late 1400s

bela-lugosis-corpse  asked:

I've been thinking about this for a while, but how effective is full plate armour? Was it actually a good way to defend yourself?

Short Answer: Yes. 

Here’s a general rule: People in the past were ignorant about a lot of things, but they weren’t stupid. If they used something, chances are they had a good reason. There are exceptions, but plate armor is not one of them. 

Long Answer: 

For a type of armor, no matter what it is, to be considered effective, it has to meet three criteria. 

The three criteria are: Economic Efficiency, Protectiveness, and Mobility.

1. Is it Economically Efficient? 

Because of the nature of society in the Middle Ages, what with equipment being largely bring-it-yourself when it came to anybody besides arrowfodder infantry who’d been given one week of training, economic efficiency was a problem for the first couple of decades after plate armor was introduced in France in the 1360s. It wasn’t easy to make, and there wasn’t really a ‘science’ to it yet, so only the wealthiest of French soldiers, meaning knights and above, had it; unless of course somebody stole it off a dead French noble. The Hundred Years War was in full swing at the time, and the French were losing badly to the English and their powerful longbows, so there were plenty of dead French nobles and knights to go around. That plate armor was not very economically efficient for you unless you were a rich man, though, it also was not exactly what we would call “full” plate armor. 

Above: Early plate armor, like that used by knights and above during the later 1300s and early 1400s. 

Above: Two examples of what most people mean when they say “full” plate armor, which would have been seen in the mid to late 1400s and early 1500s.

Disclaimer: These are just examples. No two suits of armor were the same because they weren’t mass-produced, and there was not really a year when everybody decided to all switch to the next evolution of plate armor. In fact it would not be improbably to see all three of these suits on the same battlefield, as expensive armor was often passed down from father to son and used for many decades. 

Just like any new technology, however, as production methods improved, the product got cheaper. 

Above: The Battle of Barnet, 1471, in which everybody had plate armor because it’s affordable by then. 

So if we’re talking about the mid to late 1400s, which is when our modern image of the “knight in shining armor” sort of comes from, then yes, “full” plate armor is economically efficient. It still wasn’t cheap, but neither are modern day cars, and yet they’re everywhere. Also similar to cars, plate armor is durable enough to be passed down in families for generations, and after the Hundred Years War ended in 1453, there was a lot of used military equipment on sale for cheap. 

2. Is it Protective? 

This is a hard question to answer, particularly because no armor is perfect, and as soon as a new, seemingly ‘perfect’ type of armor appears, weapons and techniques adapt to kill the wearer anyway, and the other way around. Early plate armor was invented as a response to the extreme armor-piercing ability of the English longbow, the armor-piercing ability of a new kind of crossbow, and advancements in arrowhead technology. 

Above: The old kind of arrowhead, ineffective against most armor. 

Above: The new kind of arrowhead, very effective at piercing chainmaille and able to pierce plate armor if launched with enough power. 

Above: An arrow shot from a “short” bow with the armor-piercing tip(I think it’s called a bodkin tip) piercing a shirt of chainmaille. However, the target likely would have survived since soldiers wore protective layers of padding underneath their armor, so if the arrow penetrated skin at all, it wasn’t deep. That’s Terry Jones in the background. 

Above: A crossbow bolt with the armor piercing tip penetrating deep through the same shirt of chainmaille. The target would likely not survive. 

Above: A crossbow bolt from the same crossbow glancing off a breastplate, demonstrating that it was in fact an improvement over wearing just chainmaille. 

Unfortunately it didn’t help at all against the powerful English longbows at close range, but credit to the French for trying. It did at least help against weaker bows. 

Now for melee weapons. 

It didn’t take long for weapons to evolve to fight this new armor, but rarely was it by way of piercing through it. It was really more so that the same weapons were now being used in new ways to get around the armor. 

Above: It’s a popular myth that Medieval swords were dull, but they still couldn’t cut through plate armor, nor could they thrust through it. Your weapon would break before the armor would. Most straight swords could, however, thrust through chainmaille and anything weaker. 

There were three general answers to this problem: 

1. Be more precise, and thrust through the weak points. 

Above: The weak points of a suit of armor. Most of these points would have been covered by chainmaille, leather, thick cloth, or all three, but a sword can thrust through all three so it doesn’t matter. 

