lancastrian

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The White Queen + families.
     → additional families : Tudors, Greys, Lancasters. 

« The war between the houses of Lancaster and York for the throne of England was charactorised by treachery, deceit and at St Albans, Blore Hill and Towton, some of the bloodiest and most dramatic battles on England’s soil. Between 1455 and 1487 the royal coffers were bankrupted and the conflict resulted in the downfall of the houses of Lancaster and York and the emergence of the illustrious Tudor dynasty. » ― Alison Weir, Lancaster and York: The Wars of the Roses.

This post was written for the occasion of the 600th anniversary of the battle of Azincourt, also known by redcoats as the battle of Agincourt.
Here’s how the Hundred Years War ended. It’s not even the same phase of the Lancastrian war but who cares it didn’t last exactly a hundred years either.

Battle of Castillon, 17th July 1453

Prologue

It was the last act of the war, and Charles VII of France had taken all English territories in France except for Calais and some Channel islands - which admittedly was probably due to a lack of trying on the French part for these ones. This all included Bordeaux, but unlike what you might expect the Bordelais were not too keen on that state of thing after more than three centuries of uninterrupted English rule, and thus they called on their former overlord for help.
As a response, said overlord Henry VI of England sent john Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury and 3000 fighters to retake the city, which was achieved easily thanks to the compliance of the citizens. From this base of operation, much of Western Gascony came back under the Plantagenets’ kittied banner, to the great dismay of Charles VII who was just done reuniting the country. Plus it’s were wine comes from I think. He just couldn’t take the blow and surrendered.
Nah just kidding he sent his best guy to raze the town and every other that had surrendered to English rule.

Cast

English commander John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, knight of the Order of the Garter, aka the English Achilles. Captured in 1449, he was released on the promise of never wearing an armour in battle against the King of France again. It however didn’t stop him from keeping on fighting the guy, which he did, often, all the while being 66. Just without armor.

British army : between 6000 and 10000 rosbeefs.

French commander Jean Bureau, governor of the French archers, master of ordinance and master gunner of king Charles VII, receiver of Paris, treasurer of France and mayor of Bordeaux under French rule. Perfection in the process of corning and casting made his culverins all the more deadlier as he was already known as a methodical, mathematical mind and an imaginative technician - basically the guy you’d hate playing risk with, even if you win he’d probably just beat you to death with that stick.

French army : between 7000 and 10000 frogs.

Not the Battle Just Quite Yet

On the 8th of June John Talbot was amassing troops, including one of his own son, when whoever in charge in Bordeaux came to find him. Castillon was under siege not far from here, so he had to do his job and get killing.
Meanwhile in Castillon, Jean Bureau was laying some serious punishment on the city. He set up camp out of reach of the town’s walls, dug massive earthworks in zig-zag patterns that would have made Vauban proud and had his 300 cannons fire at will. Remembering previous events at the battle of Formigny some years earlier, when his guns were lost to an audacious English sally, he sent a small vanguard of archers in the woods nearby.
John Talbot left Bordeaux on the 16th of the same month and arrived by nightfall.

The Actual Thing

On the 17th, John Talbot met the French vanguard with a force of 1300 men-at-arms and mounted archers - he had outpaced the rest of his troops - and promptly fucked it up. At this point the fight had assuredly warned the French army of their presence, and Talbot knew this. He was confronted with two choices : either pressing his advantage and charging straight into the thick of it like a baller, or wait for reinforcement like a sane person. Deciding to stay true to himself -and seeing the cloud of dust coming from the East as a sign that the French were retreating- he and his men yelled a bit to get their blood pumping and marched on.
Little did they know that the cloud of dust was only caused by the sheer amount of camp followers leaving the French camp like as many elephants sensing a tsunami coming down on their stupid trunked face.
What followed was pretty stupid. With Talbot apparently refusing to call off the attack out of pride, and the English army only slowly catching up with its commander’s aggressive tactics, the Britons were torn apart with each cannon shot said to go through six of them. This only stopped when the Duke of Brittany and a thousand knights stomped over what was left of the offensive, and would have sent Talbot and his son running if not for the fact that both of them had been dead for quite some time, the old commander having had his horse shot from under him, pinning him down for a French archer to kill with an axe.

Aftermath

English casualties : 4000 dead, wounded or captured (40-66%)

French casualties : 100 dead or wounded (1-1.4%)

John Talbot dead, Henry VI mad and Charles VII on a roll led to the extinction of English rule in Southern France. Bordeaux surrendered after Jean bureau calmly told their ambassadors that he could raze the city in ten days if they continued sassing him. Angry nobles impoverished by these losses went on to be one of the factors leading to the War of the Roses, and other nobles in France would get hanged, quartered, and cut into small bits for forest critters to eat in a massive royal update on what “loyauté” means. At long last everything was right in Europe.
Except you know there was the fall of Constantinople but that’s no concern of mine.

