lancastrian

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The White Queen + families.
     → additional families : Tudors, Greys, Lancasters. 

« The war between the houses of Lancaster and York for the throne of England was charactorised by treachery, deceit and at St Albans, Blore Hill and Towton, some of the bloodiest and most dramatic battles on England’s soil. Between 1455 and 1487 the royal coffers were bankrupted and the conflict resulted in the downfall of the houses of Lancaster and York and the emergence of the illustrious Tudor dynasty. » ― Alison Weir, Lancaster and York: The Wars of the Roses.

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HOUSE OF LANCASTER
“We are Lancastrians. We beg for nothing.”

The House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet. The first house was created when Henry III of England created the Earldom of Lancaster—from which the house was named—for his second son Edmund Crouchback in 1267. The second house of Lancaster was descended from John of Gaunt, who married the heiress of the first house.

in this gifset: earls + dukes + kings + the Beauforts (illegitimate line)

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May 22nd 1455: First Battle of St. Albans

On this day in 1455, the Wars of the Roses began with the First Battle of St Albans in Hertfordshire, England. The wars were fought between the rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet who were competing for the English throne: the houses of Lancaster and York. The First Battle of St Albans resulted in Yorkist victory, with Richard, Duke of York defeating the Lancastrians (led by Edmund, Duke of Somerset) and capturing King Henry VI. The wars continued until 1485 and led to the founding of the Tudor dynasty, as the Lancastrian Henry Tudor (Henry VII) defeated the last Yorkist King Richard III and married a Yorkist. Richard III was killed at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, and his remains were only found in 2012 under a car park in Leicester; in 2015 the last Plantagenet King was ceremoniously reburied, 530 years after his death.

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this is my destiny: to put my son on the throne of england, and those who laughed at my visions and doubted my vocation will call me my lady, the king’s mother. i shall sign myself margaret regina, margaret the queen.

22 August 1485: Henry Tudor and his Lancastrian forces defeat Richard III’s Yorkist army at the Battle of Bosworth Field and end the War of Roses.

Today’s the 600th anniversary of the battle of Azincourt, also known by redcoats as the battle of Agincourt.
Well fuck that I’m French so Imma do some resistance up this bitch, here’s how the Hundred Years’ War ended. It’s not even the same phase of the Lancastrian war but who cares it didn’t last exactly a hundred years either.

Prologue

It was the last act of the war, and Charles VII of France had taken all English territories in France except for Calais - duh - and some Channel islands - but who cares about those. That included Bordeaux, only the Bordelais were not too keen on that state of thing after more than three centuries of uninterrupted - terrupted ? - English rule, so they called on their former overlord for help.
Said overlord Henry VI of England thus sent john Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury and 3000 fighters to retake the city, which he did easily thanks to the compliance of the citizens. From this base of operation, much of Western Gascony came back under the Plantagenets’ kittied banner, to the great dismay of Charles VII who was just done reuniting the country. Plus it’s were wine comes from I think. He just couldn’t take the blow and surrendered.
Nah just kidding he sent his best guy to raze the town and every other that had surrendered to British rule.

Cast

English commander John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, knight of the Order of the Garter, aka the English Achilles. Captured in 1449, he was released on the promise of never wearing an armour in battle against the King of France again, which didn’t stop him from actually fighting the guy, which he did, often, all the while being 66.

British army : between 6000 and 10000 chaps.

French commander Jean Bureau, governor of the French archers, master of ordinance and master gunner of king Charles VII, receiver of Paris, treasurer of France and mayor of Bordeaux under French rule. Perfection in the process of corning and casting made his culverins all the more deadlier as he was already known as a methodical, mathematical mind and an imaginative technician ; basically the guy you’d hate playing risk with. Even if you win he’d probably just beat you to death with that stick.

French army : between 7000 and 10000 dudes.

