kongolese

willow-thewitch  asked:

I've seen that HUGE masterpost with all the witch labels, and although it's impressive that you've been able to pull together all those resources, for my purposes I was hoping to get the info only on the regional specific witchery. I find SUPER informative and DIFFERENT so Id love to be able to reblog that from you BUT I don't want to tamper or edit your original post without permission. Do you have the post separated by chance, or could you? Because I'd love to reblog so you get the credit!! :)

Here it is!

Regionally Specific Witchery: most were originally tribal based and feature many similarities, such as Paganism and similar craft practices

Europe

Norse: Norse witches worship Norse deities. Witchcraft was very important in ancient Viking culture and a normal part of their everyday life. Warrior shamanism, runes, and sacrifices to the Gods were just some of their important practices. Heathen Witch: Heathenry is Norse/Anglo-Saxon/any Germanic Paganism, also called Asatrú: Ásatrú is a polytheistic faith based on pre-Christian Northern European Pagan beliefs. Emphasis on historical accuracy and the heroic tales as recorded in texts and personal honor, truth and integrity are considered to be some of the highest virtues.

Druid: Druidry means following a spiritual path rooted in the green Earth and hails from the United Kingdom. It means participating in Celtic wisdom teachings, but embracing the contributions of many peoples and times. Druids worship Celtic deities and practice earth based magic.

Hellenic Witch: Witches who are Hellenic or Greek Pagans (Hellenists, Hellenes, Hellenism) are generally polytheists who worship the ancient Greek Olympian gods. Offerings to the Gods are an extremely important element of ritual practice. Hellenismos consider hospitality of great important and place great value on the study and use of classical Greek philosophical texts.

Roman Witch: Roman Pagan witches practice Religio Romana, the pre-Christian religion of Rome. The modern religion reconstructs the ancient faith of Rome and its gods, goddesses and rituals as closely as possible. Every attempt is based on historical accuracy and archaeological evidence. Like their friends the Hellenic Witches focus on the original classical texts, writers and language of their ancestors.

Italian Witch: Strega (Stregheria, La Vecchia Religione, “The Old Religion”), Italian witches practice a form of Witchcraft that encompasses elements of the pre-Christian European magical teachings and ancient Etruscan and Tuscan religions. Many modern Italian Witches today, especially those who still reside in Italy, are Christians who also practice their Old Religion.

Africa

Egyptian Witch: Kemetist witches practice a modern religion based upon the ancient Egyptian family of gods/goddesses and ancient Egyptian ritual practice. While many gods and goddesses are revered or acknowledged, the Kemetic religion is not primarily polytheistic. In many sects of Kemetism, the concept is better described as one god representing many distinct personalities and divinities. Rituals and offerings are often elaborate, and both ancient texts and modern archeological discoveries are very important to modern Egyptian witches.

African Witch: African witchcraft varies region to region of the African continent and can be tribally specific. African witchcraft normally delves in spirit work and shamanism. The most well known type of African witchcraft is Voodoo (Vodou). Voodoo is an ancient West African religion based on spirit work. Voodoo is a religion of spirits. Voodooists believe that the world of humans is shared by the world of the spirits. When a person dies, his spirit passed to the world of the unseen but is still able to see the human world. Spirits, it is believed, in some cases can even impact the world of the living. They also seen as witch doctors in their communities who can heal, work with divination, and give their customers charms and amulets to bring them luck, love, harm to others, and so on.

The Americas

Native American Witch: Each region and tribe of Native Americans have its own unique kind of witchcraft. Each tribe has their own rituals, performed ceremonies, and ritual outfits. They each have their own tools, carvings, and totem poles. In spite of all their differences, Native Americans share a sense of oneness with their land, practice herbology, and hunt, use, and honor animals of Native America. A common magical practice known to have roots in Native American magic is the practice of smudging.

Haitian Vodou: A sect of African Voodoo, they believe in a supreme creator, Bondye, and worship the spirits subservient to him, the Loa. Every Loa is responsible for a particular aspect of life and they cultivate a relationship and worship them much like Pagans worship their Gods and Goddesses. Haitian religious culture is derived from the Kongolese tradition of kanga, the practice of tying one’s soul to something tangible, which is evident in Haitian Vodou. Fearing an uprising in opposition to the US occupation of Haiti, political and religious elites, along with Hollywood and the film industry, sought to trivialize the practice of Vodou. After the Haitian Revolution, many Haitians fled as refugees to New Orleans. Free and enslaved Haitians who moved to New Orleans brought their religious beliefs with them and reinvigorated the Voodoo practices that were already present in the city. Eventually, Voodoo in New Orleans became hidden and the magical components were left present in the public sphere. This created what is called hoodoo in the southern part of the United States.

