Noun modifier endings

Today I’ll give you an overview of noun modifier endings. I’m not sure if this is actually the proper term for it, but it’s what my teacher used back in the day!

Noun modifier endings are  actually applied to action verbs and descriptive verbs to change them into forms that can then be used to modify following nouns. More simply, they turn action or descriptive verbs into what we would in English call relative clauses and adjectives respectively

A relative clause is a clause starting with a relative pronoun, such as “that, who, which, etc,” that describes a noun. You can think of it as a long adjective. Let’s check out some examples in English first:

This is the cake that I ate.

In this example, “that I ate” is a relative clause that describes the cake.

The school where I met my friend is over there.

In this example, “where I met my friend” is a relative clause giving more information about the school.

And of course adjectives are simpler:

That pretty girl is my friend.

My brother is a friendly guy.

Now, let’s build some relative clauses and adjectives in Korean!

Action verbs

Present tense: -는 — The present tense noun modifier ending for action verbs is -는. Just slap it onto the root of your verb (keeping in mind any changes with irregular verbs) and you’re good to go!

  • The cake that that person sells is delicious. -> 그 사람이 파는 케이크는 맛있어요.
    • 팔다 - 다 = 팔 —–> 팔 + 는 = 파는 (ㄹ irregular verb- drop ㄹ before ㄴ)
  • The books that she reads are fun. -> 그녀가 읽는 책들은 재미있어요.
    • 읽다 - 다 = 읽 —–> 읽 + 는 = 읽는

Past tense: -(으)ㄴ — For verb roots that end with a consonant, add -은. For roots that end with a vowel, just add -ㄴ. Make sure to keep changes for irregular verbs in mind!

  • The kimbap that I ate was bland. -> 제가 먹은 김밥은 싱거웠어요. 
    • 먹다 - 다 = 먹 —–> 먹 + 은 = 먹은
  • The movie that we saw was boring. -> 우리가 영화는 지루했어요.
    • 보다 - 다 = 보 —–> 보 + ㄴ =

Past habitual: -던 — If you want to refer to an action that was done repeatedly or habitually in the past, attach -던 to the verb root.

  • The school that we attended is gone now. -> 우리가 다니던 학교는 이제 없어요.
    • 다니다 - 다 = 다니 —–> 다니 + 던 = 다니던
  • My mom sings the songs that grandma used to sing. -> 우리 엄마는 외할머니께서 부르시던 노래를 부르세요.
    • 부르다 - 다 = 부르 —–> 부르 + 던 = 부르던

Future tense: -(으)ㄹ —  Again, depending on if the root ends with a consonant (-을) or vowel (-ㄹ), you use a slightly different form.

  • The place I will go is far. -> 제가 곳이 멀어요.
    • 가다 - 다 = 가 —–> 가 + ㄹ =
  • The shoes I will wear tomorrow are new ones. -> 내일 신을 신발은 새 거예요.
    • 신다 - 다 = 신 —–> 신 + 을 = 신을

Descriptive verbs

Present tense: -(으)ㄴ — The present tense noun modifier endings for descriptive verbs look like the past tense noun modifier endings for action verbs. Make sure you use -은 for roots that end with consonants and -ㄴ when the root ends with a vowel.

  • That tall building is Lotte World Tower. -> 저 높은 건물은 롯데월드타워예요.
    • 높다 - 다 = 높 —–> 높 + 은 = 높은
  • That singer is a handsome man. -> 저 가수는 잘생긴 남자예요.
    • 잘생기다 - 다 = 잘생기 —–> 잘생기 + ㄴ = 잘생긴

Past tense: -던; -았/었던 — Just as we can use -던 with action verbs to indicate a habitual past action, we can use it with descriptive verbs to indicate that a state was continuous in the past. Using just -던 on its own gives a feeling of looking back on or reminiscing about something that may still be continuing to the present time. On the other hand, -았/었던 carries a feeling of “was X in the past, but is no longer.”