To achieve the kind of thrusting accuracy needed to penetrate these small gaps, knights would often grip the blade of their sword with one hand and keep the other hand on the grip. This technique was called “half-swording”, and you could lose a finger if you don’t do it right, so don’t try it at home unless you have a thick leather glove to protect you, as most knights did, but it can also be done bare-handed. 

Above: Examples of half-swording. 

2. Just hit the armor so fucking hard that the force carries through and potentially breaks bones underneath. 

Specialty weapons were made for this, but we’ll get to them in a minute. For now I’m still focusing on swords because I like how versatile the European longsword is. 

Above: A longsword. They’re made for two-handed use, but they’re light enough to be used effectively in one hand if you’d like to have a shield or your other arm has been injured. Longswords are typically about 75% of the height of their wielders.

Assuming you’re holding the sword pointing towards the sky, the part just above the grip is called the crossguard, and the part just below the grip is called the pommel. If you hold the sword upside-down by the blade, using the same careful gripping techniques as with half-swording, you can strike with either the crossguard or the pommel, effectively turning the sword into a warhammer. This technique was called the Murder Stroke, and direct hits could easily dent plate armor, and leave the man inside bruised, concussed, or with a broken bone. 

Above: The Murder Stroke as seen in a Medieval swordfighting manual.

Regular maces, hammers, and other blunt weapons were equally effective if you could get a hard enough hit in without leaving yourself open, but they all suffered from part of the plate armor’s intelligent design. Nearly every part of it was smooth and/or rounded, meaning that it’s very easy for blows to ‘slide’ off, which wastes a lot of their power. This makes it very hard to get a ‘direct’ hit. 

Here come the specialized weapons to save the day. 

Above: A lucerne, or claw hammer. It’s just one of the specialized weapons, but it encompasses all their shared traits so I’m going to only list it. 

These could be one-handed, two-handed, or long polearms, but the general idea was the same. Either crack bones beneath armor with the left part, or penetrate plate armor with the right part. The left part has four ‘prongs’ so that it can ‘grip’ smooth plate armor and keep its force when it hits without glancing off. On the right side it as a super sturdy ‘pick’, which is about the only thing that can penetrate the plate armor itself. On top it has a sharp tip that’s useful for fighting more lightly armored opponents. 

3. Force them to the ground and stab them through the visor with a dagger. 

This one is pretty self-explanatory. Many conflicts between two armored knights would turn into a wrestling match. Whoever could get the other on the ground had a huge advantage, and could finish his opponent, or force him to surrender, with a dagger. 

By now you might be thinking “Dang, full plate armor has a lot of weaknesses, so how can it be called good armor?” 

The answer is because, like all armor is supposed to do, it minimizes your target area. If armor is such that your enemy either needs to risk cutting their fingers to target extremely small weak points, bring a specialized weapons designed specifically for your armor, or wrestle you to the ground to defeat you, that’s some damn good armor. So yes, it will protect you pretty well.

Above: The red areas represent the weak points of a man not wearing armor.

Also, before I move on to Mobility, I’m going to talk briefly about a pet-peeve of mine: Boob-plates. 

If you’re writing a fantasy book, movie, or video game, and you want it to be realistically themed, don’t give the women boob-shaped armor. It wasn’t done historically even in the few cases when women wore plate armor, and that’s because it isn’t as protective as a smooth, rounded breastplate like you see men wearing. A hit with any weapon between the two ‘boobs’ will hit with its full force rather than glancing off, and that’ll hurt. If you’re not going for a realistic feel, then do whatever you want. Just my advice. 

Above: Joan of Arc, wearing properly protective armor. 

An exception to this is in ancient times. Female gladiators sometimes wore boob-shaped armor because that was for entertainment and nobody cared if they lived or died. Same with male gladiators. There was also armor shaped like male chests in ancient times, but because men are more flat-chested than women, this caused less of a problem. Smooth, rounded breastplates are still superior, though. 

3. Does it allow the wearer to keep his or her freedom of movement? 

Okay, I’ve been writing this for like four hours, so thankfully this is the simplest question to answer. There’s a modern myth that plate armor weighed like 700 lbs, and that knights could barely move in it at all, but that isn’t true. On a suit of plate armor from the mid to late 1400s or early 1500s, all the joints are hinged in such a way that they don’t impede your movement very much at all. 

