kuot

ketika orang menolak berorganisasi karena alasan studi, mungkin dia berpikir dia akan mengganti jadwal studinya dengan organisasi, tapi menurutku seharusnya organisasi bukan mengorbankan jadwal studinya, melainkan jadwal tidurnya atau jadwal refreshingnya yang dikorbankan
—  inspirasi dari Bang Muhammad Yunus
Language Families Part 1: Language Isolates

I’m starting a series of masterposts detailing the different language families around the world. This will be exclusively living, documented languages. Dialects will not be included (eg Flemish, Canadian French, Latin American Spanish which are not distinct languages). Dead languages will be addressed in a stand-alone post.

Some of these languages will have more information than others due to limited resources and studies having been made available. Languages for which I do not have time to write a summary will include a Wikipedia link. This does not reflect personal preference and is not intended to offend anyone. Please understand that I do not have unlimited time.

So without further ado, let’s begin!

Language Isolates are languages that have no known relatives. This means no supportable connection can be made to any other living language.

Europe:

- Basque is the only language isolate in Europe and is spoken in Northern Spain and Southern France. Researchers have been unable to determine the origin of the Basque language though it is presumed to be pre-Indo-European, meaning it may be what many languages in the area sounded like before mass migration.

Africa:

Many African language have not been thoroughly researched. As more are discovered, feel free to update this list.

The three known language isolates are:

Bangime

Hadza

Sandawe

Asia:

- Ainu is spoken on the island of Hokkaido in Japan. Until recently, more Ainu languages existed, but the political situation has resulted in all except one becoming extinct. Speakers are desperately trying to revive Ainu language and culture but are struggling.

- Burushaski is spoken in Northern Pakistan by about 87000 people. There are plenty of theories about its origin but none have proven viable yet.

- Korean is the most widely spoken language isolate in the world at 78 million speakers. It is spoken in North and South Korea as well as bordering regions of China. There is some debate whether the Jeju dialect should be considered a separate language, creating a Koreanic language family due to its significant differences to mainland Korean.

- Kusunda is spoken by a handful of people in western Nepal, only 3 native speakers and 8 fluent speakers having been counted in 2014. Like Basque, it seems to be a remainder of the languages spoken before the most recent wave of mass migration. 

- Nihali is spoken in west-central India with around 2000 native speakers. No monolingual speakers remain.  It is notable for the large amount of borrowed features.

- Nivkh  is spoken in North Western Russia (Siberia) and has around 1000 native speakers. It is often classified as a Paleosiberian language for the sake of convenience. While the ethnic Nivkh population has remained stable, native speakers have declined to 23%.


Australasia and Oceania:

Language Isolates spoken in Australia:

Enindhilyagwa

Tiwi

Language Isolates spoken in Papua New Guinea:

- Abinomn

- Anem

- Busa

Isirawa

Kol

- Kuot

- Pele-Ata

- Pyu (New Guinean)

- Sulka 

- Taiap 

Yalë 

- Yawa

Yélî Dnye


North America:

- Haida is a language spoken in Alaska and British Columbia with around 20 native speakers.

- Huave is spoken in Oxaca, Mexico by round 18000 people. Although it is endangered it shows positive signs of revitalisation with teenagers using it to text in and radio stations beginning to use it in broadcasting.

- Karuk  is spoken in California by around 12 native speakers and 30 second language speakers. 

- Kutenai is spoken on the corner of Idaho, Montana and British Columbia by around 30 native american speakers. 

- Purépecha is spoken in Mexico and has a relatively large amount of speakers. It was once widespread in northwestern Mexico in the 15th and 16th centurey.

- Seri  is spoken in Mexico by around 760 people across two villages.

- Washo is spoken in California by around 20 native americans.

- Yuchi  is spoken by only 5 people in the southeastern US.

- Zuni is spoken by a relatively large number of people in New Mexico and is on the way to a revival as a significant nubmer of children speak it.


South America:

Aikaná

-  Camsá

-  Candoshi

-  Cofán

-  Huaorani

-  Itonama

-  Leco

-  Mapudungun  

-  Movima

Tequiraca

Trumai

Warao

Yámana

Yuracaré

Wajib ke atas setiap muslim memulakan dengan memperbaiki dirinya, kesempurnaan itu dapat dilihat bila ia telah dapat memiliki beberapa perkara yang meletakkan ia di peringkat tertentu yang menjadikan ia mampu untuk memikul tanggungjawab amal islami..

Dan kenalilah Tuhanmu, perbaiki dirimu, ajaklah orang lain. Dirikanlah daulah Islam dihatimu, nescaya ia akan tertegak dibumimu..

—  Asy-Syahid Imam Hassan Al-Banna
Tentang gambar itu adalah kecerdasan visual. Terkait tulisan adalah kecerdasan verbal. Kalau kita ga bisa bisa bikin postingan yang nyambung antara gambar dan tulisannya, mungkin ada koneksi yang putus di antara kedua kecerdasan itu. Atau emang kita lagi butuh perhatian.
— 

Kuot ini tidak ilmiah dan asal ceplos berdasarkan pengalaman pribadi gw yang seringnya butuh perhatian. Makanya, posting gambar apaa, captionnya apa. 

Tambahan :

Gini loh, nyambung itu bukan berarti harus sama. Misalnya gambarnya rumah lalu harus bikin caption tentang rumah. No, no, bukan kayak gitu. Nyambung itu, sesuai, meskipun kesesuaian itu secara filosofis.

Misalnya gini deh kalo ada yang gak paham. Ada salah satu postingan IG nya Jalansaja yang gambarnya seorang anak kecil digandeng seseorang yang dewasa dan mereka berjalan di kerumunan. Nampak bahwa anak kecil itu sedang menatap sesuatu. Lalu captionnya adalah : terkadang kita perlu menahan beberapa rasa ingin, agar tidak menyusahkan orang2 yang kita sayang. Bisa gak nyambungin filosofinya? Gw sih bisa. 

#ampunkakak #dontjudgeme #jangantersinggung 

Talvez seja ruim não sentir a felicidade, mas não sentir a tristeza chega a ser assustador. Não que eu curta a melancolia, mas é como se você não sentisse nada, não fosse realmente humano. É como assistir um filme que não te emociona em nada, não te toca em nada mesmo. Mas esse filme é a sua própria vida.
—  Hip3rbole