large hadron collider

Hey remember early last year when the Large Hadron Collider overloaded and broke down and people were like “phew good thing nothing weird happened like a shift in reality.” Maybe it’s time to revisit that.

Could we create dark matter?

85% of the matter in our universe is a mystery. We don’t know what it’s made of, which is why we call it dark matter. But we know it’s out there because we can observe its gravitational attraction on galaxies and other celestial objects. 

We’ve yet to directly observe dark matter, but scientists theorize that we may actually be able to create it in the most powerful particle collider in the world. That’s the 27 kilometer-long Large Hadron Collider, or LHC, in Geneva, Switzerland.

So how would that work? In the LHC, two proton beams move in opposite directions and are accelerated to near the speed of light. At four collision points, the beams cross and protons smash into each other.

Protons are made of much smaller components called quarks and gluons. 

In most ordinary collisions, the two protons pass through each other without any significant outcome.

However, in about one in a million collisions, two components hit each other so violently, that most of the collision energy is set free producing thousands of new particles. 

It’s only in these collisions that very massive particles, like the theorized dark matter, can be produced.

So it takes quadrillions of collisions combined with theoretical models to even start to look for dark matter. That’s what the LHC is currently doing. By generating a mountain of data, scientists at CERN are hoping to find more tiny bumps in graphs that will provide evidence for yet unknown particles, like dark matter. Or maybe what they’ll find won’t be dark matter, but something else that would reshape our understanding of how the universe works entirely. 

And that’s part of the fun at this point. We have no idea what they’re going to find.

From the TED-Ed Lesson Could we create dark matter? - Rolf Landua

Animation by Lazy Chief

hey sharpay evans was a lesbian and heres my evidance for it:

she was brought up in what was most likely a conservative household (see: hsm2 and the fact that her dad owns a golf club) and seeing ryan being the outcast in the family for his homosexuality she suppressed and went full on compulsory heterosexuality and went for the unattainable basketball star and when she finally felt feelings for a girl (vanessa hudgens i dont remember her name in the movie WAIT IT WAS GABRIELLA) she immediately took them to be negative and began obsessing with her and thinking it was a hate thing when really she was insanely jealous and impressed by her and in the 5th hsm sequel after troy and gabriella have divorced because troy wants to play NBA while gabriella wants to move to switzerland to study the large hadron collider she meets up with sharpay at the airport in new york and sharpay, after years of therapy and self realization, lies and says she too is going to switzerland for a specialty theater troupe and they rent an apartment together as two single thirtysomethings and slowly fall in love

Scientists Find New Particle at Large Hadron Collider at CERN (!!)

The discovery will help researchers learn more about the so-called “strong force” which holds the centres of atoms together. 

The existence of the new particle was theoretically predicted but this is the first time it has been identified. 

The details of the Xi-cc++ particle were presented at a high-energy physics conference in Venice. The study was carried out at the LHCb experiment and led by Dr Patrick Spradlin of Glasgow University. 

He said that the discovery would “shed light on a longstanding puzzle and open an exciting new branch of investigation”. 

His colleague, Prof Paul Soler, also from Glasgow University, described the development as “a new frontier in understanding the strong force”.

Continue reading

8

Can Muons - Which Live For Just Microseconds - Save Experimental Particle Physics?

“But you’ll never make a 13 TeV particle colliding two protons at the LHC; only a fraction of that energy is available to create new particles via E = mc2. The reason? A proton is made of multiple, composite particles – quarks, gluons, and even quark/antiquark pairs inside – meaning that only a tiny fraction of that energy goes into making new, massive particles.”

The large hadron collider is the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, colliding two protons at energies of 6.5 TeV apiece. But you’ll never have the full 13 TeV of energy available for that collision, thanks to the fact that the proton itself is a composite particle, and that energy is distributed throughout its components. When you get a collision, only a fraction of that energy goes into the collision itself, while the rest remains in the other component particles. The way around this is to use fundamental particles. The electron is no good, because it loses too much energy when you accelerate it in a magnetic field; it’s charge-to-mass ratio is too high. But the electron has a high-mass cousin, the muon, that’s 206 times as massive. Even though the muon only lives for microseconds, the right accelerator might be able to take advantage of special relativity (and time dilation), bringing a muon/antimuon collider to life, and realizing the best of both worlds.