Not the Battle just Quite Yet

On the 8th of June John Talbot was amassing troops, including one of his own son, when whoever in charge in Bordeaux came to find him. Castillon was under siege not far from here, so he had to do something or some shit.
Meanwhile in Castillon, Jean Bureau was laying some serious punishment on the city. He set up camp out of reach of the town’s walls, dug massive earthworks in zig-zag patterns that would have made Vauban proud and had his 300 cannons fire at will. Remembering previous events at the battle of Formigny some years earlier, when his guns were lost to an audacious British sally, he sent a small vanguard of archers in the woods nearby.
John Talbot left Bordeaux on the 16th of the same month and arrived by nightfall.

The Actual Thing

The 17th, John Talbot met the French vanguard with a force of 1300 men-at-arms and mounted archers - he had outpaced the rest of his troops - and promptly fucked it up. Now the fight would have assuredly had warned the French army of their presence, so he was confronted with two choices : either pressing his advantage and charging straight into it like a baller, or wait for reinforcement like a sane person. Deciding to stay true to himself, and seeing the cloud of dust coming from the East as a sign that the French were retreating, he and his men yelled a bit to get their blood pumping and marched on.
Little did they know that the cloud of dust was only caused by the sheer amount of camp followers leaving the French camp like as many elephants sensing a tsunami coming down on their stupid trunked face.
What followed was pretty stupid, with Talbot apparently refusing to call off the attack out of pride, and the British army only slowly catching up with its commander’s aggressive tactics, the Britons were torn apart with each cannon shot reported to go through six of them. This only stopped when the Duke of Brittany and a thousand knights stomped over what was left and would have sent Talbot and his son running if not for the fact that both of them had been dead for quite some time, the old commander having had his horse shot from under him, pinning him down for a French archer to kill with an axe.

Aftermath

English casualties : 4000 dead, wounded or captured (40-66%)

French casualties : 100 dead or wounded (1-1.4%)

John Talbot dead, Henry VI mad and Charles VII on a roll led to the extinction of English rule in Southern France. Bordeaux surrendered after Jean bureau calmly told their ambassadors that he could raze the city in ten days would it come to it. Angry nobles impoverished by these losses went on to be a major factor in the War of the Roses, and other nobles in France would get hanged, quartered, and cut into small bits for forest critters to eat in a massive royal update on what “loyauté” means. At long last everything was right in Europe.
Except you know there was the fall of Constantinople but that’s no concern of mine.

“It was a bit like My Fair Lady, but with donkeys.”

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Queens of England + Elizabeth Woodville (1437-1492)

Elizabeth was born 1437, the eldest daughter of Richard Woodville and Jacquetta of Luxembourg. At the time of her birth, her family was mid-ranked in the English aristocracy and supported the House of Lancaster. In 1452 Elizabeth married Sir John Grey of Groby. He died in 1461 at the Second Battle of St. Albans, supporting the Lancastrian cause. Elizabeth was left a widow with two children, Thomas and Richard. 

How Elizabeth and Edward IV first met is uncertain but it’s likely they were acquainted with each other from court. When she became destitute after her husband’s death, she petitioned the king by waiting under a tree with her two sons in area where the king was hunting. Edward, a notorious womanizer, was won over by Elizabeth’s beauty, but she remained indifferent to him until he offered marriage. They were secretly married in May 1464 and it became only the second time since the Norman Conquest that an English king married one of his subjects. 

Elizabeth’s marriage to Edward upset the plans of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, who had played a great part in helping Edward win the throne. Warwick was offended by Edward’s actions as he had been negotiating a marriage alliance with France. The relationship between the two would never fully recover. In 1469 he and Edward’s brother, George, Duke of Clarence, outright rebelled against the king. Edward was forced to flee England to avoid capture and Elizabeth was left alone with her mother to fend for herself.

Elizabeth fled to Westminster Abbey and took sanctuary with her three young daughters, Elizabeth, Mary, and Cecily. She was also pregnant and in November 1470, still in sanctuary, she gave birth to a long-awaited son, Edward. In April 1471, her husband returned to England and crushed the rebellion. 

By the time Edward died in 1483, he and Elizabeth had a total of ten children. Their eldest son became Edward V and for two months Elizabeth was queen dowager. Edward’s youngest brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, served as Lord Protector. In June 1483 he seized power and sent Elizabeth’s sons Edward and Richard to the Tower. In an act of Parliament, Titulus Regius, he declared Elizabeth’s marriage to Edward illegitimate and all her children with him bastards. Elizabeth took sanctuary as Richard declared himself king and she would never again see her younger sons.

