late 1400s


A collection of secular music from the High and Late Middle Ages (1000-1400). The mix features songs in vernacular from many different areas of Western Europe, as well as a few songs from the Byzantine and Islamic Empires.

De Fortune me doi Plaindre et Loer | Guillaume de Mauchaut (1300-1377)
Ach Owe, daz Nach Liebe Ergat | Meister Alexander (1247-1288)
Mîzân Qá'im Wa-nisf | from the Nuba Ushshaq, (13th c. Arabo-Andalusian Anon)
Worldes Blis ne Last no Throwe | English Anon. (ca.1265)
Bailemos Nós já Todas | Airas Nunes de Santiago (1230-1289) 
Adiu, Adiu Dous Dame | Francesco Landini (1325-1397)
Ey Dervişler | Yunnus Emre (1238-1320)
A Chantar M'er de So Qu'eu no Volria | Beatriz de Dia (1140-1212)
Ecco la Primavera | Francesco Landini (1325-1397)
Bache, Bene Venies | from the Carmina Burana, (11-13th c. Anon)
Cel que no Volh Auzir Chanssos | Raimon de Miraval (1165 - 1229)
The Nightingales of the East (Ta Aidónia tis Anatolís) | Byzantine Anon. (14th century)
Tant M’Abelis | Berenguer de Palou (1160-1209)
Willekomen si der Sumer Schoene | Brunwart von Augheim (1250-1300)
Esperance | Guillaume de Mauchaut (1300-1377)
Laude Novella | from the Laurdario di Cortona, (13th c. Italian Anon)

Photo: Illumination of a Christian and Muslim playing ouds,
from The Cantigas de Santa Maria (13th century Spain)

The Isopata signet ring

This famous ring from the Isopata tomb, near Knossos, is a masterpiece of Minoan gold work. The bezel depicts four female figures, richly clad in characteristic Minoan garments, moving through a landscape of lilies. Three of them dance in ecstasy, their arms raised in the air, while the fourth one, placed in the centre of the scene and slightly higher than the others, makes a gesture - possibly of benediction.

Late Bronze Age, 1600 - 1400 BC Place of discovery: Knosos, Isopata grave Dimensions: diameter: 0,021 m Material: Gold. Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture

I had a thought about the Hogwarts house ghosts:

The Grey Lady and the Bloody Baron are both canonically Founders-era ghosts. 

Hufflepuff’s friar’s age is never specified in canon, and he could be of any era from the mid 12th century, when the first mendicant orders were founded, up to Henry VIII’s dissolution of the monasteries in the 1530s. I am inclined to believe he was earlier rather than later.

Nearly Headless Nick canonically lived in the late 1400s, based on the date of his 500th deathday party in 1992.

When Harry asks Nick in OotP about why some people become ghosts when they die, Nick tells him that only people who are afraid of death become ghosts.

It took 500 years after the founding of Hogwarts for Gryffindor to acquire a house ghost, because bravery is a Gryffindor trait.

i don’t know why, but i have a feeling katherine will die for good in this episode. they won’t let her live, of course not. it’d be nonsense, since she wants her revenge and won’t stop till she gets it. katherine wouldn’t just become a good person like she was back in the late 1400s, of course not. if she managed to stay alive, of course she would hunt them all down and wouldn’t let them live. and we’re 100% sure tvd won’t end that way. letting kath live would be an rift for a new season, and there won’t be a new season. and i’m scared, i’m really scared. i’m scared katherine will get screwed over by the writers… again. sigh. let’s just try to be positive.

rundown of the Northern Renaissance


  • students began to travel to Italy in the late 1400s 
    • there they learned new ideas and techniques in painting 
  • merchants from “low countries” such as France, Germany, and England all visited Italy for trade purposes 
  • Bottom Line: Students and merchants brought these ideas to the north


