I don’t know who first spelled the name as “Guinevere,” but I’m forever thankful that it’s the form in most common use, because other options include “Guanhumara” “Guennuuar” “Gahunmare” and “Wenneuereia”
I’m a high school senior living in the united states. I am pretty nerdy-
interested in literature, art history, linguistics, music, and ancient
history/classics. I take latin and plan on studying ancient greek in
college (If I could though, I’d be interesting learning many more
languages). I also do lots of art, especially embroidery and drawing. I
would be happy to send embroidery to my pen pal too!
Right now I’ve been reading Dostoevsky and D. H. Lawrence. When I become
interested in a certain author I tend to go crazy and read as much by
them as I can! I love reading and would be interested in discussing/
getting recommendations about books too! I also read some graphic novels
and sometimes non fiction, especially about women’s issues. I also
enjoy watching almost any kind of movies. My favorites are The Graduate,
Doctor Zhivago, or any 80’s movie with John Cusack in it. I listen to a
wide range of music too, and would love to talk to someone about it.
I would like to have a pen pal because I want to have someone to
exchange mail with. I would love to exchange drawings with someone too! I
hope to be able to continue letter writing when I go away to college.
If you are at all interested in any of the things I’ve mentioned, or
just want a pen pal and you happen to see my submission, please contact
me! I haven’t done anything like this before, but I really excited to
start writing letters to someone.
Also, if you loved Bill Wurtz’s history videos, we
should get along!
Preferences: ages 15-20 would be best probably
people who want to write real letters
The English word want derives from Middle English wanten meaning “to lack”. It replaced will, which originally meant “to want”, after the later shifted in meaning to the future tense auxiliary. Wanten in turn was a borrowing from Old Norse vanta, from Proto-Germanic *wanatōną, which was derived from a noun *wanô, “lack, deficiency” (also the root of the English word wane), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁weh₂- “leave, abandon, give out”.
This root, with various suffixes, produced several different Latin words. The form
*h₁uh₂-ko-, using the zero grade, produced the verb vacāre “to be empty”, which produced the adjective vacuus “empty”, the source of the noun vacuum. The verb also produced the gerund vacans, root of the English “vacant”.
Another derivative was
*h₁weh₂-sto-, which produced the Latin vastus, source of English “vast”, as well as the English “waste”, through a circuitous route, being a borrowing from Anglo-Norman, and in turn from Old Franksih. The direct route produced the obsolete westen.
Yet another derivative was *h₁weh₂-sno-, which produced the Latin vānus, ancestor, via French, of English vain.
Now, I realize it wouldn’t be fair to bash JKR for not getting the Bulgarian accent right. She couldn’t have known. But I still cringe when I read GoF in English (I hadn’t until recently) and come across zis type ov sentences vit terrible Russian accent written off as Bulgarian. I’ve been seeing it quite a lot in fanfics featuring Viktor Krum as well. But even during the early 90s when Russian cultural influence was still strong, no one in Bulgaria spoke English like that.
Now, please don’t take this as a rant. It’s just that after 70 years of being USSR/Russia’s lapdog (oops, I made this post too political) many Bulgarians, including me, don’t want to be associated with Russia. So without further ado, here’s a guide to proper unrefined Bulgarian accent if you decide to include Viktor Krum or another Bulgarian in your Harry Potter fanfiction:
1. The problematic Thorn: Now, Th is a tricky consonant for many people across the globe. Russians (and Germans) opt to shift to S/Z and pronounce everysing like zis. Uvva folks fink F/V is better. Bulgarians opt for hard T/D instead. I tink dis sentence, aldough short, should get you acquainted wit di issue.
2. In what way would we write the W vowel? Contrary to popular belief, Bulgarians vould not tvist the vords containing W into vicked varlock incantations. Most Slavic nations do it, but we don’t. We pronounce the W just like any native speaker would. Sorry to disappoint. ^^
3. Hey Harry, is my H like hissing? Okay, this is going to be confusing. What you mean by ‘H’ and what we mean by 'H’ is different. No, I am not referring to the fact that Cyrillic Н is actually N. We consider the Cyrillic Х and Latin H to describe one sound, but that’s not true. Yours sounds like a breath - behold, holy etc. Ours sounds like a cat hissing. That’s the only description I can think of. It’s not Kh either - that’s a cat choking. (Poor thing.) If you have to write it, I suggest using normal H and noting that it sounds like a hissing cat every time.