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May 22nd 1455: First Battle of St. Albans

On this day in 1455, the Wars of the Roses began with the First Battle of St Albans in Hertfordshire, England. The wars were fought between the rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet who were competing for the English throne: the houses of Lancaster and York. The First Battle of St Albans resulted in Yorkist victory, with Richard, Duke of York defeating the Lancastrians (led by Edmund, Duke of Somerset) and capturing King Henry VI. The wars continued until 1485 and led to the founding of the Tudor dynasty, as the Lancastrian Henry Tudor (Henry VII) defeated the last Yorkist King Richard III and married a Yorkist. Richard III was killed at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, and his remains were only found in 2012 under a car park in Leicester; in 2015 the last Plantagenet King was ceremoniously reburied, 530 years after his death.

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Queens of England 1445-1603

“Life is very beautiful”

I’ve seen often the pain that Queens suffer giffed and edited but rarely do we see them edited as happy. While yes being Queen made their lives harder they also experienced great moments of joy as well. We should remember their happiness as well.

Margaret of Anjou- Queen Consort- 1445- 1461 and again from 1470-1471

Elizabeth Woodville- Queen Consort- 1464-1470 and again from 1471-1483

Anne Neville- Queen Consort 1483-1485

Elizabeth of York- Queen Consort- 1486-1503

Catherine of Aragon- Queen Consort 1509-1533

Anne Boleyn- Queen Consort 1533-1536

Jane Seymour Queen Consort 1536-1537

Anne of Cleves- Queen Consort 1540

Katherine Howard- Queen Consort 1540-1541

Katherine Parr- Queen Consort 1543-1547

Mary I of England- Queen Regnant- 1553-1558

Elizabeth I of England- Queen Regnant- 1558-1603

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top ten historical females - asked by @sansaregina