  • aka the Northern Humanists 
  • they studied the classics but related them more heavily to Christian content 
  • calmness and stoical patience (classics) combines with love, humility, and piety (religion) 
  • did a whole bunch of social work too
    • moral and institutional reform
  •  Bottom Line: It was the Classics but with Christianity mixed in


  • Desiderius Erasmus 
    • most famous humanist 
    • edited works of Christian fathers and translate the New Testament  into Latin and Greek 
    • most famous work: In Praise of Folly
      • satirical piece that poked fun on people of all class especially hypocrisy of Church leaders and Pope Julius II 
    • devout catholic who didn’t really WANT to hurt the church rather to REFORM it 
    • wrote all of his stuff in Latin
  • Thomas More
    • Englishman 
    • humanist scholar who had a lot of different positions including chancellor to Henry VIII 
    • most famous work: Utopia
      • wrote about a perfect society in which there was religious toleration, humanist education for men and women and communal ownership of property (aka everyone in the community owns the property)  
  • Michel De Montaigne 
    • French writer 
    • popularized the essay and used anecdotes 


  • Characteristics 
    • oil painting was popular 
    • details and perfection of everyday objects 
    • symbolism became very popular 
      • The Arnolfini Wedding used a dog as a symbol for fidelity 
  • Artists 
    • Jan van Eyck 
      • Flemish artist 
      • pioneer in oil painting 
      • known for The Arnolfini Wedding and the Ghent Altarpiece
    • Albrecht Durer 
      • had influence of the Italian Renaissance 
      • used woodcuts and self-portraits 
    • Hans Holbein the Younger 
      • combined the realism of the Northern Renaissance with the proportion of the Italian Renaissance 
A Brief History of Cinnamon

In ancient times, the origins of cinnamon were a mystery to the Western world, and Arab merchants wanted to keep it that way. To hike up the price, they spun an elaborate tale, claiming that giant birds collected cinnamon sticks from far-off lands and used them to build nests on cliffs. To get the precious sticks, traders laid out massive chunks of ox meat, which the birds grabbed and carried to their nests. But because the slabs were so large, the nests would collapse, allowing the clever merchants to collect their prize.

And Europeans believed the story! For hundreds of years, they thought that giant birds were the only known source of cinnamon sticks! That is, until the late 1400s when the Portuguese found the real source of cinnamon—lush groves in Sri Lanka. Once they’d figured it out, the Portuguese struck a deal with the Sri Lankans to monopolize the trade and built a fort there to protect their assets. They were displaced by the Dutch in 1658, who were subsequently displaced by the Brits in 1796. But by then, the trees had been exported worldwide, so there was little need to fight over Sri Lanka, a tiny island nation far from Portugal or the Netherlands or Britain.

Tips for ppl taking apwh exam

- Muhammad and buddha aren’t seen as deities
- Sub saharan trade is gold and salt
- South American trade is cash crops (like sugar)
- Globalization was in the late 1400s bc of fuckboy Chris
- Colonization was in the 1700s and 1800s
- Focus on the dbq essay
- Don’t underline your thesis!!!! Ever!!!!!
- if you have incorrect information they just cross it off and don’t count it
- make shit concise and then just spill put all the information you have neatness means nothing

Everyone made good money last night, it was so beautiful 😭 we’ve all been at each other’s throats the last few months because of the frustration, I’ve been making $200-$300 most good weeknights lately and finally managed $1400 again! I’m going up to Launceston for the next three nights with my best friend and the girls there have no idea how to hustle 😎 praying for lots and lots of easy $$$ and fun

Nohrian Army Headcanons

 I like to imagine that the Nohrian army has a more regimental organization than its Hoshidan counterpart. In particular, I like to think that the army operates similarly to European armies from the late 1400s to the early 1600s (Renaissance, Wars of Religion, etc). 