The whole suit, including every individual plate, the chainmaille underneath the plates, the thick cloth or leather underneath the chainmaille, and your clothes and underwear all together usually weighed about 45-55 lbs, and because the weight was distributed evenly across your whole body, you’d hardly feel the weight at all. Much heavier suits of armor that did effectively ‘lock’ the wearer in place did exist, but they never saw battlefield use. Instead, they were for showing off at parades and for jousting. Jousting armor was always heavier, thicker, and more stiffly jointed than battlefield armor because the knight only needed to move certain parts of his body, plus being thrown off a horse by a lance–even a wooden one that’s not meant to kill–has a very, very high risk of injury.

Here’s a bunch of .gifs of a guy demonstrating that you can move pretty freely in plate armor. 

Above: Can you move in it? Yes.

Here are links to the videos that I made these .gifs from:

Listen to the Playmoss playlist: The Troubadour’s Songbook by avvoltoio

“A collection of secular music from the High and Late Middle Ages (1000-1400). The mix features songs in vernacular from many different areas of Western Europe, as well as a few songs from the Byzantine and Islamic Empires.”

GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT - De Fortune Me Doi Plaindre Et Loer
Ciarlatani, I - Ach owe, daz nach liebe ergat
Arabo - andalusian 13th c. : Nuba Ushshak - mîzân qá'im wa-nisf
England - Anon. 1265 : Worldes blis ne last no throwe
Kitka - Bailemos nos ja todas
Francesco Landini (c.1325 - 1397): Adiu, adiu dous dame
Ey Dervişler - Hüseyni ilâhi - Yunnus Emre (Ilâhileri), Turkey, 13th c
Beatriz de Dia - A chantar m'er de so q
Waverly Consort - Ecco La Primavera
Carmina Burana (Anon.11 - 13th c.) - CB 200: Bache, bene venies
Miraval (1165 - 1229): Cel que no volh auzir chanssos
Christodoulos Halaris - The Nightingales of the East
Els Trobadors - Tant M'Abelis
Brunwart von Augheim, 13th c. - Willekomen si der sumer schoene
Akira Tachikawa - Esperance
Laude novella - Laudario di Cortona, Italy, 13th c

Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-1488)
“Christ and St. Thomas” (1467–1483)
Located at the Orsanmichele, Florence, Italy

The sculpture depicts the episode that gave rise to the term “Doubting Thomas.” During which Thomas the Apostle had doubted the resurrection of Jesus and had to feel the wounds that had been inflicted during his crucifixion for himself, in order to be convinced that it was really Jesus who had risen from the dead (John 20:24-29).

Tips for ppl taking apwh exam

- Muhammad and buddha aren’t seen as deities
- Sub saharan trade is gold and salt
- South American trade is cash crops (like sugar)
- Globalization was in the late 1400s bc of fuckboy Chris
- Colonization was in the 1700s and 1800s
- Focus on the dbq essay
- Don’t underline your thesis!!!! Ever!!!!!
- if you have incorrect information they just cross it off and don’t count it
- make shit concise and then just spill put all the information you have neatness means nothing


A collection of secular music from the High and Late Middle Ages (1000-1400). The mix features songs in vernacular from many different areas of Western Europe, as well as a few songs from the Byzantine and Islamic Empires.

De Fortune me doi Plaindre et Loer | Guillaume de Mauchaut (1300-1377)
Ach Owe, daz Nach Liebe Ergat | Meister Alexander (1247-1288)
Mîzân Qá'im Wa-nisf | from the Nuba Ushshaq, (13th c. Arabo-Andalusian Anon)
Worldes Blis ne Last no Throwe | English Anon. (ca.1265)
Bailemos Nós já Todas | Airas Nunes de Santiago (1230-1289) 
Adiu, Adiu Dous Dame | Francesco Landini (1325-1397)
Ey Dervişler | Yunnus Emre (1238-1320)
A Chantar M'er de So Qu'eu no Volria | Beatriz de Dia (1140-1212)
Ecco la Primavera | Francesco Landini (1325-1397)
Bache, Bene Venies | from the Carmina Burana, (11-13th c. Anon)
Cel que no Volh Auzir Chanssos | Raimon de Miraval (1165 - 1229)
The Nightingales of the East (Ta Aidónia tis Anatolís) | Byzantine Anon. (14th century)
Tant M’Abelis | Berenguer de Palou (1160-1209)
Willekomen si der Sumer Schoene | Brunwart von Augheim (1250-1300)
Esperance | Guillaume de Mauchaut (1300-1377)
Laude Novella | from the Laurdario di Cortona, (13th c. Italian Anon)

