lancaster and york

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“Having a fine time driving thru your home state of Pennsylvania. Now you can show the boys in the vault what the Amish look like. Saw a great many Dunkers here too. Everett White"
Lancaster, PA
Postmarked 1939

As someone who grew up in between Lancaster & York Counties in Pennsylvania and who spent my entire K-12 education in the same school district where the Jewish family was recently harassed into fleeing, I need all of you to understand that this isn’t some random rural fringe population at a small, out of touch school. The school in question is a large elementary school in a very large school district serving a wide and economically diverse population in a county that has been gradually transitioning between rural and suburban for a long time. This particular school has a very large middle class population, and when I attended years ago, antisemitic attitudes were the norm (“You’re such a Jew” routinely used as an insult, the Holocaust was mocked, random swastikas carved into desks, etc.).

I somehow doubt Breitbart just happened upon this school so much as I suspect this story was actively reported to them by parents with kids who attended.

If you’re a middle class, suburban American, you cannot read this story about the Hempfield School District and think “boy more of the rural poor freaks out in Trump country.” This isn’t the case here. This is middle class rural suburbia. And it’s where people voted for Trump. And it’s where people harassed and chased out a Jewish family with a fabricated story about them putting an end to their school play.

A Historical Make Me Choose/Talk About Master-Meme

(Because there aren’t enough let’s face it)

Make me choose:

1. Between two historical figures

2. Between two historical ‘periods’, reigns or eras

3. Between two conflicts

4. Between two historical objects

5. Between two historical pieces of clothing or fashion trends

6. Between two factions (anything from Lancaster and York to Whig and Tory)

7. Between two concepts (this is flexible)

8. Between two ‘areas’ of history (social, economic, military, et.c.)

9. Between two forms of transport or specific vehicles (the Mary Rose, penny farthing)

10. Between two general objects (cannons, dolls, knives)

11. Between two dishes or foods

12. Between two historians

13. Between two events

14. Between two historical couples

15. Anything you want

Talk About:

1. See the Make Me Choose Section (favourite figure, couple, place, e.t.c.)

2. Something about your own family’s history

3. A historical theory, trope, or misconception you HATE

4. A historical event you wish you’d been a fly on the wall for

5. A historical figure who you think is overrated

6. A historical figure you think is underrated

7. The oldest thing you can see from where you are sitting (can be a person).

8.  A favourite random historical anecdote or fact

9. A historical myth/legend/rumour/story (flexible)

10. Something historical related to where you live

11. Something historical related to where you were born

12. Somewhere historical you’ve been

13. Somewhere historical you’d like to go

14. A historical form of a language or dead language you wish you could speak/hear spoken

15. A historical headcanon you have

16. A piece of heraldry, historical symbol, badge, flag, e.t.c. you like/associate with

17.  A historical figure you would most like to meet in their own time

18. A historical figure you would most like to bring to the modern day

19.  Historical dinner party (who would you invite, who would you seat next to each other, what would you talk about- GO)

20. Free choice

Feel free to add your own!

Princess Elizabeth of York & Henry Tudor.

Though their lives before 1485 could not have been more different, Henry and Elizabeth would be tossed together after Henry’s surprising victory at Bosworth made him King Henry VII. A betrothal had been arranged previously, but one must wonder how much hope Elizabeth had placed in Henry ever being capable of claiming his bride.

He did. On January 18, 1486, the couple was married in a stunning ceremony that was carefully designed to draw together any remnant of Lancaster or York rebels. The peace that the couple hoped to instill in England was undoubtedly one of the things that drew them together.

Evidence of their happiness appeared a short 8 months after their marriage when their greatest hope for the future was born. Prince Arthur was likely born prematurely, possibly even conceived on Henry and Elizabeth’s wedding night. The royal couple praised God and asked his blessings on their future as they welcomed this sure signal from God that their union had His favor.

Their faith is another element of Henry and Elizabeth’s relationship that would have drawn them close together. When Henry landed at Mill Bay to begin his conquest of England, he is recorded to have dropped to his knees and quoted Psalm 43, pleading “Judge me, O God, and distinguish my cause.” Upon meeting and quickly marrying Henry, Elizabeth would have done so because she saw it as God’s plan for her life and the best hope for her dwindling family.