  • The girl who was pretty when she was young became a beautiful woman. ->어릴 때 예뻤던 소녀는 아름다운 여자가 됐어요.
    • 예쁘다 - 다 = 예쁘 —–> 예쁘 + 던 = 예뻤던
  • Mingyu, who was very diligent, still works hard. -> 부지런하던 민규 씨는 지금도 일을 열심히 해요. 
    • 부지런하다 - 다 = 부지런하 —–> 부지런하 + 던 = 부지런하던

Future tense: -(으)ㄹ — The future tense noun modifier endings for descriptive verbs are the same as for action verbs. As always, make sure that you make any needed changes for irregular verbs. Also, please note that [descriptive verb + -(으)ㄹ NOUN] is not a very commonly used structure unless it’s followed by the noun 것 (thing). However, that starts getting into full future tense, which isn’t the point of this post.

  • I am looking for a gift that will be good to give to my friend. -> 친구에게 주기에 좋을 선물을 찾고 있어요.
    • 좋다 - 다 = 좋 —–> 좋 + 을 = 좋을


Nouns on their own can’t take noun modifier endings, but the endings can be attached to 이다 (to be). My notations of the forms the noun modifier endings take will include 이다 and be written as single units, but just be aware that they are actually 이다 plus the actual noun modifier ending.

Present tense: -인 — It’s the same regardless of whether the noun ends with a consonant or a vowel!

  • My friend, who is a teacher, is very smart. -> 선생님인 제 친구가 정말 똑똑해요.
  • That lady, who is an actress, often appears in dramas. -> 배우인 그녀는 드라마에 자주 나와요.

Past tense: -이었/였던 — -던 makes another appearance! This time it appears with 이다 conjugated to the past tense. Add -이었던 if the noun ends with a consonant and -였던 if it ends with a vowel.

  • Jimin, who was a model student, of course ended up attending a good university. -> 모범생이었던 지민이는 역시 좋은 대학교에 가게 됐어요.
  • Seungjin, who was Jimin’s friend, doesn’t contact him anymore. -> 지민 씨의 친구였던 승진 씨는 더 이상 지민 씨랑 연락을 안 해요.

Future tense: It’s sort of weird to use the future noun modifier ending -(으)ㄹ directly on 이다. Rather, you would use [NOUN이/가 될…]. This way, you are using the action verb 되다 to say that something or someone will be come something else. 

  • The man who will become Somin’s husband is very good-looking. -> 소민 씨의 남편이 될 남자는 정말 잘생겼어요.
  • Chanhyeong, who will become a doctor, has studied hard since he was young. -> 의사가 될 찬형이는 어릴 때부터 공부를 열심히 해왔어요.

Happy studying~


While “Atomic Blonde” gets labeled as the female “John Wick”, it looks like South Korea has set out to make their own version only they’ve decided to go “Hardcore Henry” with a number of their action scenes.
Here’s the trailer for the upcoming film, “The Villainess”; what looks like a mighty fine action flick.

The signs as anime season lengths thingys idk

two 12 episode seasons and a third season that airs when the fans have all aged 50 years and stopped caring: Taurus, Pisces, Libra, Aquarius

one chill 13 episode season, short and sweet: Capricorn, Virgo, Cancer

87366 episodes, eight movies, three spin-off series, a Korean live-action drama rendition, and a cult following: Leo, Aries

a cool 2 cour season with a 13 episode follow up/a movie: Sagittarius, Gemini, Scorpio

Bittersweet // Jung Hoseok

Originally posted by myloveseokjin

Pairing: Hoseok x Reader

Genre: Fluff, Oneshot

Summary//Request: Hoseok meets you by chance in a quiet cafe while you’re visiting Seoul - feeling the overwhelming need to speak to you and become a part of your world.

Reminder that (Y/C) stands for - Your Country

Keep reading

Lookout (drama)

I seriously did not expect this drama to be this good. The drama is not centered on romantic kinda love or whatever, it’s actually an action kind of drama with corruption, revenge etc… But unlike other “action dramas” it doesn’t get boring like Man to Man (yeah it was not my cup of tea even though I love action movies/series). Indeed it’s really intense and stressful and this is what I’m looking for in a action drama. And Lee Si-young is sooooo badass, love it! This drama is definitely in my top 5!

Originally posted by anapher

Originally posted by anapher

Beginner Lesson 2: -고 있다, the present progressive tense

The present progressive tense is used when you are explaining currently on going actions or events. In other, simpler terms: -고 있다 is the Korean version of attaching the English ‘-ing’ ending onto verbs.

-고 있다 is used with verbs.
It is attached directly to the verb stem. It is also often used in conjunction with the word 지금 (right now, just now) though it’s not absolutely required.