♔ Elizabeth Woodville - Queen Consort of England from 1 May 1464 - 3 October 1470 and again from 11 April 1471 - 9 April 1483; married to Edward IV of England; leading figure in the Wars of the Roses and mother to the Princes in the Tower; successfully organised the betrothal of her eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York, to Lancastrian claimant to the throne, Henry Tudor (later Henry VII of England) with his mother, Margaret Beaufort.
♔ Hürrem Sultan - Haseki Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1533/4  - 15 April 1558; legal wife to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, first former slave to be elevated to such a rank in centuries; one of Suleiman’s most trusted advisors; engaged in several major building programs throughout the Ottoman Empire; first woman to remain in the Sultan’s court for the duration of her life; arguably began the era of the Sultanate of Women despite not becoming Valide Sultan herself.
♔ Isabella of France - Queen Consort of England from 25 January 1308 - 20 January 1327; married to Edward II of England; invaded England in September 1326 with her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March leading to the abdication of her husband and the coronation of her son, Edward III; was Regent to her son from 1326 - 1330.
♔ Eleanor of Aquitaine - Suo jure Duchess of Aquitaine from 9 April 1137 - 1 April 1204; Queen Consort of France from 1 August 1137 - 21 March 1152; Queen Consort of England from 25 October 1154 - 6 July 1189; formally took up the cross on the Second Crusade as the feudal leader of her duchy; had her marriage to Louis VII of France annulled on the grounds of consanguinity; had a tumultuous marriage to Henry II of England; Eleanor was arrested by her husband in 1173 for her role in the Revolt of 1173/74 in favour of her son, Henry the Young King, she was to be imprisoned until Henry II’s death in 1189; when her son, Richard the Lionheart, left his kingdom on the Third Crusade, he left Eleanor to act as Regent.
♔ Turhan Hatice Sultan - Haseki Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 2 January 1642 - 12 August 1648; Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 8 August 1648 (nominal) - 4 August 1683; Naib-i-Sultanat of the Ottoman Empire from 3 September 1651 - 1656; concubine to Sultan Ibrahim I; after Ibrahim’s deposition, her son, Mehmed, ascended the throne as Sultan Mehmed IV; upon this Turhan should have been recognised as Valide Sultan, however, she was overlooked in favour of her predecessor, Kösem; due to Turhan’s ambitions Kösem allegedly planned to depose Mehmed in favour of a grandson with a more pliant mother, this was reported to Turhan and Kösem was murdered; as both Regent and Valide Sultan, Turhan wielded enormous power, almost equal to that of her son and was the only woman in Ottoman history to do so; by 1656 Turhan turned more of her attention to patronage and rescinded most of her power to the Grand Vizier; last of the great figures in the era of the Sultanate of Women.
♔ Isabella of Portugal - Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, Queen consort of Italy, Queen consort of Spain from 10 March 1526 - 1 May 1539; married to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; her political union with Charles proved to be a love match; Isabella was to be a competent consort and was appointed Regent of Spain during her husband’s absences in 1529–1532 and 1535–1539; Isabella died after her sixth pregnancy ended in a stillbirth in 1539 and her death affected her husband deeply; in 1580 her son Philip II of Spain ascended the Portuguese throne claiming Isabella’s rights of succession and united  the Iberian Peninsula under one crown.
♔ Mary I of England - Queen Regnant of England and Ireland from 19 July 1553 - 17 November 1558; Queen Consort of Spain, Jerusalem and both the Sicilies; Archduchess of Austria; Duchess of Burgundy, Milan and Brabant; Countess of Habsburg, Flanders and Tyrol from 16 January 1556 - 17 November 1558; married to Philip II of Spain; when her father, Henry VIII of England, broke with the Catholic Church in 1533 he deemed his marriage to her mother, Catherine of Aragon, null and void and thus deemed Mary to be illegitimate; Mary was returned to the line of succession, in 1544; when Edward VI died, he excluded Mary from his will and the line of succession as she was Catholic; he named Lady Jane Grey as heir to the throne, whom Mary deposed (and later executed) on the 19 July 1553 after assembling an army and support in the days following her brother’s death; Mary’s first Parliament in October 1553, declared the marriage of her parents valid and abolished Edward’s religious laws; During 1553 Mary also returned her kingdom to the Catholic Church and the old Heresy Acts were revived; In January 1558, French forces took Calais, England’s sole remaining possession on the European mainland, it was an ideological loss that damaged Mary’s prestige.
♔ Livia Drusilla - Empress consort of the Roman Empire from 27 BCE - 14 CE; married first to Tiberius Claudius Nero with whom she had the future Emperor Tiberius, and Nero Claudius Drusus; she divorced her fist husband in favour of future Roman Emperor, Augustus when she was six months pregnant with her son, Drusus, and she married Augustus three days after his birth; Livia enjoyed the status of privileged counsellor to her husband, petitioning him on the behalf of others and influencing his policies; in 35 BCE Octavian gave Livia the unprecedented honour of ruling her own finances; Livia pushed her sons into positions of power with Tiberius eventually being declared Augustus’ heir in 4 BCE; when her husband died in 14 CE he left one third of his property to Livia, the will also adopted her into the Julian family and granted her the honorific title of Augusta, which permitted Livia to maintain her status and power after his death, under the new name of Julia Augusta.
♔ Catherine of Aragon - Queen Consort of England from 11 June 1509 - 23 May 1533; married first to Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales on 15 November 1501; after her marriage to Arthur, they both fell ill with sweating sickness and as a result Arthur died on 2 April 1502; Catherine was left a widow, during this time she lived as a virtual prisoner in London; in 1507 Catherine began to serve as the Spanish ambassador to England, the first female ambassador in European history; the Scots invaded England in September 1513 and Catherine rode north in full armour despite being heavily pregnant at the time and gave a speech to the troops; from 1525 onwards, Henry sought to divorce or annul his marriage to Catherine on the grounds that she had slept with his brother, her first husband, and was not a virgin when she wed Henry, so that he could marry the Lady Anne Boleyn; in 1531 Catherine was removed from Henry’s court and separated from her daughter; her marriage to Henry was annulled on 23 May 1533 but she continued to refer to herself as Henry’s only lawful wedded wife and England’s only rightful queen but was referred to as Dowager Princess of Wales on Henry’s order.
♔ Eleanor of Provence - Queen Consort of England from 20 January 1236 - 16 November 1272; married to Henry III of England; despite fulfilling all the necessary roles and duties expected of a Queen Consort at the time, Eleanor was deeply unpopular with the people due to her large retinue of Savoyard family members, who did not leave England after her coronation as well as her perceived influence over the King which created friction between the English barons and the crown, during his reign; Eleanor was made Regent in 1253 when her husband left for Normandy; she vigorously opposed Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester’s actions against her husband, and raised troops in France in Henry’s name; after her husband’s death in 1272, she remained in England to help raise her grandchildren.

Historical AU: Richard III won the Battle of Bosworth and Lady Anne Neville didn’t die from tuberculosis. 

One shot on Richard x Anne for @thekingmakersdaugthers


King Richard III had won the final battle and Tudor was defeated. The King showed no mercy and had Tudor and all his supporters executed. He was a good king, but a king must think like a king. 

A grand festival was held at court to celebrate the victory. Queen Anne Neville was dressed and prepared. However, her face was not joyous. It was as if she didn’t want Richard to win the final battle.

“Are you angry at me?” Richard asked her. “For what I did?”

He was referring to the executions of the Tudor supporters.

“No,” Anne shook her head. “There are rumors that you are negotiating a new marriage with Portugal. You are considering Joanna of Portugal as your new bride. She is a Lancastrian descendant.”

“As there were rumors that I wanted to poison you to marry Bess,” he said. “Now, can you look at me in the eyes and tell me that you believe every word of it?”

Anne was silent.

“It’s true, I did negotiate a marriage with King of Portugal,” he went on. “But it is to marry Bess to his nephew. It was been suggested that I should consider his daughter Joanna, but to the dismay of many, the woman I love the most is you.”

She looked him, surprised.

“Do you want to leave me?” He asked. “Can you live a life without me?”