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18 JANUARY 1486: The Union of the Red and the White Rose:

On January 18th, 1486 Henry VII married Elizabeth, Princess of York, eldest surviving daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. There is a not a lot of information regarding the wedding ceremony.  Henry VII had swore he would marry Elizabeth when he had been in exile in Brittany, at  Vannes Cathedral, three years prior. A lot had happened since then though. The papal dispensation that their mothers had secretly plotted to get had to be reissued. The papal dispensation covered the Earl of Richmond and the natural daughter of Elizabeth of York (meaning the Lady Elizabeth, not the legitimate daughter and heiress of Edward IV). It was vital that the couple married under the good eyes of the church. The fifteenth century had descended into chaos when two branches of the Plantagenet House had annihilated each other, their descendants had married off to other noble houses and as a result (after Bosworth), Henry claimed the crown. But he was not blind, conquering and ruling were two different things. He needed stability or at the very least, give the illusion of it to the people to put down civil unrest. Therefore he needed to marry Elizabeth who was the eldest living descendant of the first Yorkist King. The papal dispensation took time, and meanwhile Henry had to establish himself as the realm’s ruler. He established his claim to the throne through his “right of conquest” and his mother, Margaret Beaufort whose family descended from John of Gaunt via his third marriage to his mistress, Katherine Swynford. Nevertheless, his claim to the throne was still seen as weak, which was why parliament asked him on December 1485, two months after he had been crowned, to keep his promise to marry the Princess Elizabeth, and strengthen the claim of his descendants.  

“Marrying Edwards eldest daughter was essential to holding that support and trying to restore some stability to the English royal line.” (Jones, Hollow Crown) 

The pope had finally granted the dispensation at the beginning of the year, and it was confirmed in England by the papal legate, the Bishop of Imola on 16 January, two days later the coupe were married. 

The wedding ceremony was officiated by the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Bouchier. Given the statement that Henry wanted to make, as it was mentioned earlier, about their union; the Abbey would have been filled with Tudor imagery that Henry had created that gave a new interpretation of the dynastic conflict that is now known as the wars of the roses. By intertwining the white rose of York (Edward IV’s favorite symbol besides the sun in splendor) with the red rose, Henry VII’s union with Elizabeth meant to give a powerful message of peace. Illusory as it was, its impression lasted and their descendants continued to use this device and celebrate the union of their ancestors, Henry and Elizabeth. The building would have been decorated by royal colors such as “purple and gold, silk, ermine and delicate cloths of tissue.” And the bride, adds Licence: “would have been splendidly dressed and adorned with jewels, lace, brocade and ribbons.” She would not have worn white, given that white was not a color worn for wedding dresses.(The first royal bride who did was in fact her daughter-in-law, Katherine of Aragon, when she married Prince Arthur). Elizabeth would have likely worn purple as it symbolized royalty, or taken one of her many new gowns. 

After the archbishop placed the golden ring on Elizabeth, the couple said their vows. Following royal custom,  Elizabeth promised to take Henry as her husband “for fairer, for fouler, for better, for worse, for richer, for poorer, in sickness and in health, to be blithe and amiable, and obliging in bed and at board” till death do them part. 

“The wedding was celebrated in the customary fashion, with "wedding torches, marriage bed and other suitable decorations,” followed by “great magnificence … at the royal nuptials … Gifts flowed freely on all sides and were showered on everyone while feasts, dances and tournaments were celebrated with liberal generosity to … magnify the joyous occasion.” (Jones, Hollow Crown) 

Besides the expenses, that no doubt would have been great, Elizabeth would have seen the new rose, the Tudor rose in every corner as well as her husband’s other badges. By intertwining the white rose of York (Edward IV’s favorite symbol besides the sun in splendor) with the red rose, Henry VII’s union with Elizabeth meant to give a powerful message of peace. Illusory as it was, its impression lasted and their descendants continued to use this device and celebrate the union of their ancestors, Henry and Elizabeth. 

In recent fiction the two have been portrayed as an unhappy couple, pushed into the marriage by their shrewish mothers, but this is an interpretation based on secondary sources that have come many years (more than a century in fact) after the even took place. Francis Bacon writes very colorfully of Henry, and negatively of his mother but Francis was writing a century after the events took place and the two George Bucks themselves wrote even later. It is very easy to believe these sources, but if we want to look at the couple, we just have to look at their actions, at what they faced and what moral attitudes people had in this period.  