4. Uh… Er… Ъ. Here’s the key difference we have with the Russians: Ъ. That’s the sound of confusion. You know, “uh” or “er”. We are so proud of it that we put it everywhere, even in our BЪlgarian names. But let’s talk about where it shouldn’t belong in our English speech, but due to our accent, does. Now, unlike Russians and Serbs, we don’t like lumping consonants together. So we put an Ъ in-between. Let’s take, for example, the word different. You would expect us to pronounce it like 'diff-runt’. However, even 'fr’ seems to be too much for us so it becomes 'diff-uh-runt’. Also, since I’ve written above that 'er’ equates to Ъ, you would think this applies to suffixes as well, so 'driver’, 'teacher’, 'splendour’, 'honour’ are pronounced like 'draiv-uh’, 'teach-uh’, 'splend-uh’, 'hon-uh’, right. Nope. We love our R’s too (see below) so we keep them. Or 'ever’, 'never’ 'forever’ become 'evUHr’, 'nevUHr’, 'forevUHr’. Strangely though, 'every’ remains 'evry’. Go figure. 'Bl’ as in 'table’, 'able’, 'available’ (but strangely not in 'blatant’) is another blatant example. And while I’m at it: 'ExampЪl’! Oh, and Krum is pronounced Kroom (just imagine him saying e"I am Groot!“), not Krъm!Oh, and we love doing this to negative modal verbs and the like: hadЪn’t, didЪn’t, couldЪnt, shouldЪn’t, mussЪn’t. You needЪn’t worry, it’s quite simpЪl. I said quite, you shouldЪn’t cЪnfuse that with quiЪt (quiet)
5. RRRRRROARRRING RRRRRR! It’s like a motor engine. In that we do resemble the Russians. It’s a Slavic thing.
6. Phonation Perhaps it’s out of relief that we managed to say another word in English, but at non-stressed syllables and especially the end of the word, we forget to use our larynx or keep our mouths open. That is, voiced consonants become voiceless (only at the end of the word) and open vowels become closed (in every non-stressed syllable). D becomes T, G becomes K, B becomes P, V becomes F, so 'had’, 'rag’, 'cab’ and 'lived’ sound just like 'hat’, 'rack’, 'cap’, 'lift’. Of the vowels, only E remains intact - O as in 'osprey’ turns into OO as in 'doom’ or 'voodoo’ and A into… you guessed it, Ъ. Uh… Ъvaduh kedavrъ, Igoor Kъrkaroof, Hedmastъr ъf Doormshtrank. (Germans read ST as SHT and the word sounds German, so we took that pronunciation from them.)
7. Think, wink, drink ink with the king on the wing of a flying thing. 8 words in that sentence rhyme with ink if pronounced with Bulgarian accent. A particularly notorious example of the aforementioned consonant phonation is our treatment of the -ing form and everythink rhymink with it. We just fail at that nasal -ng. Our present continuous sentences are full of ink, if you get what I’m tryink to say.
8. Dammit, man, that A as in Black Jack has me so bad that I couldn’t be any more angry and mad than I am now! Okay, so this is a problem. That barking Æ in the sentence above. As far as I know (please correct me if I’m wrong) British accents tend to pronounce it more as A (as in mask) and American ones lean towards E (like west, best, fest):
"Demmit, men, det ey es in Bleck Jeck hes mi (i as in brick) saw bed det I couldЪn’t bee eny more engry end med den I em now!”
We Bulgarians like to keep it simple. And since we don’t have a separate vowel for æ, it’s either A (last blast from the past) or E (west). Now let me get political again. During the Cold War, political, and therefore cultural perceptions of the West portrayed the USA as a leader. So American accent was closer to the Russians’, and therefore our idea of how English sounds. And the A in those words was always equated to E as in West. Nowadays it’s not so prevalent anymore (for example people say Jack instead of Jeck) but at the time of GoF (1994) the æ was still approximated to E. Oh, and you don’t have a Bulgarian accent. You hef. Like Hugh Hefner. Or you het it in duh past. Oh, and “thank you” is mutilated into “tenk you”. Better that than “tank you”, right?
9. Approximations, approximations again. We write a word in our alphabet as you would pronounce it (or, back then, as we thought you do), and then approximate the vowels we hear to the 6 we have in our language, international phonetic alphabet be damned: A (as in archer), Ъ, O (as in osprey), U (like OO in doom), E (as in west) and I (as in brick). Six vowels, very distinct from each other (to our ears, English sounds like the vowels fade into each other. We, on the other hand, have a very rigid position of our mouth for each of the six). So basically EA (heart), A, Ah are all pronounced as A, Y and I fall under I (sometimes elongated in the case of EE, EA (bleak), IE) and so on. Everything too dim to be an open vowel goes ЪndЪr my favorite Ъ.