가다: 가 + 고 있다 →  가고 있어요
먹다: 먹 + 고 있다 →  먹고 있어요
보다: 보 + 고 있다 →  보고 있어요

레오: 영화를 같이 볼까요?
켄: 미안해요, 지금 공부하고 있어요.
Leo: Shall we watch a movie together?
Ken: Sorry, I’m studying right now.

켄: 아 배고파요…
레오: 저는 슈퍼마켓에 가고 있어요.
Ken: Ah I’m hungry….
Leo: I’m going to the super market [right now].

As you can see, this grammar point is very easy to use and important to know! However there are some things you should keep in mind when using this grammar point.

It can be used in the past tense and future tense, but it comes off as sounding awkward. It would be more natural to use the regular form past/future tense instead. That said, if you really really want to emphasize the fact you were/are going to do something you can use this grammar point in past/future tense.

So while “저는 밥을 먹고 있었어요” is grammatically correct, “저는 밥을 먹었어요.” flows a lot better.

Regarding verbs like 앉다 (to sit) and 서다 (to stand) (or other verbs regarding the “position” of where something is, like “to lie down”, etc): You cannot use -고 있다 with verbs like this to say that you are currently doing the action. For example:

지금 앉고 있어요. I am sitting.
This sentence is correct but it means that that my knees are bent and I am in the process of moving myself onto the spot where I’m going to be sitting.

If I want to say I am currently settled in my seat and no longer moving I need to use -아/어 있다 instead.

지금 앉아 있어요. I am sitting.
편의점 옆에 서 있어요. I am standing next to the convenience store.
소파에 누워 있어요. I am laying on the sofa.

This is because these “positioning” verbs sometimes tend to act a little differently than other verbs in some situations. This is a good example of one of them. :)

So to sum: when using verbs that describe position, just remember to use -아/어 있다 instead of -고 있다.

In all the examples above, we discussed actions that were currently in progress, but you can also use this grammar point to express repeated on-going actions in Korean by adding the word 요즘 (lately, these days) to your sentence.

For example, if you regularly attend cooking classes or take taekwondo you could say:

제가 요즘 요리 학원에 다니고 있어요.
These days I am attending a cooking academy.

레오 씨가 요즘 태권도를 배우고 있어요.
Lately Leo is learning taekwondo.

Easy, right? :)

That’s all for this lesson!

The human weapon | Part four

Originally posted by nochuie

Pairing: JungkookxReader

AU: Robot!Cyborg, Sci-fi

Genre: Angst - Romance

Word count: 4.7k

Part three << >>Part five 

The atmosphere became thick and awkward, but Jungkook didn’t understand this kind of thing. Examining you for answers, didn’t help in finding a solution for this man’s remark. Your own good, was already facepalming at the Star Wars reference, that only enjoyed Namjoon even more.

“Did you really have to use that line??” You muttered, finally getting the man inside. His dimples flashing, bringing a shadow ball to curve on the side of his cheek, walking to stand in front of his creation.

“It’s not like I get another chance like this.” He chuckled, rubbing his chin. His big round modern glasses barely sat perfectly on his nose bridge, looking at the features of Jungkook. You noticed the tense muscles form under his shirt, bringing you to cough for Namjoon’s attention.

“Care to explain? Before confusing the boy even more”

“He’s a robot, Y/N.”

Keep reading

Exo- Meeting For The First Time (Suho, Tao, and Sehun)

A/n: You’re a really popular Western Singer

A/n:  I’m doing this on my phone so I’ll post them ( ot12) 3 at a timee

Originally posted by 89ner

Suho: You had been invited to Korea for some type of award show and you gladly accepted. You didn’t know what you were going to be doing there just that you were supposed to be there. You had been in hair and makeup for so long and were just dying to stretch out your legs. After requesting a break you headed out of your dressing room and wondered the halls of the venue. You were looking for a vending machine when you accidentally stumbled into an interview.

“What do you think of Y/n?” The interviewer asked. 

“She’s really pretty and very talented. I hope to meet her tonight!” The man said as you peeked around the corner, realizing that it was EXO’s Leader, Suho. Your eyes grow wide as you stupidly trip and hit your foot into one of the camera boxes making all of the people in the area look at you. 

