langobards

Lombardic Silver-gilt Fibula, c. 6th Century AD

The Lombards (or Langobards) were a Germanic tribe who ruled Italy from 568 to 774. They descended from a small tribe called the Winnili who lived in southern Scandinavia before migrating to seek new lands. In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in northwestern Germany. By the end of the 5th century, they had moved into the area roughly coinciding with modern Austria north of the Danube river, where they subdued the Heruls and later fought frequent wars with the Gepids. The Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid leader Thurisind in 551 or 552; his successor Alboin eventually destroyed the Gepids at the Battle of Asfeld in 567.

Following this victory, Alboin decided to lead his people to Italy, which had become severely depopulated and devastated after the long Gothic War (535–554) between the Byzantine Empire and the Ostrogothic Kingdom there. The Lombards were joined by numerous Saxons, Heruls, Gepids, Bulgars, Thuringians, and Ostrogoths, and their invasion of Italy was almost unopposed. By late 569 they had conquered all the principal cities north of the Po River except Pavia, which fell in 572. At the same time, they occupied areas in central and southern Italy. They established a Lombard Kingdom in Italy, later named Regnum Italicum (“Kingdom of Italy”), which reached its zenith under the 8th-century ruler Liutprand. In 774, the Kingdom was conquered by the Frankish King Charlemagne and integrated into his Empire. However, Lombard nobles continued to rule parts of the Italian peninsula well into the 11th century when they were conquered by the Normans and added to their County of Sicily. Their legacy is apparent in the regional name, Lombardy.

anonymous asked:

How are you preparing for Ragnarok?

How are you preparing for the tooth fairy?

Ragnarok isn’t a part of proper, core Germanic belief. Neither is the creation myth in Voluspa. Germanic religion sets no beginning and no end. Every other aspect of our cosmology is circular, cyclical. Why would the grand scheme of the universe be seen any other way?

Think about it. We have writings and stories from something like a half-dozen different Germanic tribal confederations. Of all these writings and stories, only one volume from one of these tribal groups refers to either of theses stories, and that volume was written by a Christian several hundred years after the de-Heathening of his island. 

Anglo-Saxons make no mention of the beginning or end of the world.
Old Saxons make no mention of the beginning or end of the world.
Franks make no mention of the beginning or end of the world.
Goths make no mention of the beginning or end of the world.
Langobards make no mention of the beginning or end of the world.
Frisians make no mention of the beginning or end of the world.
Vandals make no mention of the beginning or end of the world.
Danes make no mention of the beginning or end of the world.
Norwegians make no mention of the beginning or end of the world.
Swedes make no mention of the beginning or end of the world.
Only the Icelandic sources do, and of that corpus of knowledge, only one Icelander does, and it just happens to be a man whose believability is already shaky.

The earth isn’t going to be plunged into years-long winter culminating in a gigantic cosmic battle of the Gods that ends the world in fire. Aside from near-total lack of sourcing or reference in any other Germanic document whatsoever, the stories don’t even fit thematically with more verifiable Heathen myths. Just because Snorri wrote it and slipped it in with stories more likely to be true does not mean it is real.

I will spin her such a hank that she shall not find the end of it in her lifetime
— 

Narses’(478-573) reaction to empress Sophia’s insult

Narses was a byzantine eunuch  and general who managed to conquer Italy in the 550s. A decade later he was replaced as Dux Italiae and called back to Constantinople. Empress Sophia rubbed salt into general’s wounds by sending a message there she stated that since Narses was not a man he should go and spin wool in the apartments of women. According to Paul the Deacon Narses was a bit pissed off and invited Langobards to Italy.Of course we don’t know if such a phrase was ever uttered, but the story is good.

The All-Father. And many more titles.

Aldaföðr………”Father of Men”
Aldagautr………”Gautr of Men”
Aldingautr………”The Ancient Gautr”
Alfaðir, Alföðr………”All-Father”
Angan Friggjar………”Delight of Frigg”
Arnhöfði………”Eagle-headed One”
Atriði, Atriðr………”Attacking Rider” or “Attacker by Horse”
Auðun………”Wealth Friend”

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A gold shield boss engraved with simple patterns and Christian symbols, such as fish and crosses.

Cast out of iron, with gilt bronze ornamentation.

Made in the 500s in Northern Italy for a Lombardic nobleman.

First owned by the Austrian Count Johann Nepomuk Wilczek and displayed in his large castle museum–the Burg Kreuzenstein.

Currently held at the Metropolitan Museum.

The Lombards (LatinLangobardī), also referred to as Langobards and Longobards, were a Germanic peopleoriginally from Northern Europe who settled in the valley of the Danube and from there invaded Byzantine Italy in 568 under the leadership of Alboin. They established a Lombard Kingdom, later named Kingdom of Italy, which lasted until 774, when it was conquered by the Franks. Their influence on Italian political geography is apparent in the regional appellation Lombardy.

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The Iron Crown with which Lombard rulers were crowned.Further information: Hundings
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Paul the Deacon was the primary source for the study of the Lombards.

The fullest account of Lombard origins, history, and practices is the Historia Langobardorum (History of the Lombards) of Paul the Deacon, written in the 8th century. Paul’s chief source for Lombard origins, however, is the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum (Origin of the People of the Lombards).

The Origo tells the story of a small tribe called the Winnili dwelling in southern Scandinavia (Scadanan) (The Codex Gothanus writes that the Winnili first dwelt near a river called Vindilicus on the extreme boundary of Gaul.) The Winnili were split into three groups and one part left the native land to seek foreign fields. The reason for the exodus was probably overpopulation. The departing people were led by the brothers Ybor and Aio and their mother Gambara and arrived in the lands of Scoringa, perhaps the Baltic coast or the Bardengau on the banks of the Elbe. Scoringa was ruled by theVandals, and their chieftains, the brothers Ambri and Assi, who granted the Winnili a choice between tribute or war.

The Winnili were young and brave and refused to pay tribute, saying “It is better to maintain liberty by arms than to stain it by the payment of tribute."The Vandals prepared for war and consulted Godan (the god Odin), who answered that he would give the victory to those whom he would see first at sunrise. The Winnili were fewer in number and Gambara sought help from Frea (the goddess Frigg), who advised that all Winnili women should tie their hair in front of their faces like beards and march in line with their husbands. So it came that Godan spotted the Winnili first, and asked, "Who are these long-beards?” and Frea replied, “My lord, thou hast given them the name, now give them also the victory." From that moment onwards, the Winnili were known as the Langobards (Latinised and Italianised as Lombards).

When Paul the Deacon wrote the Historia between 787 and 796 he was a Catholic monk and devoted Christian. He thought the pagan stories of his people "silly” and “laughable”.Paul explained that the name “Langobard” came from the length of their beards. A modern theory suggests that the name “Langobard” comes from Langbarðra name of Odin. Priester states that when the Winnili changed their name to “Lombards”, they also changed their old agricultural fertility cult to a cult of Odin, thus creating a conscious tribal tradition. Fröhlich inverts the order of events in Priester and states that with the Odin cult, the Lombards grew their beards in resemblance of the Odin of tradition and their new name reflected this.[ Bruckner remarks that the name of the Lombards stands in close relation to the worship of Odin, whose many names include “the Long-bearded” or “the Grey-bearded”, and that the Lombard given name Ansegranus (“he with the beard of the gods”) shows that the Lombards had this idea of their chief deity.