She muttered, “No.”

He took her hand. “Then, don’t think of the rumors anymore. The festival is not to celebrate the defeat of Tudor. It is held for your honor. Everyone is happy to hear that you are well again after the loss of our son.”

Hand in hand, they made the entrance as King and Queen of England.


In the middle of the night, Richard found the other side of the bed empty.

He saw Anne sitting by the hearth.

“Anne,” he went to her. “Come back to bed.”

“I had a dream,” she told him. “Remember that day when we argued about George? We were getting so upset and Ned probably heard us. We couldn’t find him in the nursery or anywhere in the castle. But Francis found him and took him back. It was so real, and I could still feel Ned in my arms.”

“Francis is a good friend to us,” Richard said.

“Ned would be a good king after you,” Anne said. 

“So will his brother,” he said. “We have been separated too many times in the past ten years. From now, we shall be together everyday. Not a day apart.”

9

HOUSE OF LANCASTER
“We are Lancastrians. We beg for nothing.”

The House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet. The first house was created when Henry III of England created the Earldom of Lancaster—from which the house was named—for his second son Edmund Crouchback in 1267. The second house of Lancaster was descended from John of Gaunt, who married the heiress of the first house.

in this gifset: earls + dukes + kings + the Beauforts (illegitimate line)

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medieval queens: Elizabeth Woodville

Elizabeth Woodville was the widow of a Lancastrian soldier when she married the Yorkist King Edward IV in May 1464, causing much tension in the royal court, particularly with Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. Elizabeth was crowned Queen of England on 26 May 1465. Many of her brothers and sisters were married into the aristocracy during her early years as queen, which sparked further tensions at court. Twice during her life Elizabeth and her children were forced into taking sanctuary in Westminster Abbey; the first time was in 1470 as a result of the Earl of Warwick’s coup to place Henry VI back on the throne. Warwick was defeated, and Edward was king again. In 1483, King Edward suddenly died and Elizabeth was forced to flee to sanctuary once more as Richard, Duke of Gloucester (the King’s brother) assumed power. Elizabeth’s eldest son Edward, the heir to the throne, was captured by Gloucester’s forces and was placed in the Tower of London. Soon after Elizabeth was forced to give up her second son Richard, to Gloucester. Gloucester then took the throne as King Richard III. The two boys became known as “The Princes in the Tower”. After successfully seeing her daughter Elizabeth of York become Queen of England to Henry VII, Elizabeth retired from politics. She died at Bermondsey Abbey on 8 June 1492, and was laid to rest with her husband King Edward at Windsor Castle.

Portrait of Bona of Savoy (1449-1503), Duchess Consort of Milan, second wife of Galeazzo Maria Sforza and sister-in-law of the French King Louis XI. In 1464, when Bona was 15 years old, negotiations began for a marriage between her and Edward IV of England. However, the match was never finalised as Edward revealed his secretly conducted marriage with the widow of a Lancastrian supporter, Elizabeth Woodville. 

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December 13, 1470 | This Day in History

It is believed, although not known for certain, that on this day in Angers Cathedral Lady Anne Neville, 14, was married to Edward of Lancaster,  Prince of Wales, 17, sealing an alliance between their parents. This marriage alliance bound Anne’s family from the Yorkist side of The Wars of the Roses to the Lancaster side and made her Princess of Wales. Anne’s father, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick broke alliance with his former ally and cousin, King Edward IV of England and bound himself and his family to the Lancastrian side with this marriage agreement. Edward of Westminster was the son and heir to King Henry VI and his wife Queen Margaret of Anjou, who had been deposed in large part by Richard Neville. This marriage made it so Richard Neville would use his power to reinstate King Henry VI back to the throne of England, and would mean that one day his daughter would be Queen of England.

FINALLY got a decent way to let’s play Duelists of the Roses

Disclaimer: Had to get an ISO and boot up the old emulator.  Before someone chews me out for piracy, I own this game.  In fact, I own TWO copies of this game, and a PS2, and a converter lead to make the PS2 output to a format I can record.  But that last component broke so I needed a method to play it directly on my computer, and my DVD drive is apparently broken, and god it’s just a big mess.

Anyway, that all out of the way: I know it’s a bit of a tradition to ask this question after the first episode’s uploaded when let’s playing this game, but I got stuff to do today and probably won’t be able to record that for a while.  So basically…

Duelists of the Roses is a strategy game based on a fictional retelling of the historical War of the Roses, between the Yorkists (Red Rose) and Lancastrians (White Rose).  I don’t know much about the history of it except that it inspired a lot of “gritty fantasy” like Song of Ice and Fire, but just for a laugh, DON’T look up this game just yet if you don’t already know what franchise it’s a part of, because I have a question:

During the introduction of the game, the player is given the option of which side they want to join, between Yorkist Red Rose and Lancastrian White Rose.  You can play the other side after you beat the game.  Just from your own knowledge of impression of history, or lack thereof, what side should I join in the War of the Roses, the Red Rose or the White Rose?

superncvas  asked:

june 27 if your still doing the birthday thing :)

1430: Birth of Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter and Lancastrian leader: “Exeter was for a time Constable of the Tower of London, and afterwards the rack there came to be called “the Duke of Exeter’s daughter”.