“ Ahh, looks like you don’t have to wait til tonight.” The interviewer laughed as the camera panned to you. 

Originally posted by lil-duckling

Tao: You were attending an award show here in Korea but the category was for “ Best Film.” You were nominated due to your appearance in a hit Korean action film were you played the only girl who could “ hang with the big boys” in martial arts. While announcing the names in the category they showed a little snippet of your fight scene. You could hear gasps behind you and looking back a little you noticed you were sat right in front of EXO. Clapping after each name you got butterflies when they were gonna call the winner.

“ And the winner of the Best Film category is…Y/N!!” 

The camera panned at you and followed you as you bowed to everyone and made your way up to the stage, your fight scene playing on the huge screen. 

After accepting the award you came back to your seat, bowing in thanks to many people. You turned to make sure nothing was on your seat and looked up to meet eyes with Tao. Your breath hitched in your throat for a second but you recovered with a slight smile and a bow before seating down in your seat, blushing.

Originally posted by sehunijjang

Sehun: You were asked to appear on a variety show and of course you agreed, it had been one of you dreams to appear on one. They show’s director had a specific time for you to go out, something about a “ Nice Transition.” 

You were in the green room, watching the show on the tv in the room. A couple of members from the boy band EXO were also guest stars. They were making jokes and having a good time when the MC asked them a series of questions.

“Do any of you listen to western music?” The MC asked and they all nodded their heads.

“Do you guys know the singer by the name of Y/N?” They all laughed and looked over at Sehun.

“Why are you all looking at him?” The MC asked while laughing.

“Y/n is his ideal type!” Suho laughed while your eyes went wide  looking at the tv screen and you started blushing. 

“Really?! Wow! Tell us why!”

 Sehun cleared his throat and sat up straight, “ Well uh.. she’s really pretty and her voice is amazing!” 

“Is that it?” 

“Uh … no, she’s very talented and really smart. She is everything I want in a girlfriend.” In shock you look at the lady in the room with you and she started laughing at your facial expression. Your cheeks were hot and your jaw hurt from blushing so hard.

“Send a message to Y/N, anything you want.” Sehun covered his cheeks with his hands and blushed.

“ Uh.. Hello Y/n ! Im Sehun from EXO and I’m a really big fan of yours and I’d like to take you out one day!” He bowed and everyone started laughing.

“Everyone welcome our second guest of the hour, Y/N!!”


Happy International Women’s Day!

Na Hye Sok (나혜석) (1896-1948)  is considered the first professional female painter and the first feminist writer in Korea. Educated in Japan, she was one of the earliest Korean painters to paint in a Western style. I’ve included some of her paintings, but I’d like to add that her written works are perhaps more influential; her short story, Kyonghui (경희), is the first feminist short story in Korean literature. 

Na Hye Sok’s life was controversial as it was exciting. She attended school in Japan, but was jailed for protesting against Japanese rule in Korea. She argued for social and familial equality between the sexes, married for love, had a divorce, and won competitions for her art, all radical actions for Korean women at that time. However, despite her success as a painter and her writing, Na Hye Sok died poor and ostracized from her family, and from Korean society, because of her marriage troubles and an affair. 

The paintings:


Self-Portrait (Late 1920′s)

ok so can we just talk about noblesse? please… and btw if you haven’t read it yet then you can read it for free online here: http://kissmanga.com/Manga/Noblesse

one minute these hot guys with unimaginable powers are trying to save the world from their enemies while still looking attractive as hell

and the next minute you see these same dorks like this where rai (the main character who has all the power in the world) doesn’t know how to operate a banana

has an obsession with ramen

to the point where he must have it during their long missions

and has a dork/crazy of servant (frankenstein)

along with rai’s friends decided to call themselves rk as in rai’s knights (even though they are the ones that need protecting)

well as long as rai is happy

Meeting their adopted sister for the first time (SEVENTEEN)

Age range from 2 to 11 years old

S.Coups: -2. He’s been trying to get your attention your mother brought you to him for the first time ever. But he wasn’t the only one interested in you it was all the boys as well. But he made the mistake of giving you a teddy bear first as his welcome to the family gift- “guys nothing’s working I know she’s little but she should pay attention to her big brother. I’m way more entertaining that a teddy bear”