Photo: Illumination of a Christian and Muslim playing ouds,
from The Cantigas de Santa Maria (13th century Spain)

rundown of the Northern Renaissance


  • students began to travel to Italy in the late 1400s 
    • there they learned new ideas and techniques in painting 
  • merchants from “low countries” such as France, Germany, and England all visited Italy for trade purposes 
  • Bottom Line: Students and merchants brought these ideas to the north


  • aka the Northern Humanists 
  • they studied the classics but related them more heavily to Christian content 
  • calmness and stoical patience (classics) combines with love, humility, and piety (religion) 
  • did a whole bunch of social work too
    • moral and institutional reform
  •  Bottom Line: It was the Classics but with Christianity mixed in


  • Desiderius Erasmus 
    • most famous humanist 
    • edited works of Christian fathers and translate the New Testament  into Latin and Greek 
    • most famous work: In Praise of Folly
      • satirical piece that poked fun on people of all class especially hypocrisy of Church leaders and Pope Julius II 
    • devout catholic who didn’t really WANT to hurt the church rather to REFORM it 
    • wrote all of his stuff in Latin
  • Thomas More
    • Englishman 
    • humanist scholar who had a lot of different positions including chancellor to Henry VIII 
    • most famous work: Utopia
      • wrote about a perfect society in which there was religious toleration, humanist education for men and women and communal ownership of property (aka everyone in the community owns the property)  
  • Michel De Montaigne 
    • French writer 
    • popularized the essay and used anecdotes 


  • Characteristics 
    • oil painting was popular 
    • details and perfection of everyday objects 
    • symbolism became very popular 
      • The Arnolfini Wedding used a dog as a symbol for fidelity 
  • Artists 
    • Jan van Eyck 
      • Flemish artist 
      • pioneer in oil painting 
      • known for The Arnolfini Wedding and the Ghent Altarpiece
    • Albrecht Durer 
      • had influence of the Italian Renaissance 
      • used woodcuts and self-portraits 
    • Hans Holbein the Younger 
      • combined the realism of the Northern Renaissance with the proportion of the Italian Renaissance 

clausesart-deactivated20170424  asked:

'Finally, a lot of minor Legion characters came across as far more overtly misogynistic than I had intended them to.' Isn't the Legion more or less a misogynistic faction though? Since they rape their female slaves and won't allow women to fight in their army? Speaking of which, why is Caesars karma Neutral???

By “overt”, I mean that they openly express hatred of/contempt for women.  The Legion systemically categorizes women for forced breeding (rape) or slave labor because Caesar wants as many Legionaries as possible as quickly as possible.  This has very little to do with the personal opinions/experiences of individual Legionaries and everything to do with Caesar’s vision.  The average Legionary doesn’t have deep-seated open hatred of women, but believes that their society (which subjugates women into specific roles) is good.

Most medieval European societies were relatively bad for women.  In addition to the natural hazards of childbirth prior to the late 19th century, most social power structures excluded them or victimized them in various ways.  If you were to ask a medieval European man what they thought of women, you probably wouldn’t find many foaming at the mouth with hatred.  When people (women or otherwise) transgress social roles, the response varies from amusement to confusion to anger, but people who stay within “the lines” usually don’t catch much flack.

Last year, I read a book called Attitudes toward Post-Menopausal Women in the High and Late Middle Ages, 1100-1400 (really) by Jessica E. Godfrey.  Here’s the short summary of those attitudes: not good. Writers from that period tend to hold women in relatively high regard when they are young, beautiful, and childbearing. When they are not those things, they are held in low regard if not considered worthless.

So, while Legionaries would certainly be annoyed/confused by a female Courier, the average Legionary isn’t going around with balled fists hissing “WOMEN!” through clenched teeth.