Louisiana Voodoo: A sect of African Voodoo, knowledge of herbs, poisons, the ritual creation of charms and amulets, and the intension to protect oneself or harm others are key elements of Louisiana Voodoo. Voodoo queens have great power in their communities, are ritual leaders, and draw crowds to buy their magical products, such as “gris gris” amulets and spells that will grant the customers desire. There also Voodoo kings, their male equivalent.

American Hoodoo: A sect of Louisiana Voodoo that is ever evolving. Hoodoo practitioners use gris-gris items, such as amulets and charms, to cure their customers ailments, bring them luck and love, and whatever they desire. Some work closely with the Bible, and have said to see Moses as magical figure.

Bruja/Brujo Witches: Witches who practice witchcraft, brujeria, who are descended from, or live in Spanish speaking South America.

Brazilian Shamanism: Like other tribal or local shaman, they work with the spirit world, work with divination, and are seen as healers. Shamanism is often hereditary in Brazil and they work with a specific animals spirit to derive power from, such as the jaguar. Umbanda: The incorporation of catholic saints with the beliefs of the Brazilian Indians.

Kahunas of Hawaii: Like other shamans, they invoke spiritual help, conduct rituals, and have Pagan local gods who are given offerings. They also have various crafts of Kahunas, such as a high priest, dream interpreter, and reader of the skies. To the Kahunas, and many witches today and in the past, the subconscious is your greatest ally or greatest foe for achieving health, wealth, and happiness.

Asia

Slavic Witches: Today, old techniques of divination, magic, soul travel and healing is known from their ancestors and their native faith Rodnovery. These families, the volkhvy, who have “witchblood” have ancestors from ancient Rodnover priesthood. They are considered masters of a much larger tradition in Russia called koldovstvo, or chaklynstvo. One does not have to possess the lineage of the volkhvy to practice koldovstvo. The Russian volkhvy are thought to be descended from shamans who could shape-shift into bears and wolves, while in Macedonia and Bulgaria they are considered to be descended from dragons. Slavic witches also revere Baba Yaga, one of the most important witch lore figures in Slavic culture, who commonly appears as an old crone who flies within a mortar and holds a pestle. She has many faces, like the Wiccan triple Goddess, such as an Earth Goddess or a symbol of Death.

Japanese Witch: The Pagan Japanese religion of Shinto is shamanistic. Witch is a very positive term in Japan. Japanese witchcraft is commonly separate into two types: those who familiar snakes and those who familiar foxes.

Korean Shamans( Muism or Sinism): Sinism is Pagan shamanism pre-dating Buddhism and Confucianism. The Mu, also known as magician, medicine man, mystic or poet, have the ability to will people into a trance state and astral project. The Mu provides physical, psychological, and spiritual healing. These shamans emphasize holistic living. There are different types of Mu and they are link to the mother goddess associated with a mountain. Each region has a different mountain association, thus a different goddess associated with that region. They make sacrifices to the gods, worship ancestors, sing songs, and meditate.

Chinese Wuism: Chinese shamanism, also called Wuism, was first recorded in the Shang dynasty. These men and women are seen to meditate with the powers to generate things, worship ancestors, and can communicate with the spirits. Gods of nature are prominent in Wuism.

Filipino Witch: Kulam is a form of folk magic from the Phiippines. It emphasizes personal power and the secret knowledge of Magica Baja. Like other witches they practice candle magic, scrying, spell work, and a mangkukulam, a version of the Voodoo doll. They also are witch doctors like other folk magic practitioners who uses divination to diagnose a victim and try to cure them.


I will be updating the entire master post soon!  )O( H Lavenderwhisp

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Difference between Congo, Bakongo and Kongo...

[This is obviously directed at those who write in English when talking about the two Congos and the Bakongo. If your comment doesn’t have anything to do with English or Kikongo then don’t complain on my post]

Congo: 

  • The term Congo can refer to the Congo river and also Congo rain forest
  • The term also refers to two different countries:

1) The Republic of the Congo (aka ROC, Congo-Brazzaville) previously known as French Congo and The People’s Republic of the Congo  

2) The Democratic Republic of the Congo (aka Congo-Kinshasa DR Congo, DRC, RDC, Zaïre - yes some people still call it Zaïre even Congolese people) previously known as Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville), Republic of Zaire 

[These two countries are not the same, we were never one. Just because we share a pre colonial history and a few ethnic groups and cultures doesn’t mean we’re the same. We also share those things with Angola, South Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia etc as well so saying we’re the same just because of those things doesn’t make sense. My ethnic groups has more in common with people in Tanzania and Zambia than ROC because it shares cultural similarities and history with ethnic groups from those two countries]

Congolese

  • People who are Congolese are those either from the Democratic Republic of Congo or Republic of Congo.  