Originally posted by jihuuns

Jeonghan: -5. You were social and he liked it. He was cute and playful with you hoping it would make you feel more at home. He’s talked to you on the phone but hasn’t seen you much other than pictures. So he was asking you all sorts of questions like if you were still 4 or not. You called him silly and said you were 5 now and in school- “oh my I’m a dumb dumb. Of course you are princess I should have remembered that. And you’re in school? Mom’s gonna have to bring you to see me more often”

Originally posted by jsoohongs

Joshua: -6. You didn’t live near him you lived in America. He was happy because he was no longer an only child, he was a big brother. After many video calls he was getting the shot to meet you when your parents brought you with them- “hello Y/N it’s very nice to meet you. 2 years and I finally get to meet my baby sister. You’re much cuter in person”

Originally posted by minghalloween

Jun: -9. You only spoke Chinese. He, Minghao, and Hoshi seemed to be the only people who were able to talk to you while you were meeting him for the first time. He thought it was awesome because it was like you were speaking your own language while you here- “it’s very good to meet you Y/N you and I will be talking much more alright. I’ll ask our parents if you can borrow their phone or computer to facetime so we can talk when you go home. But for now we’ll go explore the foreign land” 

Originally posted by minghaon

Hoshi: -8. His first meeting was interrupted by the boys so instead of talking with you were being bugged by them. You kept sending them sassy remarks and glares while looking adorable so they didn’t feel offended- “she kinda reminds me of a younger me. You know except cuter and female”

Originally posted by gyuhan-17

Wonwoo: -7. He was already teaching you new things. You were one of the few international adoptions that happened so he was busy teaching you Korean words, actions, and manners. You seemed to have a basic grip of Korean thanks to teaching during the whole process of adoption- “you see this, it’s a cute heart right? Can you make it? Oppa’s gonna show you a whole bunch of nre things”

Originally posted by 626tuan

Woozi: -4. He came home just for the occasion, he could tell you were scared of him slightly but were getting used to him. By bedtime you didn’t want to sleep alone in your room so you went to find him. He was with your new parents and you asked him if he’d lay down with you- “yeah of course Y/N. Don’t worry I’ll keep you safe tonight”

Originally posted by camera-seventeen

DK: -11. Your first encounter wasn’t all smile and hugs. You were question why they would adopt an 11 year old. He asked you why you thought that and you went on to explain that no one wants to adopt something that’s not cute and little. At least that’s what the older kids told you- “they’re wrong. If people think like that than they are stupid because everything grows up, we’ll make sure you never think like that again Y/N. You’re going to be loved here” 

Originally posted by hvung

Mingyu: -3. He’s been in your face since the moment he walked in the room. You had an iPad to play with and of course as a child it was much more entertaining than any people in the world- “Y/N, this first encounter isn’t going well. I’m about to take that iPad from you. Pay attention to oppa please”

Originally posted by the8ght

The8: -10. He’s never got the chance because you lived in China. So when your parents brought you to visit him in Korea he made sure you knew everything a big brother should do- “hello Y/N I am Minghao nice to meet you. I’m here to teach you everything that is wrong but protect you at the same time/ By the time you leave I will be the best role model in your life”

Originally posted by infinitblaq

Seungkwan: -9. He was happy to finally meet you and he brought you with him to meet the boys. But he made sure they knew you his new sister and that not to overwhelm you with too much attention before you were comfortable- “alright Y/N these are the people I work with, don’t spend too much time with them. They’ll make you do bad things and I know mom doesn’t want you getting in any trouble”

Originally posted by ultimatekpoptrash

Vernon: -4. He was enjoying it, your little attempts to play basketball with him but the ball was the size of you practically. You weren’t just the newest Chwe you were his baby sister not matter what genetics meant.- “it feels like you’ve been here for like you’ve always been part of the family” 

Originally posted by choishansol

Dino: -2. He was very excited to meet you but what big brother wouldn’t, since he had been training he didn’t get to visit you while in the orphanage so his parents decided to bring you to him. He got slightly emotional at the sight of you- “hey Y/N nice to finally get to meet you”

Originally posted by seokmin---s

My Top 10 K-Dramas of 2015 - What’s Yours?

2015 is about to end and K-dramaland has been kind in bringing us so many goodies this year. Below are my Top 10 favs on the year (my favs so it might not be yours so please don’t judge) :

Keep reading