RE: Caesar’s Karma being neutral: I believe at the time my rationale for that Karma setting is that Caesar is in a Mr. Kurtz-like state of unmoored morality. Whatever moral framework he had as Edward Sallow among the Followers has disintegrated after years of being Caesar.  I.e., it’s not so much that his Karma is neutral as much as it is alien.

That said, I don’t feel strongly about that designation and largely feel that the Karma system was vestigial in New Vegas. If we’re trying to encourage players to form their own opinions about factions and individuals, having a design layer that assigns (essentially) alignment is weird.

I had a thought about the Hogwarts house ghosts:

The Grey Lady and the Bloody Baron are both canonically Founders-era ghosts. 

Hufflepuff’s friar’s age is never specified in canon, and he could be of any era from the mid 12th century, when the first mendicant orders were founded, up to Henry VIII’s dissolution of the monasteries in the 1530s. I am inclined to believe he was earlier rather than later.

Nearly Headless Nick canonically lived in the late 1400s, based on the date of his 500th deathday party in 1992.

When Harry asks Nick in OotP about why some people become ghosts when they die, Nick tells him that only people who are afraid of death become ghosts.

It took 500 years after the founding of Hogwarts for Gryffindor to acquire a house ghost, because bravery is a Gryffindor trait.

A Brief History of Cinnamon

In ancient times, the origins of cinnamon were a mystery to the Western world, and Arab merchants wanted to keep it that way. To hike up the price, they spun an elaborate tale, claiming that giant birds collected cinnamon sticks from far-off lands and used them to build nests on cliffs. To get the precious sticks, traders laid out massive chunks of ox meat, which the birds grabbed and carried to their nests. But because the slabs were so large, the nests would collapse, allowing the clever merchants to collect their prize.

And Europeans believed the story! For hundreds of years, they thought that giant birds were the only known source of cinnamon sticks! That is, until the late 1400s when the Portuguese found the real source of cinnamon—lush groves in Sri Lanka. Once they’d figured it out, the Portuguese struck a deal with the Sri Lankans to monopolize the trade and built a fort there to protect their assets. They were displaced by the Dutch in 1658, who were subsequently displaced by the Brits in 1796. But by then, the trees had been exported worldwide, so there was little need to fight over Sri Lanka, a tiny island nation far from Portugal or the Netherlands or Britain.

11 Questions

I was tagged by @feuillesmortes, who is an absolute peach, to answer 11 questions, then pose 11 questions to some other folks.

  1. What was your first fandom? My first fandom was probably… American Girl Doll books.  Wow, what a nerd.
  2. If you could live in any other period of time, which would it be? I really think I’d do well in the period I love (late 1400′s early 1500′s), but who are we kidding the sweat would kill me in a heartbeat.  
  3. What is your favourite painter/painting? Holbein is lovely, so is Degas, da Vinci, Seurat, but my fave. is probably Winterhalter. 
  4. What song best describes your life at the moment? Why Won’t You Make Up Your Mind
  5. Are you a cat or a dog person? Such a dog person.
  6. If you could ask a question to any historical figure, who would it be and what question would you ask?  I’d ask the Disciples what Jesus is like.
  7. Which do you prefer: coffee or tea?  Coffee! Although tea is lovely.
  8. The year is 1812, the place is Moscow. You find yourself within arm’s reach of Napoleon and you’re in possession of a dagger. Do you strike him or not?  Eh, I’m not a physically violent person, so probably not.
  9. If you could write like a famous author, who would it be? Charlotte Brontë
  10. You are a scientist and you develop a technology that could completely transform the world, but it could also be used for destruction. Do you keep it to yourself or do you take the risk?    Nah, can’t take the idea of blood on my hands, the thought that I had introduced destruction into the world.
  11. Do you have a favourite literary quote? Honestly?  No, not really.  If I did it would have to be out of Jane Eyre, but I couldn’t be force to pick just one line.

My 11 Questions to those tagged:

  1. Are you a morning person or a night person?
  2. What is you favorite place that you have travelled to?
  3. Dream travel destination?
  4. What TV Show(s) are you watching right now?
  5. What book(s) are you reading right now?
  6. What music are you looking forward to for releasing this summer?
  7. What book could you read over and over and over?
  8. Shower gel or bar soap?
  9. Are you a planner or are you spontaneous?
  10. Do you consider yourself messy or neat?
  11. Light sleeper or heavy sleeper?

