Trolldomr in Early Medieval Scandinavia  - Some quotes from Chapter 1

“There was a rich variety in terms relating to knowledge, knowing and persons affililiated with trolldomr in Old Norse texts were generally described as knowledgeable. The verb kunna, meaning both ‘to know, to understand, to know by heart’, as well as ‘to have insight into the old traditions and lore’, and to ‘behave properly’ is at the core of this semantic field. When ‘know’ or ‘knowledge’ are used in Old Norse texts, the words have a far more elaborate signification than is usual in modern English.”

“There was mostly a sender and these persons - or maybe ‘personalities’ is a better word - always had a name with a visible gender. Males could be called galdramaðr, vikti, skratti, trollmaðr, and females gygr, seiðkona, spakona, trollkona, volva, the latter often in connection with seiðr rituals. A radical way of desecrating a person thought of as knowledgeable was to give him or her the name of a supernatural being  like illvaettr, meinvaettr, or uvaettr. In contrast to males, human females in the sagas could be given the names associated with the many evil-minded mythological women”

There is a general tendency to historicize extraordinary knowledge in Old Norse literature. Such insights are represented as the innate traditions of the old times, fornfroðr, forneskja.  A term like fornfroeði referred both to the abstract aspect of knowledge and learning and to the actual performance, i.e. charms and spells. Terms in this semantic field pointed to some individuals having or exhibiting the capacity for discerning and the intelligent application of knowledge, or the ability to act in situations where other people of more limited mental capacity had reached their limit.”

Sometimes the Old Norse texts do not reveal any real difference between carving runes and singing powerful songs. When a phrase like  ‘carving runes’ appears in the texts it can also connote performing trolldomr in a more general sense. Of all poets and knowledgeable characters, Oðinn is described as the master of all these potent crafts […]. The most important terms connected to trolldomr either refer to knowledge or the spoken word...The pronouncement of words was recognized to have enormous influence over the concerns of life. The impact of a sentence uttered aloud could not be questioned and could never be taken back - as if it had somehow become physical…Words create reality - not only the other way around…Many of the deeds of cunning people were not necessarily done, but spoken. The formulaic elements were supposedly vital when performing trolldomr. Therefore, the verb gala, ‘to say’, ‘to speak out loud. utter, sing’ is the focus in this context. Metaphorically, the word also means chanting and singing, but not always with pleasant sounds: it could comprehend ‘to crow, to cry’, or even refer to animal sounds, e.g. repulsive noise, wild cries. The associations of the verb gala are clearly negative. A participal form of the verb galinn, could also be used for describing a person out of his or her mind - insane or bewildered. It is unclear whether this referred to the state of the performer or to the effect of the song or both. This particular state of mind was characteristically interpreted as honourable and at the same time indicated the ambiguous position of the poet and his  praised abilities skaldskapr. The bard was therefore keeper of the social memory and the key to days gone by. Many terms themselves do not indicate any estimation, and connote the possibility of destruction. Bestiality or madness were powerful images of the enemies of harmony and order that characterized the ideals of Miðgarðr. Not surprisingly, a usual punishment for trolldomr  was outlawry.”

 “The importance of destiny must not be understood as that the Norsemen held fatalistic beliefs. Rather it must be understood in terms of knowing the future in order to keep it under some kind of control. Divination rituals and the performance of seiðr, either by Oðinn in the myths, or executed by invited specialists…were expressions of ways of finding keys to hidden parts of reality and measuring what was given. The results of divination marked the limitations of human free will and after the divination ceremony strategies could be made for acting within those limits…They reveal a tension between personal freedom and dependence. [T]he conception of destiny  could also be viewed as a definition of personal freedom. On the one hand, the limits are set and it lies within the human condition to identify them and act within the given space; on the other, choices and their consequences over a longer period of time is an important theme in the sagas. More than a general dependence on fate, it was used in the narratives when explaining something of utmost importance,”

 - Trolldomr in Early Medieval Scandinavia, by Catharina Raudvere,from The Athlone History of Witchcraft & Magic In Europe Volume 3  (all bolding mine)

Life Without Black People

A very humorous and revealing story is told about a group of white people who were fed up with African Americans, so they joined together and wished themselves away. They passed through a deep dark tunnel and emerged in sort of a twilight zone where there is an America without black people.

At first these white people breathed a sigh of relief.

‘At last’, they said, ‘no more crime, drugs, violence and welfare.’

All of the blacks have gone! Then suddenly, reality set in. The ‘NEW AMERICA’ is not America at all - only a barren land.
1. There are very few crops that have flourished because the nation was built on a slave-supported system.

2. There are no cities with tall skyscrapers because Alexander Mils, a black man, invented the elevator, and without it, one finds great difficulty reaching higher floors.

3. There are few if any cars because Richard Spikes, a black man, invented the automatic gearshift, Joseph Gambol, also black, invented the Super Charge System for Internal Combustion Engines, and Garrett A. Morgan, a black man,
invented the traffic signals.

4. Furthermore, one could not use the rapid transit system because its procurer was the electric trolley, which was invented by another black man, Albert R. Robinson.

5. Even if there were streets on which cars and a rapid transit system could operate, they were cluttered with paper because an African American, Charles Brooks, invented the street sweeper..

6. There were few if any newspapers, magazines and books because John Love invented the pencil sharpener, William Purveys invented the fountain pen, and Lee Barrage invented the Type Writing Machine and W. A. Love invented the
Advanced Printing Press. They were all, you guessed it, Black.

7. Even if Americans could write their letters, articles and books, they would not have been transported by mail because William Barry invented the Postmarking and Canceling Machine, William Purveys invented the Hand Stamp and Philip Downing invented the Letter Drop.