What are the prospects for a muon collider? They’re better than they’ve ever been, and just might save experimental particle physics!

Things to add to your bucket list:

Travel:

  • See The Northern Lights 
  • See A Solar Eclipse 
  • See A Waterfall 
  • See Cherry Blossoms in Japan 
  • See The 7 Wonders of The World 
  • See The Mona Lisa, at the Louvre in Paris 
  • See Da Vinci’s Notebooks, Victoria and Albert Museum 
  • Spend New Year’s Eve in Times Square 
  • Spend a day at Central Park, New York 
  • Spend Mardi Gras in New Orleans 
  • Spend La Tomatina in Spain 
  • Spend Dia De Los Muertos in Mexico 
  • Use a Cable Car In San Francisco 
  • Visit Anne Frank’s House 
  • Visit Large Hadron Collider 
  • Walk Along the Great Wall of China 
  • Push A Stone at Stonehenge 
  • Wear an Authentic Kimono in Japan 
  • Make A Guard Laugh at Buckingham Palace 
  • Go to an Olympic Game 
  • Travel All Around the World 
  • Stand at The Equator 
  • Backpack Across at Least 10 Locations 
  • Pack Your Bags and Set Off for A Random Location 
  • Live in A Different Country for at Least 6 Months 
  • Set Foot in All the Continents 
  • See A TED Talk Live 
  • Comic Con or Who Con – Any Con 
  • Tee in The Park 
  • Coachella 
  • Go On a Safari 

Achieve Something

  • Achieve My Ideal Weight 
  • Publish A Book 
  • Get Featured in The Media for Something You Are Proud Of 
  • Start A Movement On a Cause You Believe In 
  • Get A Standing Ovation 
  • Get A Street Named After Me 
  • Give £10,000 To Charity 
  • Create A Famous Quote 
  • Start A Phenomenon 
  • Start A Petition 
  • Prove A Theory 
  • Become an Ordained Minister 

People

  • Be A Matchmaker 
  • Contact A Company  Just to Thank Them 
  • Fold 1,000 Origami Cranes and Give Them to Someone Special 
  • Pie Someone in The Face 
  • Personally Know Someone Famous 
  • Do Volunteer Work 
  • Be A Mentor to Someone 
  • Make A Difference in Someone’s Life 
  • Teach Someone Illiterate to Read 
  • Give A Heartfelt Surprise to Someone 
  • Perform A Kind Deed Without Expecting Anything in Return 
  • Meet A Good Street Performer 
  • Shake Hands with PM and President 
  • Meet Someone You Can Only Dream of Meeting 
  • Collect Autographs from All My Favourite People 
  • Donate Blood and Meet Who It Got Donated To 
  • Get A Pen Pal 
  • Write 365 Letters to Someone 
  • Write Letters to 5 People Who Positively Influenced You 
  • Leave £100 Tip for a waiter/waitress 
  • Befriend A Stranger 
  • Get A Drink for A Stranger 
  • High Five a Stranger 
  • Take A Picture with A Stranger 
  • Give Free Hugs on a side-walk 
  • Hold Sign Saying ‘Talk to Me About Anything’ On A Busy Street 
  • Order Pizza and Send It to A Random House with Note 

Something for Me

  • Get A Pet 
  • Get A Complete Makeover 
  • Decorate My Room – Paint A Cool Landscape 
  • Fly First Class 
  • Get My Portrait Painted 
  • Legitimately Play a Song On Any Musical Instrument 
  • Get A Signed Copy of a Book I Love 
  • Dye My Hair an Unnatural Colour – Purple/Blue 
  • Get The Restaurant Staff Sing for my birthday 
  • Get A Mani/Pedi 
  • Have A Spa Day 
  • Receive A Postcard from All Countries from Post Crossing 
  • Get A Star Named After Me 
  • Get Picked Up at The Airport by Someone with A Sign 
  • Authentic Chuck Taylors 