I tag: @grand-duchessa @mirthful-sonnet @tudoraddict @maggadin @onceupona-chippedteacup @sweetrupturedlight @knapp-shappey and anyone else who’d like.

Nohrian Army Headcanons

 I like to imagine that the Nohrian army has a more regimental organization than its Hoshidan counterpart. In particular, I like to think that the army operates similarly to European armies from the late 1400s to the early 1600s (Renaissance, Wars of Religion, etc). 

  For the rank and file Nohrian, battles are probably formational in nature. Imagine pike and shot warfare- Swiss pikemen, landsknechts, Spanish tercios, etc.  Picture rows of halberds and lances interlocked in a tight phalanx, marching and turning in unison. This would be supported by the equivalent of rodeleros- Mercenaries and Fighters- who would form a flexible offensive supporting arm of the infantry corps. Similar to a tercio, fighting blocs would also include a handful of embedded ranged troops- likely Dark Mages and maybe the odd Outlaw (though they’re probably deployed as irregular scouts and spies tbh). 

   While disciplined infantry presents an indomitable core, the real killing arm of Nohr is it’s mighty cavalry. Swift and heavily armored, they are the hammer to the infantry’s anvil. In a single, well placed charge, they could plow through and crush the enemy between the weight of their charge and the immovable wall of spears of the Nohrian infantry. (In a way, I guess this form of warfare is also similar to that of the Hellenic Diadochi but Nohr’s aesthetic and armament is clearly late Medieval/early modern). 

   This might be the reason why Leo and Xander seem to be so obsessed with army drills, unit positioning, and formations. The Nohrian army is an efficient killing machine but it breaks down if it’s mishandled. Without discipline and clear command, the Nohrian phalanx breaks down. Without correct support, the pike line is too slow and inflexible and will get cut to shreds by missile fire or get outflanked. Too far outside of the phalanx, and Nohrian mages and Outlaws are vulnerable and outgunned. The cavalry are a mighty and decisive force, but a badly timed charge will get them bogged down and cut into pieces. 

 In short, Nohr’s military is an army of soldiers run by strict discipline, careful planning, and regimental synergy. 

 Next time: Hoshido and Muromachi/early Sengoku Jidai warfare (though this’ll prolly take a while and might change because i still need to play Birthright)

historical ladynoir headcanons
  • Egypt is the first place Ladybug really becomes known, and is also the birthplace of Chat Noir and their first partnership. The Egyptians see the kwamis as gifts/messengers from the gods. Chat is why the Egyptians grow to worship cats and the dung beetle (who says Ladybug’s forms can’t change?) they remain lifelong friends but marry different people. Ladybug’s miracle stones are still earrings.
  • Greece is next, Ladybug is born in Athens and finds freedom in her persona that women weren’t allowed at the time. The people believe they’re gods shapeshifting into various forms. This time, her miracle stones are in a pendant around her neck.
  • The duo meets in Rome next as rival gladiators, however when an akuma attacks they’re forced to work together and earn their freedom from the emperor at the time. This is the first time Chat Noir falls for Ladybug, and they’re both boys
  • The next 600 years or so are spent in the Middle Ages. Warring countries like France and Britain, a bit of Germany (a lot of female Chat Noirs, mostly female Ladybugs too - possibly Joan of Arc as one of them??) - Tikki and Plagg tire of the bloodshed and head to Asia and Africa instead. 
  • The kwamis travel over to North America around the late 1400s and thus there are First Nations Ladybugs and Chat Noirs, who have an extreme attachment to their animal spirit.
  • Incan, Maya, Aztec ladybugs and chat noirs. Chat dies for their Ladybug each time
  • back over to France in time for the French Revolution, the first time a Ladybug falls for Chat. They don’t survive the revolution.
  • Victorian England, they fall for each other but arranged marriages (to their civilian selves) seemingly keep them apart until they put the pieces together. Chat Noir dies in childbirth and their child becomes the next Chat Noir
  • WWI and WW2 ladynoir, both male the first time, male and female in the next war, barely old enough to be considered not children
  • only one of them survives the Irish famine
  • Ladynoir freeing themselves from slavery and helping others do the same
  • heading back to America on the Titanic, neither of them survive
  • Tikki and Plagg have enough of America and go back to Europe
  • Poland first, and then work their way back to Egypt (die young) and then finally in France
  • Tikki sees Marinette for the first time when the girl is five years old and playing hopscotch, but stops, midgame, to avoid stepping on a ladybug, and knows she’s the one
  • Plagg sees Adrien three years later, the boy begging to his father to let him bring home a stray. He gets grounded for even suggesting it and the cat is given to a shelter, and Plagg knows he’s the one
  • and they promise that this time will be different

