modern Cosmology Apart

Some simple observations about the universe seem to contradict basic physics. Solving these paradoxes could change the way we think about the cosmos

Revolutions in science often come from the study of seemingly unresolvable paradoxes. An intense focus on these paradoxes, and their eventual resolution, is a process that has leads to many important breakthroughs.

So an interesting exercise is to list the paradoxes associated with current ideas in science. It’s just possible that these paradoxes will lead to the next generation of ideas about the universe.

Continue Reading

The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed.

..my dreams of ever attempting a Kamehameha wave are crushed..

It can be transferred and can change forms though..

STUPID SCIENCE BOOK UGH.

I’LL PROVE THEM WRONG. I WILL.

AND I’LL MAKE IT OVER 9000 FOR GOOD MEASURE.

You want a physicist to speak at your funeral. You want the physicist to talk to your grieving family about the conservation of energy, so they will understand that your energy has not died. You want the physicist to remind your sobbing mother about the first law of thermodynamics; that no energy gets created in the universe, and none is destroyed. You want your mother to know that all your energy, every vibration, every Btu of heat, every wave of every particle that was her beloved child remains with her in this world. You want the physicist to tell your weeping father that amid energies of the cosmos, you gave as good as you got.

And at one point you’d hope that the physicist would step down from the pulpit and walk to your brokenhearted spouse there in the pew and tell him that all the photons that ever bounced off your face, all the particles whose paths were interrupted by your smile, by the touch of your hair, hundreds of trillions of particles, have raced off like children, their ways forever changed by you. And as your widow rocks in the arms of a loving family, may the physicist let her know that all the photons that bounced from you were gathered in the particle detectors that are her eyes, that those photons created within her constellations of electromagnetically charged neurons whose energy will go on forever.

And the physicist will remind the congregation of how much of all our energy is given off as heat. There may be a few fanning themselves with their programs as he says it. And he will tell them that the warmth that flowed through you in life is still here, still part of all that we are, even as we who mourn continue the heat of our own lives.

And you’ll want the physicist to explain to those who loved you that they need not have faith; indeed, they should not have faith. Let them know that they can measure, that scientists have measured precisely the conservation of energy and found it accurate, verifiable and consistent across space and time. You can hope your family will examine the evidence and satisfy themselves that the science is sound and that they’ll be comforted to know your energy’s still around. According to the law of the conservation of energy, not a bit of you is gone; you’re just less orderly. Amen.

— 

Aaron Freeman

(Via Science Is Awesome on Facebook)

“You want a physicist to speak at your funeral. You want the physicist to talk to your grieving family about the conservation of energy, so they will understand that your energy has not died. You want the physicist to remind your sobbing mother about the first law of thermodynamics; that no energy is created in the universe and none is destroyed. You want your mother to know that all your energy, ever vibration, every BTU of heat, every wave of every particle that was her beloved child remains with her in this world. You want the physicist to tell your weeping father that amid the energies of the cosmos, you gave as good as you got.

And at one point, you’d hope that the physicist would step down from the pulpit and walk to your brokenhearted spouse there in the pew and tell him that all the photons that ever bounced off your face, all the particles whose paths were interrupted by your smile, by the touch of your hair, hundreds of trillions of particles, have raced off you like children, their ways forever changed by you. And as your widow rocks in the arms of a loving family, may the physicist let her know that all the photons that bounced from you were gathered in the particle detectors that are her eyes, that those photons created within her constellations of electromagnetically charged neurons whose energy will go on forever.

And the physicist will remind the congregation of how much of all our energy is given off as heat. There may be a few fanning themselves with their programs as he says it. And he will tell them that the warmth that flowed through you in life is still here, still part of all that we are, even as we who mourn continue in the heat of our own lives.

And you’ll want the physicist to explain to those who loved you that they need not have faith; indeed, they should not have faith. Let them know that they can measure, that scientists have measured precisely the conservation of energy and found it accurate, verifiable and consistent across space and time. You can hope your family will examine the evidence and satisfy themselves that the science is sound and that they’ll be comforted to know your energy is still around. According to the law of the conservation of energy, not a bit of you is gone. You’re just less orderly. Amen.”

- Aaron Freeman

“When adults say, "Teenagers think they are invincible” with that sly, stupid smile on their faces, they don’t know how right they are. We need never be hopeless, because we can never be irreparably broken. We think that we are invincible because we are. We cannot be born, and we cannot die. Like all energy, we can only change shapes and sizes and manifestations. They forget that when they get old. They get scared of losing and failing. But that part of us greater than the sum of our parts cannot begin and cannot end, and so it cannot fail.“ 

-Looking for Alaska