Elizabeth conspired to free her sons from the Tower and restore Edward V, but her plans changed when she was told that they were murdered. She allied herself with Margaret Beaufort, the mother of Henry Tudor who the last legitimate Lancastrian heir. To strengthen Henry’s claim and unite the feuding houses of Lancaster and York, they agreed that he would marry Elizabeth’s eldest daughter and namesake. In 1484 Elizabeth and her daughters came out of sanctuary after Richard publicly swore an oath that her daughters would not be harmed, molested, or imprisoned. 

In 1485 Henry Tudor invaded England and defeated Richard. He married Elizabeth of York as agreed upon and had Titulus Regius revoked. Elizabeth was returned to her status as queen dowager. She stayed at Henry’s court until 1487 when she retired to Bermondsey Abbey. She died in 1492 and was laid to rest with Edward IV in St. George’s Chapel in Windsor Castle. (x)

Today in history - The death of Henry VII {21 April 1509}

“Here is situated Henry VII, the glory of all the kings who lived in his time by reason of his intellect, his riches, and the fame of his exploits, to which were added the gifts of bountiful nature, a distinguished brow, an august face, an heroic stature. Joined to him his sweet wife was very pretty, chaste and fruitful. They were parents happy in their offspring, to whom, land of England, you owe Henry VIII”.

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22 AUGUST 1485: Henry Tudor and his Lancastrian forces defeat Richard III’s Yorkist army at the Battle of Bosworth Field thus ending the Wars of the Roses.

According to tradition, the crown that Richard had worn in battle was found lying under a hawthorn bush. It was brought to Lord Stanley, and Henry’s stepfather, who had maintained his record of failing to serve in any battles of the Wars of the Roses, ceremonially placed it on Henry’s head, declaring him to be King Henry VII. For Henry, who had defeated a rival with a considerably better claim to the throne than his own, it was his moment of greatest glory. For Margaret, in Lancashire, it was also a triumph, and Henry’s success owed a great deal to her belief in him and her promotion of his interests. – Elizabeth Norton, Margaret Beaufort, Mother of the Tudor Dynasty

Cumberbatch outrageously steals every scene in The Hollow Crown - first look review  

by Jasper Rees for THE TELEGRAPH - March 30, 2016

The Henry VI trilogy comprises the least loved of Shakespeare’s histories. In the theatre their contorted politics – featuring many characters named after counties and cathedrals – can have the feel of a marathon run in a maze.

The latest instalment of The Hollow Crown – following on from the four plays, culminating in Henry V, which the BBC adapted in 2012 - has tidied the Henry VI plays into two two-hour films. The result, as spied from a press screening this week before the films’ broadcast in early May, is moreishly thrilling – and features a dazzling turn from one of the most talked about actors of our age.

The grand narrative arc of more than a century of dynastic conflict between Yorkists and Lancastrians is brought compellingly into focus by Ben Power’s streamlined adaptation. We rejoin the story with Henry VI (Tom Sturridge) now the nominal monarch but all power vested in his uncle, Henry V’s brother Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (Hugh Bonneville). By the end of the first film, with much blood already spilled, the spectre of hellishness to come looms in the crooked silhouette of the Duke of York’s third son, summoned into the story.

As the young Richard, Benedict Cumberbatch has only supporting player status, before he will have his time in the third film in the new series, Richard III, yet to be previewed. In Henry VI, his part may be small but he outrageously steals every scene he’s in. His Richard, at first an eager-eyed tag-along, is the product of horrors. A silent witness to his little brother’s murder, his bloodlust twists into axe-wielding malevolence the closer he edges to the throne. It is a gripping account of pure psychopathy. Adding to the sense of menace, he confides his darkest thoughts directly to camera. When at the end of the second film he cradles the new-born son of his brother Edward IV, you know exactly what’s coming next. “I can murder while I smile,” he purrs. It’s from this son of York that Frank Underwood got all his best power moves.