The Isopata signet ring

This famous ring from the Isopata tomb, near Knossos, is a masterpiece of Minoan gold work. The bezel depicts four female figures, richly clad in characteristic Minoan garments, moving through a landscape of lilies. Three of them dance in ecstasy, their arms raised in the air, while the fourth one, placed in the centre of the scene and slightly higher than the others, makes a gesture - possibly of benediction.

Late Bronze Age, 1600 - 1400 BC Place of discovery: Knosos, Isopata grave Dimensions: diameter: 0,021 m Material: Gold. Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture

Surprise || Klaroline

#25daysofklaroline Day 21 - Late 1400s Era

Again with the cheating of prompts! I’m incorrigible. This is set post-canon with an established KC relationship (except no children, they shouldn’t be around for this). There is some violence in this, and given their relationship, it might be troubling for some readers. I also borrow a concept from @addriannadestiny’s story Hostage for this drabble, and if anyone is looking for recs, IT’S AMAZING and one of my favorites.

She woke to his hand gripping her throat.

Caroline was no stranger to breath play; she and Klaus had tried just about everything once in their century together.

But this was different.

Usually, Klaus would work her up to the more intense sessions, and their last encounter like this was approached with great care. He went over the safe words incessantly, scared that she would run away if he went too far. She had appreciated his worry, but it was unnecessary. Caroline was completely, head over heels in love. Rabid dogs couldn’t chase her away.

That fact was probably the only reason she wasn’t freaking out at Klaus tightening his hold on her neck. Her eyes flew open, already placating. She didn’t expect to find such malice in his expression, though. “Klaus,” she choked out, reaching for his arm.

“Who are you?”

The question was low and menacing. She had heard him like this before, but it hadn’t been directed at her in a very long time. “What are you talking about,” she asked, the croaking inevitable as Klaus refused to let up. “I’m Caroline.”

“Why are you in my bed?”

“It’s our bed,” Caroline snapped, able to get an inch to struggle out from under his hand and take a defensive crouch. She held her hands up peacefully as she processed what he had said. He had no idea who she was or why she would be sleeping with him.

This wasn’t her Klaus.

Bonnie had warned her this might happen when he attacked that coven of witches. They liked to cast curses in their dying moments, it was a bit of their trademark. Did they take Klaus’s memories of her? Damn, that hurt.

“Rebekah,” Caroline called, opening the door so she could be heard. “Will you come in here?”

“Bekah’s here,” Klaus asked, still looking angry and confused.

Caroline nodded. “She travels with us sometimes,” she explained. “We’re in San Francisco.”

“I told you,” Rebekah’s voice floated from the hallway, “I don’t want to know what odd things Klaus offers to teach you in bed, so please stop asking me for advice.” 

Before she could continue her tirade, Caroline spoke up. “I think the witches cursed Klaus to forget about me,” she said, pulling the other blonde into the room.

Klaus, however, didn’t like the rough motion. “Take your hands off her,” he growled, both sets of fangs dropping as his eyes turned gold. As quickly as it happened, he snapped back to his human face in shock. “Why did that feel different?”

Caroline was lost. She had no idea what was happening, and she couldn’t even ask him for comfort. He was too likely to kill her in this keyed up state.

Rebekah seemed more sure. “You’re a hybrid now, Nik,” she explained gently. “What’s the last thing you remember?”

“I had just welcomed the doppelgänger to the castle,” he said slowly. “Elijah was to take care of her until I could put everything in order to break my curse. She was to think I was courting her into marriage. You say I’ve already done it?”

Squeezing her eyes shut, Caroline tried to not let the image of Katherine and Klaus bother her.