“For women of all social classes in the late fifteenth century, becoming a wife marked a significant change in status … Marriage and motherhood were the ultimate social goal, contracted for mutual benefit as well the advancement of an entire family. As the wife of the King, although not yet crowned in her own right, Elizabeth was the highest-ranking female in the land.” (Amy Licence, Elizabeth of York) 

A young woman such as Elizabeth would not have missed the opportunity to regain her status as Princess, and much less to be Queen. After being bastardized, and forced into hiding at Westminster, then in the midst of intrigue in the Ricardian court (with rumors -whether they are true or not, we will never know- that her uncle wanted to marry her shortly after his wife’s passing and he later recanted after people protested at such an idea that he began to look elsewhere for a bride, and a spouse for Elizabeth); she would have no doubt welcome this new change in status. Elizabeth was a Princess-born, she had at one point been betrothed to the heir to the French Crown. She could not accept no better offer than to be a Queen, as it would also bolster her family’s position as well and it did. Henry VII rewarded the Woodvilles. Richard Woodville as the third Earl of Rivers lived comfortably, Elizabeth Woodville kept some of her dower properties and when she was present, she always took precedence. Even Margaret Beaufort had to walk behind her as the older woman was Queen Dowager whereas Margaret was just a Countess -a Countess in her own right but a Countess nonetheless. Sir Edward Woodville, Elizabeth of York’s uncle who took after his late eldest brother, was a highly pious and adventurous individual who proved his loyalty many times and was favored. The  Catholic Kings themselves spoke very finely of him after his death. The set of ordinances that Edward IV had made for princes and that Anthony Woodville had supervise for Elizabeth’s brother, Prince Edward, was kept and used for Arthur’s upbringing. And Elizabeth herself was not left behind. 

“Like her parents, Elizabeth was a patron of William Caxton and his successor at the  Westminster printing press, Wynkyn de Worde.” (Weir, Elizabeth of York) 

Furthermore, as Queen, she ruled over her own court and her own properties (some of which had previously belonged to her aunt, Isabel, Duchess of Clarence).  
As for Henry, this was also a personal triumph. Born to Margaret when she was thirteen (a birth that scarred her immensely. She would have no more children). Given as a ward to William Herbert who was given his uncle Jasper’s earldom of Pembroke, and raised to be the perfect Yorkist to neutralize the threat he might pose in the future, he was then sent into exile after the Lancastrian Readetion failed and every member of the royal house was eliminated. Henry lived in a period of uncertainty, danger, and now it was all over. He was King. And he could also boast of having one important advantage. Many royal couples did not have the luxury of getting to know one another. They were married to this person or that, and whether or not they liked each other, they were expected to fulfill their duties. Henry fortunately did no have this problem. In the five month period that they waited for the dispensation to come, the two got to know each other. So when they walked down the aisle, they were not complete strangers.

After the ceremonies ended, came the consummation. Elizabeth proved herself an exemplary Queen, living by the virtues of the day and this,  as well as her fertility, made her well-remembered and loved. She would not be crowned until the following year, after “she proved herself” by giving Henry a male heir that autumn, less than nine months after their marriage. Given the speed in which they conceived, it is possible that the marriage could have been consummated before (since being betrothed was as good as being married. And the pope had given his approval, they knew it was only a matter of time before the bull came). But there is also the possibility that Arthur could have been premature.

Henry and Elizabeth’s marriage would remain strong, and the two would later rely on the other when tragedy came.

 

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Today in history - The coronation of Elizabeth Woodville

Elizabeth Woodville was the eldest daughter of Richard,1st Earl Rivers (executed 1469) and Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Duchess of Bedford (her brothers Anthony and John were also executed). By her first husband Sir John Grey she had sons Thomas and Richard and was a lady of the bedchamber to Queen Margaret, wife of Henry VI. After her husband was killed at the second battle of St Albans she married King Edward IV (reigned 1461-70 and 1471-83) secretly at Grafton in Northamptonshire on 1 May 1464. The marriage was finally announced the following year and she had a lavish coronation at the Abbey on 26 May 1465.

ladytaena-ofmyr  asked:

Hi! So I've started reading Weir and somewhat enjoying the first chapter of lancaster and york, but I'm not familiar w why some people don't like her, I'm only a casual history fan. Why is that?

the thing to remember about alison weir is that she tries to write history as if it’s a novel, not history meaning that she wants the juiciest most scandalous stuff and tries to spin it as if it could’ve actually happened, which leads to her making some pretty big claims in her books and not backing it up correctly

in her career she’s made cases that elizabeth of york was in love with richard iii that elizabeth i gave birth to thomas seymour’s child and pretty much every bad thing you could think of about anne boleyn, basically she’d rather tell a story than go by the facts and a lot of people find it irritating that she’s such a popular name in history books when there are many others who are more serious and cite their work and theories correctly

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Listen, you all knew I was a major dork already. 