As ever with The Hollow Crown, the cast consists of everyone you’ve ever heard of. Some such as Anton Lesser and Samuel West are to the manor born. It takes slightly longer to get used to Bonneville or Keeley Hawes speaking iambic pentameter. A standout is Sophie Okonedo, who towers as Henry VI’s ferocious French queen Margaret who, Dynasty-style, bitch-slaps Sally Hawkins’s Duchess of Gloucester.

The 2012 instalments of The Hollow Crown were shot by three directors. The saga’s conclusion is all in the hands of debut film director, and theatre old timer, Dominic Cooke. With so much talent on show, he sometimes isn’t sure which way to look, and chops between a formal fixed camera and prowling handheld. There’s even a helmetcam and, briefly, a falconcam. But he has a theatre native’s deep trust that the best special effects are all in the language.

People will talk of these films’ timeliness as the UK rips itself apart over the Referendum. But for all the fretting over Englishness, The Hollow Crown is finally a study of paternity and kingship. Sturridge’s Henry VI is a peevish teen peacenik with a Christ complex. Geoffrey Streatfield’s Edward IV is a manly roustabout. The stage is set for Cumberbatch’s sinful turn on the throne.

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Queens of England 1445-1603

“Life is very beautiful”

I’ve seen often the pain that Queens suffer giffed and edited but rarely do we see them edited as happy. While yes being Queen made their lives harder they also experienced great moments of joy as well. We should remember their happiness as well.

Margaret of Anjou- Queen Consort- 1445- 1461 and again from 1470-1471

Elizabeth Woodville- Queen Consort- 1464-1470 and again from 1471-1483

Anne Neville- Queen Consort 1483-1485

Elizabeth of York- Queen Consort- 1486-1503

Catherine of Aragon- Queen Consort 1509-1533

Anne Boleyn- Queen Consort 1533-1536

Jane Seymour Queen Consort 1536-1537

Anne of Cleves- Queen Consort 1540

Katherine Howard- Queen Consort 1540-1541

Katherine Parr- Queen Consort 1543-1547

Mary I of England- Queen Regnant- 1553-1558

Elizabeth I of England- Queen Regnant- 1558-1603

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♔  T H E  W A R S  O F  T H E  R O S E S  ♔

1464 - 1478: THE MIDDLE

She-wolf of France, but worse than wolves of France,
Whose tongue more poisons than the adder’s tooth!
How ill-beseeming is it in thy sex
To triumph, like an Amazonian trull,
Upon their woes whom fortune captivates!
But that thy face is, vizard-like, unchanging,
Made impudent with use of evil deeds,
I would assay, proud queen, to make thee blush.

Henry VI, Part 3 (1.4.111-118)

KEY LANCASTRIAN FEMALE FIGURES DURING THIS PERIOD:

❁ Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England - leader of the Lancastrian faction; commanded Lancastrian forces at the Battle of Tewkesbury; imprisoned after the battle and ransomed to the French in 1475
❁ Katherine Vaux, Lady of Great Harrowden - lady-in-waiting to Margaret of Anjou, followed her into imprisonment and exile before returning to England
❁ Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence - wife of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence; died of either consumption or childbed fever on the 22nd of December 1476
❁ Margaret Beaufort, Baroness Stanley - widow of Sir Henry Stafford who died of his wounds after the Battle of Barnet; then married Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby
❁ Anne Neville, Duchess of Gloucester - widow of Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales, who died at the Battle of Tewkesbury; then married Richard, Duke of Gloucester
❁ Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick - widow of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick who died at the Battle of Barnet; fled into sanctuary at Beaulieu Abbey until 1473 when she went to live with her daughter, Anne; Anne’s inheritance was then carved up by her sons-in-law “as though she were naturally dead”

BATTLES:

♔ Battle of Hedgeley Moor - 25th of April 1464
♔ Battle of Hexham - 15th of May 1464
♔ Battle of Edgecote Moor - 26th of July 1469
♔ Battle of Losecoat Field - 12th of March 1470
♔ Battle of Barnet - 14th of April 1471
♔ Battle of Tewkesbury - 4th of May 1471