Rebekah just scoffed at her. “Get off it,” she snapped. “It was seven hundred years ago, and you’ve been completely nauseating for nearly a century.”

“Seven hundred years,” Klaus breathed, trying to remain confident in his abilities. “That would explain the clothing, I suppose.”

Glancing up, Caroline noticed his appreciative gaze wander over her skimpy pajamas. He always had preferred her in silk.

“Are you my wife, then?”

Caroline’s eyes snapped wide open. Klaus was so ambivalent to human marriage rituals that he truly wouldn’t care had she wanted to force the issue. Caroline Forbes would never change, though. She never wanted a wedding with an unwilling husband. For this version of him to effortlessly assume that they were married, it hurt.

“I’m going to call Bonnie,” she said softly, grabbing his robe before ducking out of the room. Being wrapped in his warmth wasn’t an option at the moment, so his scent imbedded in the fluffy terrycloth would have to do.

Back in the room, Rebekah rolled her eyes. “Your real self is going to pay for that one,” she noted. At his confusion, she explained. “Caroline knows you love her, but she thinks you have no desire to call her wife.”

Klaus shrugged, as this was no surprise to him. “At least that has stayed the same,” he said. “Marriage has always been folly.”

Rushing to shut the door to keep Caroline’s prying ears out, Rebekah turned to glare at him. “Please keep your opinions to yourself, because you have grown a lot in this time, Nik,” she said sternly. “You showed me the ring just last week, and you do intend to marry Caroline.”

Shocked, Klaus tried to picture the blonde who had all but ran from the room. In seven hundred years, he wanted a wife. And he wanted it to be her. “Why?”

“It beats the hell out of me,” Rebekah responded automatically, as though she were talking to the real Klaus. “That was a joke,” she clarified. “You love her, and you hate that she still feels as though she’s temporary. You wanted to prove to her that she is family.”

“Always and forever,” he whispered.

Pushing past Rebekah, Klaus opened the door and followed his senses to where the girl sat on a couch. The room was surrounded with odd knickknacks and technology, but all he could focus on was the woman huddled in a too-large robe dripping with his scent.

“Tell me about us,” he said, almost able to laugh at her surprised jump. Then he saw the tears in her eyes. “I’m sorry, I did not mean to make you cry.”

“It’s not you,” Caroline said, wiping away her tears. “Um, Bonnie- My friend, she’s a witch, and she thinks the curse will work itself out in a day or two.”

“Will you allow me to get to know you in the meantime,” he asked, slowly taking the seat next to her. “I find myself curious about how you came to mean so much to me.”

Caroline straightened in her seat, something about his statement had her perking up. “How much do I mean to you?”

For the first time, he looked like her Klaus. An evil smirk with eviler dimples, knowing he’s cornered the game. “No,” he said, grinning. “I want to talk about you.”


The Pythia – Πυθία

(Greek: Πυθία), commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi, was the name of any priestess throughout the history of Temple of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus, beneath the Castalian Spring (the new priestess was selected after the death of the current priestess). The Pythia was widely credited for her prophecies inspired by Apollo. The Delphic oracle was established in the 8th century BC, although it may have been present in some form in Late Mycenaean times, from 1400 BC and was abandoned, and there is evidence that Apollo took over the shrine from an earlier dedication to Gaia. The last recorded response was given about 395 A.D. to Emperor Theodosius I, after he had ordered pagan temples to cease operation.

During this period the Delphic Oracle was the most prestigious and authoritative oracle among the Greeks. The oracle is one of the best-documented religious institutions of the classical Greeks. Authors who mention the oracle include Aeschylus, Aristotle, Clement of Alexandria, Diodorus, Diogenes, Euripides, Herodotus, Julian, Justin, Livy, Lucan, Ovid, Pausanias, Pindar, Plato, Plutarch, Sophocles, Strabo, Thucydides and Xenophon.

The name “Pythia” derived from Pytho, which in myth was the original name of Delphi. The Greeks derived this place name from the verb, pythein (πύθειν, “to rot”), which refers to the decomposition of the body of the monstrous Python after he was slain by Apollo. The usual theory has been that the Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state induced by vapors rising from a chasm in the rock, and that she spoke gibberish which priests interpreted as the enigmatic prophecies preserved in Greek literature.  Read More | Edit