1556: “The thirteen Stratford Martyrs are burned at the stake near London for their Protestant beliefs.”

1693: 1st woman’s magazine “Ladies’ Mercury” published (London)

1939: “One of the most famous scenes in movie history is filmed–Rhett Butler and Scarlett O’Hara parting in Gone with the Wind. Director Victor Fleming also shot the scene using the alternate line, “Frankly, my dear, I just don’t care,” in case the film censors objected to the word “damn.” The censors approved the movie but fined producer David O. Selznick $5,000 for including the curse.”

ASK MEME: YOUR BIRTHDAY FOR SOME HISTORIC EVENTS ON THAT DAY ❤️

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THE WOODVILLE SONS

When in 1437 the young and beautiful Jacquetta of Luxembourg, widow of John Duke of Bedford, married a common knight, Richard Woodville, she astonished everyone by choosing love instead of duty. Out of this love match came at least 14 children, 6 of whom were boys. There are no records found on the date of birth of any of the Woodville children so the year of their birth is but speculation.

Lewis Woodville °ca 1438. Though he had survived the dangerous years of infancy he died in childhood, most likely from a fever.

Anthony Woodville °ca 1440. The oldest surviving son of the Woodvilles is likely the most popular as well. He was knighted before he came of age by the Lancastrian King Henry VI for whom he fought his last battle in 1461 at Towton, after this he pledged his loyalty to the new king Edward IV. Even before this battle, Anthony had married Lady Elizabeth Scales, daughter of  Lord Thomas Scales, and through this marriage he inherited the title of Lord Scales. When in 1464 his sister Elizabeth Woodville married the young king Edward IV, Anthony became an important figure at the royal court and a trusted adviser to the King. In 1467 he would participate in a legendary duel against The Bastard of Burgundy which lasted two days and neither of them won. In the next years he would receive many honorary titles such as Lieutenant of Calais, Captain of the King’s Armada and 2nd Earl Rivers. Unfortunately the last title was bestowed upon him after the death of his father, who was beheaded alongside his brother John in 1469 on command of the King’s cousin Richard of Warwick, who had helped the king gain his throne years earlier but had now turned against him. Edward was able to reconcile with Warwick but only for a short while, as he rebelled again in 1470 and this time he was successful. While Warwick restored King Henry VI upon the throne, Edward was forced to flee into exile to Flanders and Anthony was among the men who joined him. Queen Elizabeth Woodville then fled into sanctuary where she gave birth to a boy named Edward, after his father. In 1471 Edward returned to England and once again Anthony stood by him to regain his throne and in April of that year Edward was King again. The boy that had been born in sanctuary was made Prince of Wales and Anthony was named his guardian. This was a great honour and clear sign of trust from the royal couple. Anthony had a great passion for religion, literature, poetry and other arts. He would go on a pilgrimage in 1475 in Italy and when he returned he was most devoted to introduce the printing-press in England.  He remarried to Mary FitzLewis in 1480 but the marriage was short-lived. After Edward IV’s death on April 9th 1483, his brother Richard of Gloucester was named Lord Protector and he soon accused Anthony of treason. He was beheaded alongside his nephew Richard Grey and Edward V’s chamberlain Thomas Vaughan on the 25th of June 1483 at Pontefract. He left no legitimate issue but had one illegitimate daughter Margaret, who was likely born before his first marriage. She was married to Robert Poyntz, one of the executors of Anthony’s will. The last legacy Anthony left, was the poem he wrote while awaiting his execution. To this day Anthony is described as a chivalrous knight and a honourable, devoted man.  

John Woodville °ca 1444. Described as 20 years old when he married the wealthy widow Katherine Neville, sister to King Edward’s mother, in January 1465. By some the marriage was described as ‘diabolic’ since the bride was in her sixties. Though nothing seems to support the notion that she was forced to marry the young bachelor and she was likely on good terms with the Woodvilles. As part of his sister’s coronation ceremonies, John was made knight of the Bath on 23th of May 1465. He was also appointed as her royal Master of Horse and much like his father and older brother he was a skillful jouster. However Edward IV’s marriage to John’s sister had caused uproar as the Woodvilles were children of but a common knight. Especially the powerful Earl of Warwick, Richard Neville, cousin to the young king, was enormously displeased with this match and his loss of influence. During the first rebellion he led against his cousin Edward, John and his father were captured and beheaded by Warwick on August 1469.