Learn Something New

  • Learn A New Language 
  • Learn Morse Code 
  • Learn to Say Hello in 26 Languages 
  • Learn Sign Language 

Try Something New

  • Try A Profession in A Different Field 
  • Try Every Single Ben and Jerry’s Flavour 
  • Try to Be Vegan for A Week 

Once in a Lifetime

  • Fly in A Hot-Air Balloon 
  • Do Public Speaking 
  • Act in A Film - Big or Small 
  • Be an Extra in a Big Film 
  • Crowd Surf 
  • Indoor Skydiving 
  • Wash an Elephant 
  • Ride A Rollercoaster 
  • Be On a Big Screen 

Participate in/Organize  Something

  • Run A Marathon 
  • Volunteer at A Hospice 
  • Go in A Corn Maze 
  • Join A Book Club 
  • High School Reunion 
  • Participate in Holi Festival 
  • Attend A Jewish Wedding 
  • Attend A Christian Wedding 
  • Attend A Hindi Wedding 
  • Attend A Sikh Wedding 
  • Attend A Muslim Wedding 
  • Attend An Atheist Wedding
  • Attend Any Wedding … 
  • Attend A Random Wedding as a Stranger 
  • Treasure Hunt 
  • Scavenger Hunt 
  • Masquerade Ball 
  • Murder Mystery Dinner 
  • Organise A Picnic Outing 
  • Organise A Barbeque 
  • Organize a Block Party 
  • Throw A Mega Party       
  • Put On a Fundraiser 
  • Foam Party 
  • Zombie Walk 
  • National Novel Writing Month 
  • MONOPOLY – actually complete it 

Something Sentimental

  • Walk/Dance Barefoot in The Rain 
  • Experience A Sunrise 
  • Experience A Sunset 
  • Go Stargazing 
  • Plant A Tree and Watch It Grow 
  • Go Camping 
  • Road Trip 
  • Fly A Kite 
  • Fall Asleep On Grassy Plains 
  • Ultimate Water Fight 
  • Message in A Bottle 
  • Sleep Under the Stars 
  • Make A Cool Snowman 
  • MOVIE MARATHON 
  • All Day with No Technology 
  • Water gun and Water Balloon Fight 
  • Bonfire and S’mores 
  • Blanket and Sofa Fort 
  • Catch Fireflies 
  • Collect Seashells 
  • Messy Twister 
  • Let A Floating Lantern Go 
  • Belong in A Secret Society 
  • Collect A Penny Made in Every Year I’ve Been Alive
  • Food Fight 
  • Leave A Note in A Library Book 
  • Leave A Note On A Car Window 
  • Leave A Shoe at A Ball 
  • Release A Chinese Lantern 
  • Use A Fake Name at Starbucks 
  • Pretend to Be a Window Mannequin 
  • Pull A Fire Alarm 
  • Pull an All Nighter 
  • Put A Pair of My Shoes On a Shoe Tree 

Places to go / Things To See

  • Ballet 
  • Beach 
  • Castle 
  • Concert 
  • Drive-in Movie 
  • Factory 
  • Haunted Place 
  • Laser Quest 
  • Museum 
  • Music Festival 
  • Paintballing 
  • Theatre 
  • Zip line 

Make Something

  • Knit A Scarf 
  • Build A Treehouse 
  • Write A Children’s Book 
  • Start A Vlog 
  • Make A Rubber Band Ball 
  • Start A Scrapbook 
  • Do A 365 Day Photo Project 
  • Wreck-This Journal 
  • Make A Bracelet 
  • Bake Something 
What we don’t know about dark matter:

Dark matter takes up about 84.5% of all mass in the universe, and we practically have no idea what it is. Dark matter doesn’t interact via electromagnetism, meaning that you can’t see it, feel it, or interact with it in almost any way possible. If you held a lump of it in your hand, it would just fall straight through without you ever noticing it was there to start with. So, if it’s almost perfectly invisible, how do we even know it exists at all?

