“We found that four of the pesticides most commonly found in beehives kill bee larvae,” said Jim Frazier, professor of entomology, Penn State. “We also found that the negative effects of these pesticides are sometimes greater when the pesticides occur in combinations within the hive. Since pesticide safety is judged almost entirely on adult honeybee sensitivity to individual pesticides and also does not consider mixtures of pesticides, the risk assessment process that the Environmental Protection Agency uses should be changed.”
Wanyi Zhu, Daniel R. Schmehl, Christopher A. Mullin, James L. Frazier. Four Common Pesticides, Their Mixtures and a Formulation Solvent in the Hive Environment Have High Oral Toxicity to Honey Bee Larvae. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (1): e77547 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077547
Bee feeding larva in the hive. Credit: Maryann Frazier/Penn State
Most swordfish grow to be about 3 meters (9.8 feet) in length and some get even bigger still, but when they first hatch from their eggs they’re only about 4 millimeters long. These itty-bitty larvae grow at an astonishing rate, feeding on a diet of other fish larvae and zooplankton, reaching a length of up to 39 inches (3.25 feet) during their first year of life.
It’s hard for scientists to obtain samples of life that exist in the ocean below 7,000ft due to the insane water pressure. Last week, a team of researchers was able to pull it off, and these are the larvae they found.