  For the rank and file Nohrian, battles are probably formational in nature. Imagine pike and shot warfare- Swiss pikemen, landsknechts, Spanish tercios, etc.  Picture rows of halberds and lances interlocked in a tight phalanx, marching and turning in unison. This would be supported by the equivalent of rodeleros- Mercenaries and Fighters- who would form a flexible offensive supporting arm of the infantry corps. Similar to a tercio, fighting blocs would also include a handful of embedded ranged troops- likely Dark Mages and maybe the odd Outlaw (though they’re probably deployed as irregular scouts and spies tbh). 

   While disciplined infantry presents an indomitable core, the real killing arm of Nohr is it’s mighty cavalry. Swift and heavily armored, they are the hammer to the infantry’s anvil. In a single, well placed charge, they could plow through and crush the enemy between the weight of their charge and the immovable wall of spears of the Nohrian infantry. (In a way, I guess this form of warfare is also similar to that of the Hellenic Diadochi but Nohr’s aesthetic and armament is clearly late Medieval/early modern). 

   This might be the reason why Leo and Xander seem to be so obsessed with army drills, unit positioning, and formations. The Nohrian army is an efficient killing machine but it breaks down if it’s mishandled. Without discipline and clear command, the Nohrian phalanx breaks down. Without correct support, the pike line is too slow and inflexible and will get cut to shreds by missile fire or get outflanked. Too far outside of the phalanx, and Nohrian mages and Outlaws are vulnerable and outgunned. The cavalry are a mighty and decisive force, but a badly timed charge will get them bogged down and cut into pieces. 

 In short, Nohr’s military is an army of soldiers run by strict discipline, careful planning, and regimental synergy. 

 Next time: Hoshido and Muromachi/early Sengoku Jidai warfare (though this’ll prolly take a while and might change because i still need to play Birthright)

Okay, I wanna show you something.

See this fucker? His name is GottfriedGötzvon Berlichingen. He was alive in the late 1400′s to early 1500′s. Remember this time frame.

You’re wondering why his name is important. I’ll tell you. He got his right hand blasted off when he got hit with a cannonball. And do you know what he got to replace it?


IN THE 1400′s.

You know who else got an iron prosthetic in a time considered medieval?



Surprise || Klaroline

#25daysofklaroline Day 21 - Late 1400s Era

Again with the cheating of prompts! I’m incorrigible. This is set post-canon with an established KC relationship (except no children, they shouldn’t be around for this). There is some violence in this, and given their relationship, it might be troubling for some readers. I also borrow a concept from @addriannadestiny’s story Hostage for this drabble, and if anyone is looking for recs, IT’S AMAZING and one of my favorites.

She woke to his hand gripping her throat.

Caroline was no stranger to breath play; she and Klaus had tried just about everything once in their century together.

But this was different.

Usually, Klaus would work her up to the more intense sessions, and their last encounter like this was approached with great care. He went over the safe words incessantly, scared that she would run away if he went too far. She had appreciated his worry, but it was unnecessary. Caroline was completely, head over heels in love. Rabid dogs couldn’t chase her away.

That fact was probably the only reason she wasn’t freaking out at Klaus tightening his hold on her neck. Her eyes flew open, already placating. She didn’t expect to find such malice in his expression, though. “Klaus,” she choked out, reaching for his arm.

“Who are you?”

The question was low and menacing. She had heard him like this before, but it hadn’t been directed at her in a very long time. “What are you talking about,” she asked, the croaking inevitable as Klaus refused to let up. “I’m Caroline.”

“Why are you in my bed?”

“It’s our bed,” Caroline snapped, able to get an inch to struggle out from under his hand and take a defensive crouch. She held her hands up peacefully as she processed what he had said. He had no idea who she was or why she would be sleeping with him.

This wasn’t her Klaus.

Bonnie had warned her this might happen when he attacked that coven of witches. They liked to cast curses in their dying moments, it was a bit of their trademark. Did they take Klaus’s memories of her? Damn, that hurt.

“Rebekah,” Caroline called, opening the door so she could be heard. “Will you come in here?”

“Bekah’s here,” Klaus asked, still looking angry and confused.