When looking at a galaxy, you can estimate how much matter is in it by what you see through a telescope, and you can use this to predict how fast the galaxy should be spinning. However, there’s a problem. Galaxies always appear to be spinning much faster than they should be. In order to be spinning as fast as they are, galaxies need a lot more mass than what we’re seeing. Even when we account for things that are a lot harder to see, like planets, dust clouds, neutrinos, and black holes, the numbers just don’t add up. So, this leaves us with two options; either Einstein’s theory of gravitation is wrong, or there is a new, invisible type of matter filling up galaxies.

Since Einstein’s theories seem to be extremely robust under any other circumstance, we are left with the possibility of a new type of matter that can only interact through gravity. Although we can figure out how much dark matter is in the universe, and where it is mainly located, we are nearly clueless on the details. After all, you can’t just look at a clump of dark matter through a microscope.

Since it’s possible that dark matter could also interact via the weak nuclear force, there have been several super-sensitive detectors built to look for extremely rare dark matter interactions, but none have been able to find anything significant yet. If dark matter is a new particle, there’s a chance it could be created at the Large Hadron Collider, or we could at least see its effects on other particles, but the LHC hasn’t seen anything out of the ordinary yet either.

So, although we have a good idea of what dark matter is doing to our universe, we have almost no idea about what it actually is. Whenever we do finally figure out the true nature of dark matter, it will surely be the discovery of the century.

10

New LHC Results Hint At New Physics… But Are We Crying Wolf?

“What we’re seeing right now is a response from the community is what we’d expect to an alarm that’s crying “Wolf!” There might be something fantastic and impressive out there, and so, of course we have to look. But we know that, more than 99% of the time, an alarm like this is merely the result of which way the wind blew. Physicists are so bored and so out of good, testable ideas to extend the Standard Model – which is to say, the Standard Model is so maddeningly successful – that even a paltry result like this is enough to shift the theoretical direction of the field.”

The Standard Model of particle physics – with its six quarks in three colors, its three generations of charged leptons and neutrinos, the antiparticle counterparts to each, and its thirteen bosons, including the Higgs – describes all the known particles and their interactions in the Universe. This extends to every experiment ever performed in every particle accelerator. In short, this is a problem: there’s no clear path to what new physics lies beyond the Standard Model. So physicists are looking for any possible anomalies at all, at any theoretical ideas that lead to new predictions at the frontiers, and any experimental result that differs from the Standard Model predictions. Unfortunately, we’re looking at thousands of different composite particles, decays, branching ratios, and scattering amplitudes. Our standards for what’s a robust measurement and a compelling result need to be extremely high.

The newest LHCb results offer a hint of something interesting, but it’s got a long way to go before we can say we’ve discovered anything new. Come find out what we’ve seen today!

Richard P. Feynman an astounding theoretical physicist and professor

∆ Quantum mechanics & particle physics

∆ Quantum electrodynamics (QED) for which he shared a Nobel Prize

∆ Superfluidity of liquid helium  

The diagram above is of a vector boson fusion producing a Higgs boson. Feynman developed this method of representing particle interactions which have been important to the understanding of work in particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider.


The following is a wonderful video of Feynman talking about light

https://youtu.be/FjHJ7FmV0M4

The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) is a global computing infrastructure whose mission is to provide computing resources to store, distribute and analyse the data generated by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), making the data equally available to all partners, regardless of their physical location.

WLCG is the world’s largest computing grid. It is supported by many associated national and international grids across the world, such as European Grid Initiative (Europe-based) and Open Science Grid (US-based), as well as many other regional grids.

WLCG is co-ordinated by CERN. It is managed and operated by a worldwide collaboration between the experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) and the participating computer centres. It is reviewed by a board of delegates from partner country funding agencies, and scientifically reviewed by the LHC Experiments Committee.
—  Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), CERN