[And as I said some people from the Democratic Republic of Congo still refer to the country as Zaïre and themselves as Zarian or Zaïroise/Zaïrois. I still get called Zaïroise by other Congolese people and other Africans because I was born before the country changed its name to DRC]

Kongo:

  • The term refers to the pre colonial kingdom (Kongo Kingdom) in what is now northern Angola, Cabinda (which is a province of Angola but located between DRC and ROC), southern  Republic of the Congo, western  Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Kongo also refers to the Kongo aka Bakongo and Kongolese. This is not a tribe (learn the difference between tribe and ethnic group) Bakongo are an ethnic group and there are tribes who are part of the Bakongo for example the Vili, Yombe or Lumbo etc 
  • Kongo can also refer to the language of the Bakongo aka Kikongo and also Kituba
  • It can also refer to the two modern day countries, depends in which language you write in 

Few facts:

  • Kongo/Bakongo means fighters (or warriors)
  • The Kongo Kingdom was the first pre colonial Christian (specifically Catholic) Kingdom in Central. Not the whole of African because the were other pre colonial Christian African Kingdoms
  • A new movement of Catholicism was created within the kingdom by prophetess Beatriz Kimpa Vita called Antonianism. Even after she was martyred and the new sect was suppressed Antonianism is still practiced by people today particularly the Bakongo
  • Traditional Kongo (Bakongo) religion still existed in the Kingdom and its still practiced today.Kongo religion along with Kongo Catholicism has influenced Haitian Voudou, Quimbanda (an Afro-Brazilian religion) and other religions of the African diaspora
  • Many Bakongo were taken to Cuba, Haiti, the US, Brazil and others

resource: 1,2,3,4

(I might have pissed a few points tell me if I did)

anonymous asked:

What's the difference between Kongo and Congo, Kongolese and Congolese. Sorry if you've answered this before

I have but I’m bored so I don’t mind answering this again

Congolese - refers to people from Democratic Republic of Congo and Republic of Congo. Although SOME of the ethnic groups from both countries share pre-colonial history like the Bakongo, Gbaya and Teke, it doesn’t mean every ethnic group from both countries share histories/cultures. Both countries were named after the pre-colonial Kongo Kingdom which was also part of Angola

Kongolese - Kongolese is Bakongo in English. Bakongo are a Bantu ethnic group who inhabit Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola and Republic of Congo. Their mother tongue is Kikongo. Just because I am Congolese does not mean I’m Bakongo/Kongolese and not every Bakongo is Congolese. 

Congo - refers to the countries Democratic Republic of Congo and Republic of Congo. Both countries are in Central Africa, as said before they share some pre-colonial histories but also have some cultural similarities. Western Democratic Republic of Congo share some cultural similarities with Republic of Congo, that is where the boarder is. But Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo for example doesn’t. Some people think the two countries where once one, they were never one. They’re confusing the kingdom with the countries. They’re two different countries with different histories.

Kongo - also refers to the Bakongo ethnic group but also the Kongo Kingdom. It was a Central African kingdom in what is now Angola, Cabinda, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of Congo. Sometimes the Kongo Kingdom is written as Congo

The Kongo kingdom

And this is a map of where Kikongo and Kikongo ya leta (Kituba) which is a Kikongo Creole, is spoken

Plural: Bakongo. Singular: Mukongo or M’Kongo. Kongo land: Wakongo Language: Kikongo. Kongo can be used as both plural and singular

Some people are under the impression that every Congolese person is a descendant of the Kongo kingdom. We are not, I am not. There were more kingdoms/states than Kongo. 

I know in some languages Kongo is used to refer to the countries and not just the Kingdom or ethnic group but I’m talking about English. 

If I’ve missed something out, feel free to comment 

Kongo/Bakongo/Congo

I see some people on here writing “Kongolese” to refer to ethnic Kongo people it’s wrong. Here is how it should be: (only for when you’re writing in English)

  • It’s not Congolese its Bakongo (plural) or  Muakongo (singular but I’ve only ever hear Muakongo used on very rare occasions some people use “Bakongo” to refer to themselves ) when referring to someone of the Kongo ethnic group or people of the Kongo Kingdom. 
  • Congolese is used to refer to someone from either the Democratic Republic of Congo or the Republic of Congo (and no they were never one country then split) 
  • Some people from the Democratic Republic of Congo still refer to themselves as  Zaïrois especially those who were born and/or lived between 1971–1997
  • Bakongo people live in the Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola
  • People can be ethnically Kongo (Bakongo) and their nationality can be Angolan. They can also be Congolese and ethnically Kongo (Bakongo)
  • Not every Congolese person belongs to the Kongo ethnic group. So people should stop tagging or commenting Kongo when the post is about Congo. Its rude to do so and it erases other Congolese ethnic groups. I hate being referred to as Kongo when that’s not my ethnicity. 
  • It’s okay to use Kongolese when you’re writing in German for example because they use the “K” instead of “C” but only if you mean Congolese not Bakongo