But to avoid all this mess, I would suggest just writing the vowels as they are in English and just note, if the narration allows for it, that they are… well, accented upon. Distinct from each other.
10. Hermione… Let me be clear: no Bulgarian would ever call the brightest witch of our age 'Her-My-Own-Ninny’. At least not while trying to pronounce her name properly. It would be just 'Hermione’ with the hissing H, the Ъ for 'er’ and the roaring R. Boar ink, I know. (Boring). Alternatively, if Viktor was trying to say her name without having heard it, he might have said something like 'Haer-me-ON-ae’ (the Greek version which is almost unchanged in Bulgarian), because honestly, those vowel twists you have are confusing.
Now, since all of this takes much of Viktor’s image as a foreigner, you could compensate by having him speak slightly broken English by incorrect analogy with Bulgarian grammar. Plausible ways of achieving that are:
1. Since we have one relative pronoun for “who” and “which”, you could have him confuse the two, like “the wand who is in my hand” or “the boy which lived”. 2. Mess up the present tenses: Bulgarian has no present continuous, so he could confuse it with present simple. 3. Because noun genders are present in Bulgarian, it is possible to have him refer to inanimate objects as “he” or “she”, but since you probably wouldn’t know which noun has which gender, I recommend you avoid that. 4. Mistake irregular verbs (“speaked”, “bringed”, “runned”, “builded”) and adjectives (gooder, goodest, badder, baddest) for regular ones. Now that I think of it, that one sounds almost Orwellian. 5. Make it so that he confuses words and concepts which are homonyms in Bulgarian, such as the word for both “way” (to something), road and time (number of repetitions); the word for both “weather” and astronomical time (a common joke with that is “my English is getting gooder and gooder with the weather”). Also “land”, “earth” and “ground”, similar to how Daenerys said “other dirts beyond the sea” in Game of Thrones. 6. Use modal verbs with a preposition, similar to “have to” and “ought to”: “can to”, “must to”, “shall to”. If you really want to mess it up, use conjugation as well: “She cans/doesn’t can to say whatever she wants”.
Okay, if you actually read this, I hope it did sound educational and not patronizing or overly chauvinistic. Thanks for reading and if that helps any of you to write Viktor Krum with a more accurate accent, I’ll be happy. Feel free to ask me anything. ^^
do you know what the meanings of angelinas tattoos are?xx
The meaning of her know your rights tattoo depends on who you ask. Some say that it pertains to the song by The Clash because they are allegedly Angie’s favourite band, and others say that it’s related to her UN work and how everyone should be aware of their basic human rights prior to abusing them.
This one was gotten shortly after she adopted Maddox. It is written in Khmer script and is there to protect her and her son from misfortune. According to many fansites the translation is:
May your enemies run far away from you. If you acquire riches, may they remain yours always. Your beauty will be that of Apsara. Wherever you may go, many will attend, serve and protect you, surrounding you on all sides.
The cross is there to cover up a tattoo that she got in Amsterdam and later on regretted. The tattoo next to it means “what nourishes me also destroys me” in Latin.
There is an “H” on her wrist for her brother whose middle name is Haven.
Her tiger tattoo was done by the same monk that did the one on her shoulder. She got it to celebrate her citizenship to Cambodia. It also kinda incorporates this tattoo as well as covers up a tattoo of a window that she had.
This one is Arabic and reportedly means “strength of will.”
The roman numerals are the date of Churchill’s “blood, toil, tears, and sweat” speech.
This one is a Tennessee Williams quote that says “a prayer for the wild at heart kept it cages.”
She has one on her inner thigh that says Whiskey Bravo which is Brad’s first and second initials using the military alphabet (his full name is William Bradley)
This one is the longitudes and latitudes of the birthplaces of her children.
She has a new one that no one has figured out the meaning of yet, nor has Angie mentioned it anywhere. There are a bunch of swirly things around some of her arm and back tattoos that are probably just there for “decoration.” There are also a few that have been either covered up or removed (including the infamous Billy Bob tattoo.)