8. The lawns were brown and wilted because Joseph Smith invented the Lawn Sprinkler and John Burr the Lawn Mower.

9. When they entered their homes, they found them to be poorly ventilated and poorly heated. You see, Frederick Jones invented the Air Conditioner and Alice Parker the Heating Furnace. Their homes were also dim. But of course, Lewis
Lattimer later invented the Electric Lamp, Michael Harvey invented the lantern, and Granville T. Woods invented the Automatic Cut off Switch. Their homes were also filthy because Thomas W. Steward invented the Mop and Lloyd P. Ray the Dust Pan.

10. Their children met them at the door - barefooted, shabby, motley and unkempt. But what could one expect? Jan E. Matzelinger invented the Shoe Lasting Machine, Walter Sammons invented the Comb, Sarah Boone invented the Ironing Board, and George T. Samon invented the Clothes Dryer.

11. Finally, they were resigned to at least have dinner amidst all of this turmoil. But here again, the food had spoiled because another Black Man, John Standard invented the refrigerator…

Now, isn’t that something? What would this country be like without the contributions of Blacks, as African-Americans?

Martin Luther King, Jr. said, 'by the time we leave for work, millions of Americans have depended on the inventions from the minds of Blacks.’

Black history includes more than just slavery, Frederick Douglass, Martin Luther Kinbg, Jr., Malcolm X, and Marcus Garvey & W.E.B. Dubois.


Of the main signs of Allah’s mercy towards someone is that He starts to reveal that person’s faults to himself so that the person can recognize and make efforts to correct. In dire contrast a major sign of Allah’s anger towards someone is that He hides that person’s faults from himself so that he keeps erring.

Zulfiqar Ahmad

Originally found on: liveyourlifewithsabr

Hedwig... Lottery Rush policy

So there’s going to be a lot of people coming from out of town and out of the country to New York to see Darren in Hedwig, and I wanted to make sure that everyone is aware - especially for you Europeans that are used to going to see shows in the West End in London - the rush policy here in New York is a bit different!  Lottery drawings are much more common than the standard rush policy of first come, first served when the box office opens in the morning.  Some shows are doing that now, but to try to even the odds, especially for high-demand shows like Book of Mormon and Wicked, they do a lottery rush.  Hedwig does as well, and they also sell standing room tickets.  The full policy is as follows:

Lottery Rush: $37 - A minimum of 20 tickets will be sold via lottery for each performance. Beginning two-and-a-half hours before every performance, patrons are invited to enter the lottery at the Belasco Theatre (111 West 44th Street). Winners will be drawn two hours before each performance. Each person will print their name and the number of tickets (1 or 2) they wish to purchase on a card that is provided. Entries will be collected and names will be drawn at random. Winners will then be able to purchase tickets at $37 each. All cards are checked for duplication prior to drawing. Winners must be present at the time of the drawing and show valid ID to purchase tickets. Tickets may be purchased in cash or with a valid credit card. Limit one entry per person and two tickets per winner. Subject to availability. Seat locations may be partial view.

Standing Room: $29 - standing room tickets will be available for purchase at the Belasco Theatre box office beginning 45 minutes prior to curtain on the day of the performance only, but only if the performance is otherwise sold out. Limit 2 tickets per person.

For those of you who will be in town for a while and want to see more shows, the full rush and lottery policies for all shows can be found on for both Broadway and Off-Broadway shows.  Also, much like in Leicester Square in London, we also have TKTS booths, the main one right in Times Square, but there’s also ones down at South Street Seaport and in Downtown Brooklyn.  Times Square ONLY sells discount tickets for same-day performances, but next day matinees can be bought at a discounted price either at the Brooklyn or the South Street Seaport locations.

If you have any other questions about Broadway, NYC, what the lottery process is actually like, or if you want recommendations for shows to see while you’re in town, or anything else at all, feel free to drop me an ask, I don’t bite!  


things you’ll need: 
photoshop (i’m using cs5) 
basic photoshop knowledge 
know how to make a gif (tutorial here or here)

In the following tutorial I am going to be explaining how to color gifs to your full potential and in a style in which you want. The first one is colorful, whilst the second one is pastel with a hint of color change + creativity and the third simply just pastel. I will also give advice on what you should do to get this styles. Please like/reblog if you’ve found this tutorial helpful in anyway. Follow for more like this!

Keep reading

I’ve been watching way way way too much Iron Chef lately, and I wanted to try out that technique where they basically slow braise something in a pan while spooning melted butter over it with various herbs and flavors infusing into it and I did it with some chicken thighs and holy shit let me tell you that I 10000% understand why they do this so much it’s the most delicious chicken I’ve had in a LONG LONG LONG time. The skin was crispy and tasty on the outside, and the meat was tender and moist and I got to use the excess butter and herb mix as a dipping sauce for bread. 10/10 probably going to make again tomorrow at some point. Maybe I’ll make an actual recipe based on what I did. Super simple, super delicious, and looks very impressive if you are going for that fancy dinner party sort of thing. 

Also does anyone know what this method is actually called? 

I may be overreaching but...

I was re-watching some season 1 episodes to fill the mid-season void and when I got to the land before swine I noticed something..

See this shot, anything look strange?

That’s right, McGucket is doing the Bill arms.

Was McGucket actually possessed by Bill at some stage? We know he has some knowledge of him, from the authors notes and Fiddlefords recovered memories. Speaking of which:

Remember in Society of the Blind Eye, young Fiddleford says “I lie awake at night, haunted by the thoughts of what I’ve done”

The thoughts of what I’ve done. Not what we’ve done.

Could Bill, possessing Fiddlefords body, have done things so horrible that it would force Fiddleford to create a machine to erase these memories? 

“If my suspicions are correct, this is the work of Fiddleford. Does he really have to go to such lengths to forget?