Caroline nodded. “She travels with us sometimes,” she explained. “We’re in San Francisco.”

“I told you,” Rebekah’s voice floated from the hallway, “I don’t want to know what odd things Klaus offers to teach you in bed, so please stop asking me for advice.” 

Before she could continue her tirade, Caroline spoke up. “I think the witches cursed Klaus to forget about me,” she said, pulling the other blonde into the room.

Klaus, however, didn’t like the rough motion. “Take your hands off her,” he growled, both sets of fangs dropping as his eyes turned gold. As quickly as it happened, he snapped back to his human face in shock. “Why did that feel different?”

Caroline was lost. She had no idea what was happening, and she couldn’t even ask him for comfort. He was too likely to kill her in this keyed up state.

Rebekah seemed more sure. “You’re a hybrid now, Nik,” she explained gently. “What’s the last thing you remember?”

“I had just welcomed the doppelgänger to the castle,” he said slowly. “Elijah was to take care of her until I could put everything in order to break my curse. She was to think I was courting her into marriage. You say I’ve already done it?”

Squeezing her eyes shut, Caroline tried to not let the image of Katherine and Klaus bother her.

Rebekah just scoffed at her. “Get off it,” she snapped. “It was seven hundred years ago, and you’ve been completely nauseating for nearly a century.”

“Seven hundred years,” Klaus breathed, trying to remain confident in his abilities. “That would explain the clothing, I suppose.”

Glancing up, Caroline noticed his appreciative gaze wander over her skimpy pajamas. He always had preferred her in silk.

“Are you my wife, then?”

Caroline’s eyes snapped wide open. Klaus was so ambivalent to human marriage rituals that he truly wouldn’t care had she wanted to force the issue. Caroline Forbes would never change, though. She never wanted a wedding with an unwilling husband. For this version of him to effortlessly assume that they were married, it hurt.

“I’m going to call Bonnie,” she said softly, grabbing his robe before ducking out of the room. Being wrapped in his warmth wasn’t an option at the moment, so his scent imbedded in the fluffy terrycloth would have to do.

Back in the room, Rebekah rolled her eyes. “Your real self is going to pay for that one,” she noted. At his confusion, she explained. “Caroline knows you love her, but she thinks you have no desire to call her wife.”

Klaus shrugged, as this was no surprise to him. “At least that has stayed the same,” he said. “Marriage has always been folly.”

Rushing to shut the door to keep Caroline’s prying ears out, Rebekah turned to glare at him. “Please keep your opinions to yourself, because you have grown a lot in this time, Nik,” she said sternly. “You showed me the ring just last week, and you do intend to marry Caroline.”

Shocked, Klaus tried to picture the blonde who had all but ran from the room. In seven hundred years, he wanted a wife. And he wanted it to be her. “Why?”

“It beats the hell out of me,” Rebekah responded automatically, as though she were talking to the real Klaus. “That was a joke,” she clarified. “You love her, and you hate that she still feels as though she’s temporary. You wanted to prove to her that she is family.”

“Always and forever,” he whispered.

Pushing past Rebekah, Klaus opened the door and followed his senses to where the girl sat on a couch. The room was surrounded with odd knickknacks and technology, but all he could focus on was the woman huddled in a too-large robe dripping with his scent.

“Tell me about us,” he said, almost able to laugh at her surprised jump. Then he saw the tears in her eyes. “I’m sorry, I did not mean to make you cry.”

“It’s not you,” Caroline said, wiping away her tears. “Um, Bonnie- My friend, she’s a witch, and she thinks the curse will work itself out in a day or two.”

“Will you allow me to get to know you in the meantime,” he asked, slowly taking the seat next to her. “I find myself curious about how you came to mean so much to me.”

Caroline straightened in her seat, something about his statement had her perking up. “How much do I mean to you?”