These are the posters I made as decorations for the English dept. grad party. As this year marks the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare’s death, we obviously went with a theme. If you are into typography, you can see my freehand attempts at the First Folio typeface. But my pride and joy is the brilliant new party game, Pin the Beard on the Bard. 

Yes, the party was grand fun. And no, improvising cardstock beards for my friends to tape to a judgmental drawing of Shakespeare had not been a life goal, but I am proud to have achieved it nonetheless..

Some designs I have available and I still have a bit more time often before Christmas. Email me at dollbabytattoos@gmail.com direct message me on Instagram to set something up!

Find out why these guys are the #1 High End SEO Agency for the Elite. They’ve even been dubbed, “The Lambo of SEO” and are truly the best at what they do.

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ON THIS DAY IN HISTORY

18 January 1486: Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York.

A pact was agreed. Henry earl of Richmond would return from Brittany to claim the throne, and he would take as his queen Elizabeth of York, the oldest of Edward IV and Elizabeth’s daughters. The families of Beaufort and Woodville - or, if the point was stretched somewhat, the houses of Lancaster and York - would be united; so too would be England. Heralds and historians were good at these genealogical slights of hand. On their brilliantly illuminated parchment rolls, coats-of-arms, badges and portraits were erased and cut out; others appeared in their place. A dynasty that had been eradicated could blossom miraculously like a rose in winter, its lineal descent fully formed, its succession inevitable. Now, with the merging of the red rose and the white, Henry was presented as the successor to Edward IV, the king who had all but obliterated his family and had only narrowly failed to do the same to him. While the logic was flawed, the symbolism was irresistible.

- Thomas Penn, The Winter King: Henry VII and the Dawn of Tudor England

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August 22nd 1485: King Richard III dies

On this day in 1485, King Richard III of England died during the Battle of Bosworth Field, making him the last English monarch to die in battle. Before ascending to the throne, Richard served as protector of the realm for his nephew, the 12 year old King Edward V. Supposedly to protect him before his coronation, Richard had the young king and his brother lodged in the royal palace of the Tower of London. However, Edward’s claim to the throne was declared invalid and Richard claimed the throne for himself. Soon after Richard’s coronation in July 1483, ‘the Princes in the Tower’ mysteriously disappeared, leading many to believe Richard had them killed to consolidate his claim to the throne. Richard’s reign, and indeed much of that of his predecessors, was dominated by the Wars of the Roses. These wars for the throne were fought during the mid to late fifteenth century between the houses of Lancaster and York, rival factions of the royal House of Plantagenet. Richard III was a Yorkist and contributed to many of his house’s early victories in the conflict, helping ensure his brother and then his nephew’s reign. However, Richard III was destined to become the last king of both the House of York and the Plantagenet dynasty itself. He was defeated and killed by the forces of Lancastrian Henry Tudor in the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22nd August 1485, ending the Wars of the Roses and allowing Henry to become King and begin the rule of the Tudors. Richard III was buried unceremoniously at Grey Friars Church, and his remains were lost for centuries, until an excavation in 2012 found his skeleton under a car park in the city of Leicester. The subsequent renewed interest in Richard III, so maligned by William Shakespeare in the eponymous play as a murderer and “poisonous bunch-back’d toad”, was partly shaped by revisionist attempts to emphasise the positive aspects of his reign and character. In 2015, 530 years after his death, King Richard III was reburied in Leicester in a ceremony as befit a king.

Jodie Comer has landed the title role in ‘The White Princess’

Jodie Comer, best known for her turn as the 22-year-old mistress homewrecker in BBC’s ratings phenomenon Doctor Foster, has landed the plum title role (Elizabeth of York) in The White Princess, the sequel to the acclaimed historical TV drama The White Queen. The series will be a Starz production, which will air it in the U.S.

Keep reading

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May 22nd 1455: First Battle of St. Albans

On this day in 1455, the Wars of the Roses began with the First Battle of St Albans in Hertfordshire, England. The wars were fought between the rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet who were competing for the English throne: the houses of Lancaster and York. The First Battle of St Albans resulted in Yorkist victory, with Richard, Duke of York defeating the Lancastrians (led by Edmund, Duke of Somerset) and capturing King Henry VI. The wars continued until 1485 and led to the founding of the Tudor dynasty, as the Lancastrian Henry Tudor (Henry VII) defeated the last Yorkist King Richard III and married a Yorkist. Richard III was killed at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, and his remains were only found in 2012 under a car park in Leicester; in 2015 the last Plantagenet King was ceremoniously reburied, 530 years after his death.