Richard Woodville °ca 1445. Of all the Woodville sons, it seems most difficult to determine when Richard, named after his father, was born, with some sources claiming he was the second youngest son, born in 1453. However it seems he was already involved in ceremonies and expeditions early in Edward IV’s reign. He was knighted alongside his brother John but never received any more titles or riches from the King or his sister. Though he was likely on good terms with Edward IV as he was present at his funeral in April 1483. Richard supported the rebellion against the King’s brother Richard of Gloucester, later Richard III, but it is unknown how strongly he played a part in uprisings and how he escaped the same fate as his brother Anthony and nephew Richard Grey. He was however robbed from his land and therefor his title as 3rd Earl Rivers but he never fled abroad, although some suggest he took sanctuary. He was pardoned by Richard III in March 1485 but did not regain his lands and it is unclear whether he joined, like his younger brother Edward and nephew Thomas Grey, Henry Tudor’s forces later that year during the Battle at Bosworth. With Richard III defeated, the new king Henry VII returned his estates to Richard Woodville and he finally became 3rd Earl Rivers. He was the last of the Woodville sons to die on March 6 1491, without legitimate issue, in his will he bequeathed his lands to his nephew Thomas Grey.

Lionel Woodville °ca 1450. While most of the brothers were focused on a military career, Lionel’s main interests lay elsewhere. He was a man devoted to God and knowledge. He was educated in Oxford and would be elected as its chancellor in 1479 for which he was rewarded with a doctoral degree in canon law, he already held a bachelor degree in the same field. He was also made Dean of Exeter Cathedral. On 7th of January 1482 he was made Bishop of Salisbury and while his royal affiliations definitely helped, it was rather common than exceptional for a Bishop not to rely on advantageous connections for his promotion. He likely attended Edward IV’s burial, but quickly returned to Oxford and was therefor not involved in the rumored conspiracy against Richard of Gloucester where his brother Anthony would be arrested and killed for. Records claim he sought sanctuary with his sister Dowager Queen Elizabeth Woodville in Westminster Abbey, but it was probably rather briefly, as he left it again the same month, seemingly on good terms with Richard of Gloucester. However the growing distrust between the now crowned Richard III and the Woodville family, caused Lionel to join the October rebellion along with the infamous Duke of Buckingham, who had been a trusted figure at Richard III’s court up until that point. The rebellion failed and Lionel fled once again into sanctuary, this time in Beaulieu Abbey. In March 1484, when his sister and nieces left sanctuary it seems he remained where he was, making arrangements for successors for all of his positions. He died the same year although the exact moment or the cause are unknown. 

Edward Woodville °ca 1454. He was created Knight of the Bath alongside his nephew the Prince of Wales Edward in 1475, this marked the beginning of a colourful career. He participated at tournaments, sat at his nephew’s council and fought under Richard of Gloucester’s command against Scotland in 1482, where he was made a knight banneret. After taking part in Edward IV’s funeral services, Edward was appointed by Edward V’s council to deal with the French forces, who were taking advantage of the vulnerable state England was in now that the King had died, that were heading towards England. It was while he was at sea that his brother Anthony and nephew Richard Grey were seized and later Richard of Gloucester would demand his arrest as well. Edward managed to escape and later joined Henry Tudor in exile. He fought for him during the Battle at Bosworth and shared his victory. He seemed to have gained the trust of the new King, as he was closely involved in many ceremonies and councils and was made captain of the Isle of Wight. Edward called himself ‘Lord Scales’ when he went to fight the Moors army in Granada in 1486. There is discussion whether he had the right to call himself so, but the will of his brother Anthony does state that he bequeathed the title to his brother Edward. In 1487 during the Lambert Simnel rebellion, he fought and won once again by King Henry VII’s side. He was made Knight of the Garter the following year. In May 1488 Edward asked Henry’s permission to assist the Duke of Brittany in fighting the French, however Henry refused as he had hoped to keep peace with France. Edward returned to the Isle of Wight and raised an army anyway. Henry seemed to have changed his mind and send reinforcements to Brittany however they came too late. Edward’s entire army, including himself had been killed during battle on the 27th of July 1488. He is now described as the last Knight Errant, from whom the impact on the political landscape in Medieval Europe is often overlooked.

Today in one of my college classes we discussed a time period in which the Wars of the Roses existed. The Wars of the Roses were a series of battles fought in medieval England from 1455-85 between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. The name Wars of the Roses is based on the badges used by the two sides, the red rose for the Lancastrians and the white rose for the Yorkists.
I think that it could be possible this ties into season 5. All through out the season so far we see them wearing mostly Red(Regina) and White(Emma). In almost every episode this season we see these colors on the women.

The way the long feud between the two families, on who was to be ruler of their lands, ended with one of each family coming together and getting married.

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♔  T H E  W A R S  O F  T H E  R O S E S  ♔

1464 - 1478: THE MIDDLE

Women and children of so high a courage,
And warriors faint! why, ‘twere perpetual shame.