For the first time, he looked like her Klaus. An evil smirk with eviler dimples, knowing he’s cornered the game. “No,” he said, grinning. “I want to talk about you.”

Stop Evading Problems

The chief reason why people are always confronted by problems is that they are ever seeking to evade problems. So many say, “life is just one difficulty after another,” when, in reality, it is the same difficulty presenting itself again and again, because it is not mastered. The candidate is urged to face and settle each problem of his life… The prosaic duties of daily life are the elements out of which character is built, and those unable to cope with them are as useless in things spiritual as they are in things material.

Manly P Hall

Image Credit-Detail from central panel of altarpiece by Andres Marsal de Saxe (late 1300s-early 1400s), dating c.1400, at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London                        


Caroline is the one who delivers Katerina to Klaus. He thinks she should be rewarded. Smut.

25 Days of Klaroline - Day 21: klaroline + late 1400′s era

“Lord Mikaelson” Caroline curtsied when Elijah came into the room.

“Miss Forbes” he greeted with a small smile in his face. “My informant told me that you have the girl my brother wants, is that correct?”

“Yes, my lord.” She confirmed.

Elijah approached her, trying to lock her gaze in his so he could begin the compulsion. “Are you telling the truth?”

Caroline rolled her eyes. “I’m on vervain. I took all the precautions I felt like I needed to meet an Original. The girl is with me and I suppose I can bring her to you, but you see… The word out there is that your brother wants her. Now, my lord, I wouldn’t want to get on his bad side. I’ll give the girl to him only.”

“Do you not trust me?”

She shrugged. “A girl has got to take care of herself. Do we have a deal?”

Elijah nodded. “Very well, then. I shall ask Niklaus to talk to you, if that’s what you want.”

“I’d like that, yes.”

“But know this, miss Forbes, if you’re lying to me… Neither my brother nor I will be pleased with you. And I’m fairly certain that you’ve heard about the stories of people who’ve crossed my family, haven’t you?”

Caroline nodded, knowing that it’d not be appropriate to say anything. Honestly, she was scared shitless of meeting the Mikaelsons. Their reputation wasn’t exactly friendly and even though this could earn their favour, it could also go utterly wrong was something to happen.

“Threatening the guests, Elijah?” a voice said from the door and she quickly turned to look at who it was.

Keep reading

can we just talk for a minute about how much Elijah loves language?

As the only Mikaelson (sans Freya, but she’s a special case) to adopt an American accent, that has to tell you something about the way he views the history of English. He literally witnessed its growth into its own language. Strictly canonically speaking, it was not his native tongue, but I think we can assume that since the Mikaelson move to England in the late 1400s, they’ve probably been using it as their primary language since then.

And, also strictly canonically speaking, Elijah condemns books for weakening the mind. He grew up in a rich culture of oral history and is quoted on TVD as saying - “It’s a funny thing about books. Before they existed, people actually had memories.”

And this line is so so so cool to me because a) it supports the idea of Elijah as a thousand-year-old Hipster Word-Nerd, and b) ELIJAH OWNS TONS OF BOOKS

Elijah loves words. He loves cultures and accents and turns-of-phrase.

He chooses each word - and each pronunciation of each word -  with so much care and deference because he knows how powerful words are (especially his own, as a man who can control others with simply a phrase and a look).

So when he uses vocabulary that half the fandom doesn’t know, it’s Elijah.

When he says ‘OMG’ and ‘I could never resist a good spoiler’ it’s Elijah.

When he first meets Elena, intimidating her with his nonchalant New-York-accent-with-British-cadence, it’s Elijah.

When he’s spent over a year with his  brother, living in the same house, and his words begin to take on not just a posh cadence, but a posh pronunciation, it’s Elijah.

When he’s intimidating those who would presume to take him down, and he mocks them with just a moment of southern drawl, it’s Elijah.

He doesn’t limit his love for language (I’m guessing all languages, though we’ve only really seen English) to one culture or one time period. He loves it all. And he thinks about it all the time.