[ 5.23.15 4.21 ] Today was a most efficient day for me! i managed to finish most of my assigned homework for AP Latin and H Precal BC in class, leaving me with some work for AP World and AP English. Also, it was really good today, too, because I got inducted into an honors music society. But now, I’m studying outside with a friend of mine and Starbucks. Beautiful day, and I hope yours is too!
Do you have any information on why certain words like lluvia, llave, and llamar are spelled with LL's? The Latin words they came from are pluvius, clavis, and clamare. What caused the change from consonant+L into LL?
You see, it’s a bit odd to explain but the actual term for these words are palabras patrimoniales.
The translation of that is something along the lines of “words taken from the father language”… or Latin.
The LL is an example but these exist for LOTS of words.
Generally, a palabra patrimonial is a word from Latin whose original form altered over time phonetically [in terms of pronunciation; for the sake of layman’s terms] and they changed more drastically for castellano (in this case meaning more Peninsular Spanish) than for other languages.
By that I mean that languages that fall under the Romance Languages like Portuguese or Italian or French look more similar to the “father language” than Spanish does.
Latin | Spanish | Pertinent Language
foglia = leaf | la hoja = leaf
focus = hearth | el hogar = home/heart | foyer = home [French]
fusus = spindle | el huso = spindle
facio/facere = to do / to make | hacer = to do / to make | faire = to do / to make [French] | fare = to do / to make [Italian]
fungus = mushroom | el hongo = mushroom
fornax = furnace/oven | el horno = furnace/oven | forno = furnace/oven [Portuguese or Italian]
mania = ability with the hand | la maña = skill / deftness
Avignon => Aviñón
U=>O or O=>U
lumbus = lower back / loin | el lomo = lower back / loin
locus / loco = place | el lugar = place
ovum = ovum / egg | el huevo = egg
Cl or Pl => LL
clavis = key | la llave = key
plenus = full | lleno/a = full
pluvius / pluvia = rain | la lluvia = rain
This isn’t to say that all of the palabras patrimoniales look totally different from the other languages.
Many words that in Latin that have -ae- will turn to -ie- in Spanish.
For example caelum turns into el cielo “sky” or “heaven”.
In French, this is ciel. Portuguese is céu. And Italian is just like Spanish in cielo.
The term for “sky blue” or “celestial” in Spanish is celeste… which doesn’t look too different from English’s “celestial”, celeste [Portuguese / Italian], or céleste [French].
It also doesn’t mean that Spanish is totally unique in this or always the strange case. Some languages have their own palabras patrimoniales that look a bit different while Spanish looks almost normal.
For instence, hominem or homo meaning “human” is translated into Spanish as el hombre “man/mankind”. Italian uses uomo.
Another example is el pez “fish” comes from piscis which is related to Pisces, and doesn’t look too different. But French has poisson.
Or el mar “sea” which came from mare and while English looks relatively normal with “marine” or “maritime”… you end up with “mermaid” because of a phonetic shift.
And it doesn’t mean that Spanish doesn’t have words that look more like Latin… even when there is a case like that.
la llave = key
clave = key / important
clavar = to nail / to hammer
el clavo = nail
la clavícula = clavicle
la lluvia = rain
llover = to rain
el bosque / la selva pluvial = rain forest
el pluviómetro = rain gauge / a device measuring rainfall
la pluviosidad = rainfall
lleno/a = full
la plenitud = summit / height OR abundance
pleno/a = full OR plenary OR “in the middle of”
a pleno día = in broad daylight [lit. “in full day” / “in the middle of day”]
plenamente = fully / wholly / completely
la hoja = leaf
el follaje = foliage
foliar = to leaf through a book
exfoliar = to exfoliate OR to strip of leaves
el lugar = place
luego = later [“placed” later]
local = local
localizar = to locate
la localidad = seat / ticket / assigned place OR locality
la locación = location
localmente = locally
el hogar = home / hearth
hogareño/a = homely / in the home
la hoguera = pyre / campfire / “the stake” / bonfire
el fuego = fire
el fogón = fireplace / stove
el fogonazo = blast / flash
fogoso = fiery / ardent
*Note: How it all happens I’m not totally sure, but looking at llamar sort of helps understand the phonetic shift.
Since it came from clamare it then turned into a ch for Italian like chiamare.
Then since Spanish stopped fully pronouncing the H, it probably started to sound more like “kyamar” until the sound softened into a Y / LL sound.
**And this isn’t even all of the phonetic shift. At some point, clavis then came to be the -clude in “include” or “exclude” and so on. There are lots of phonetic shifts that happen in languages, especially among palabras patrimoniales.