Henry VI, Part 3 (5.4.50-51)

KEY YORKIST FEMALE FIGURES DURING THIS PERIOD:

❀ Elizabeth Woodville, Queen of England - married Edward IV secretly sometime in May 1464, the match was frowned upon by both Richard Neville and the Privy Council as “she was no wife for a prince such as himself" being years older and with two sons from her first Lancastrian marriage; was unpopular in the court due to her large host of siblings and extended family seen to be monopolising all the positions of importance; fled to sanctuary during Henry VI’s restoration where she gave birth to Edward, Prince of Wales
❀ Jacquetta Woodville - mother of Elizabeth Woodville, Queen of England; widow of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers; widow of John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford; accused of witchcraft in 1470 and posthumously in 1484; died on the 30th of May 1472
❀ Alice de la Pole, Duchess of Suffolk - former lady in waiting to Margaret of Anjou; Castellan of Wallingford; Custodian of Margaret of Anjou; died in 1475
❀ Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick - widow of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick who died at the Battle of Barnet; fled into sanctuary at Beaulieu Abbey until 1473 when she went to live with her daughter, Anne; Anne’s inheritance was then carved up by her sons-in-law “as though she were naturally dead”
❀ Anne Neville, Duchess of Gloucester - widow of Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales, who died at the Battle of Tewkesbury; then married Richard, Duke of Gloucester
❀ Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence - wife of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence; died of either consumption or childbed fever on the 22nd of December 1476
❀ Cecily Neville, Duchess of York - widow of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York; mother to Edward IV of England; tried to act as peacemaker between George, Duke of Clarence and Edward IV in 1469 despite the rumours being spread about her being an adulteress by Richard Neville, who supported George and his claim to the throne
❀ Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter - ex-wife of Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter; Anne remained loyal to her brother Edward during Henry VI’s restoration and persuaded her brother George, Duke of Clarence to turn back to York; wife of Thomas St. Leger; died giving birth to Anne St. Leger on the 14th of January 1476

BATTLES:

♔ Battle of Hedgeley Moor - 25th of April 1464
♔ Battle of Hexham - 15th of May 1464
♔ Battle of Edgecote Moor - 26th of July 1469
♔ Battle of Losecoat Field - 12th of March 1470
♔ Battle of Barnet - 14th of April 1471
♔ Battle of Tewkesbury - 4th of May 1471

6

♔  T H E  W A R S  O F  T H E  R O S E S  ♔

1478 - 1487: THE END

Windy attorneys to their client woes,
Airy succeeders of intestate joys,
Poor breathing orators of miseries,
Let them have scope; though what they will impart
Help nothing else, yet do they case the heart.

If so, then be not tongue-tied. Go with me,
And in the breath of bitter words let’s smother
My damned son that thy two sweet sons smother’d.
The trumpet sounds; be copious in exclaims.

Richard III (4.4.6)

KEY LANCASTRIAN FEMALE FIGURES DURING THIS PERIOD:

❁ Elizabeth Woodville, Queen Dowager of England - queen consort to Edward IV until his untimely death in April 1483; engaged in a power struggle with Richard of Gloucester and his supporters over Edward V’s minority whilst leading the Woodville faction; fled into sanctuary when her son Richard Grey and brother Anthony Woodville were imprisoned and accused of plotting against Richard whilst escorting Edward V from Wales to London; allegedly involved in a conspiracy with William Hastings to bring down Richard during his stint as Lord Protector; her marriage to Edward IV was declared illegitimate as well as her children by her second marriage in the Titulus Regius in 1483 which resulted in her being known as “Dame Elizabeth Grey”; engaged in Buckingham’s Rebellion in 1483 and allied herself with Margaret Beaufort against the new Yorkist regime as her two sons by Edward IV disappeared under mysterious circumstances whilst under Richard’s protection; brokered a marriage alliance with Margaret Beaufort between Henry Tudor and her eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York; left sanctuary on the 1st of March 1484 following a promise from Richard III that her daughters would not be harmed and was outwardly reconciled to Richard’s reign; following the Battle of Bosworth all titles and honours due to her as Queen Dowager were reinstated and the Titulus Regius was repealed; she retired to Bermondsey Abbey in 1487 possibly due to fear of her potential involvement in the Lambert Simnel rebellion or simply to seek a quiet, contemplative religious life in her final years
❁ Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby - also informally known as My Lady, The King’s Mother; married to Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby; Margaret served as godmother to one of Elizabeth Woodville’s daughters and was in favour at court prior to Edward IV’s death; upon the accession to the throne of Richard III in 1483 she carried new queen, Anne Neville’s train at her coronation; heavily involved in Buckingham’s Rebellion as she acted as a negotiator for her son Henry Tudor whilst he was exiled in Brittany; successfully arranged a betrothal between her son and Elizabeth of York with Elizabeth Woodville following news of the princes in the tower’s apparent disappearance and murder; was not fully attainted as a result of the rebellion’s failure but suffered greatly as all her titles and estates were stripped from her in an act of parliament and given to her husband by Richard III; following her son’s victory at Bosworth she regained all her former status and more as her son passed an act in parliament which enabled her to hold properties independently as if she were unmarried; Margaret was very proud of her status as My Lady, The King’s Mother and as a result wielded enormous influence with her son and in court as well as appearing almost equal in status to queen Elizabeth of York and dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville
❁ Cecily of York, Viscountess Welles - daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville; named a Lady of the Garter in 1480; was intended to be betrothed to James IV of Scotland but political hostilities between England and Scotland made that impossible; on the 11th of June 1482 she was betrothed by the Treaty of Fotheringhay to Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany, the exiled younger brother of James III of Scotland and possible contender to the Scottish throne; with Edward IV’s death in 1483, her brothers’ deposition and disappearance, as well as the subsequent passing of the Titulus Regius, this marriage arrangement went to the wayside; during Richard III’s reign she fled into sanctuary with her mother and siblings until 1484; Richard then married her to Ralph Scrope, 9th Baron Scrope of Masham to nullify her as a potential marriage prospect in treaties and alliances for the Woodvilles; upon the Tudor victory at the Battle of Bosworth, Cecily’s marriage was annulled and she was a back up of sorts should something happen to her older sister Elizabeth and her marriage to the new Henry VII of England; in 1487 Henry VII married her to John Welles, 1st Viscount Welles, a staunch supporter of Henry and Margaret Beaufort’s half-brother; As a courtier Cecily attended her sister Elizabeth of York at her coronation as queen consort, carried her nephew Arthur, Prince of Wales, at his christening and struck up an important friendship with Margaret Beaufort
❁ Catherine Woodville, Duchess of Buckingham - married to Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham until his execution following his rebellion in 1483; her political thoughts and motivations are not known for this time but it can be assumed that she would have supported the Woodvilles as her husbands favour until his treason protected her to an extent; following Henry Tudor’s victory at the Battle of Bosworth Catherine was married to his uncle, Jasper Tudor, the newly created Duke of Bedford on the 7th of November 1485
❁ Elizabeth of York, Queen of England - the eldest daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville; was betrothed to the future Charles VIII of France until the arrangement was reneged on in 1482; upon her father’s death in 1483 she fled into sanctuary with her mother and siblings whilst her brother was lodged in the Tower of London ostensibly for his protection by Richard of Gloucester, Lord Protector; after the Titulus Regius passed through parliament Elizabeth was declared illegitimate as her parents marriage was invalidated; following rumours of her brothers demise, her mother and Margaret Beaufort allied themselves together and arranged a betrothal between Elizabeth and Henry Tudor, which Henry swore an oath to in Rennes Cathedral; Elizabeth left sanctuary at the beginning of 1484 and returned to court; after Anne Neville’s death Elizabeth was sent to Sheriff Hutton by Richard III whilst he negotiated for her to marry the future King Manuel I of Portugal; this was also to stop rumours circulating that Richard intended to marry Elizabeth following Anne’s death, rumours which cannot be proved in any case; following Henry’s victory at the Battle of Bosworth he claimed the throne by right of conquest and later married Elizabeth of York to strengthen his claim, as the Beaufort claim was tenuous and Elizabeth could potentially, had she wanted to, have claimed the throne as queen regnant; Henry VII had the Titulus Regius repealed so he could marry Elizabeth, which he did on the 18th of January 1486; Elizabeth gave birth to their first son, Arthur, on the 20th of September 1486; Elizabeth of York was finally crowned queen consort on the 25 November 1487; her marriage to Henry, despite being arranged for political purposes, eventually became a love match; Elizabeth did not wield much influence as queen, possibly due to her extremely influential mother-in-law
❁ Cecily Bonville, 7th Baroness Harington - suo jure 7th Baroness Harington of Aldingham and suo jure 2nd Baroness Bonville; wife of Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset, the son of Elizabeth Woodville by her first marriage to Sir John Grey of Groby; Elizabeth Woodville bought Cecily’s wardship from her stepfather, William Hastings, to facilitate the marriage; The marriage accord stipulated that were Thomas to die prior to the consummation of the marriage, Cecily would then marry his younger brother Sir Richard Grey, this was validated by an act of parliament; following Edward IV’s death in 1483, the passing of the Titulus Regius and the summary execution of her stepfather, Cecily’s mother was placed under Richard III’s protection; Despite his siblings being declared bastards and his mother being publicly shamed, Thomas and Cecily both attended Richard III’s coronation; following this Cecily’s husband joined Buckingham’s rebellion and upon its failure fled to Brittany and Tudor, leaving Cecily alone in England; following Henry Tudor’s victory at Bosworth both Cecily and Thomas were present at Henry’s coronation and the attainder on Thomas was lifted the following month, putting them back in royal favour; Cecily was also present at Henry VII and Elizabeth of York’s marriage and chosen to carry Arthur Tudor’s train at his christening as well as Elizabeth’s coronation; Cecily had fourteen children with Thomas Grey

BATTLES:

♔ Buckingham’s rebellion - 24th of September 1483
♔ Battle of Bosworth Field - 22nd of August 1485
♔ Battle of Stoke Field - 16th of June 1487