know your history

10

Queer History.

The other morning I got into a ‘debate’ over the film Stonewall and one person said he didn’t care about the history of the Stonewall Riots or our queer history in general. Honestly, I couldn’t believe what I was seeing. This person didn’t seem to care that the only reason he (we) has any rights or can even happily come out without the fear of being arrested is because of events like the Stonewall Riots and the people that fought. Yet he enjoys the benefits of it (work equality, marriage, anti-discrimination laws, oh and being able to go to a gay bar and drink/dance the night away). So I wanted to put together a small overview of the riots in the hopes it enlightens anyone or gives someone the nudge to learn more. (If anything is incorrect just leave me a comment, I’m by no means an expert in this). Enjoy. 🏳️‍🌈✌️👭👬

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A few notes on the history of the term “Gender Dysphoria”

Dysphoria has never been a precise term. It literally means “hard to bear” and refers to suffering, depression, restlessness and anxiety. Norman Fisk, the psychiatrist who coined the term “gender dysphoria”, used it to describe a wide range of psychological distress concerning sex and gender that often lead the sufferer to want to change their sex, from “true” transsexuals to people with psychosis. Fisk worked at the gender clinic at Stanford University as part of a team researching transsexualism and sex reassignment. He found that many different kinds of people were coming to him looking to change their sex, not just those who fit the current criteria for transsexualism. This included fetishistic transvestites, “masculine” lesbians and “effeminate” gay men, psychotic people and sociopaths, among others. He created the term “gender dysphoria syndrome” because transsexualism wasn’t broad enough to describe all people with “gender disorders” or who were distressed enough to want to change their body. It was never intended to refer only to what transsexuals experience, quite the opposite in fact.

It’s important to note that by “gender” Fisk was also referring to biological sex as well behavior, social role and psychology. What most people today would categorize separately as sex and gender, Fisk grouped together under “gender”. What some trans and dysphoric people describe as sex dysphoria would have been included as a form of “gender dysphoria” by Fisk.

Fisk wrote that “gender dysphoria syndrome” could present itself in a wide variety of forms and arise for many different reasons. He thought that transsexualism was the most extreme form of gender dysphoria and probably had biological causes. He also believed that dysphoria could be rooted in psychosis, neurosis or sociopathy, that some gay people were gender dysphoric and that transvestism was also a form of gender dysphoria. He thought that some gender non-conforming gay people and some transvestites unconsciously took on the symptoms of transsexualism and sought out sex reassignment to become more socially acceptable and escape the stigma of being “perverted” or otherwise ”deviant”. Thus Fisk used “gender dysphoria syndrome” to describe all manner of “gender disorders”, regardless of if he thought they had biological, psychological or social origins.  

If you’re a gay person who ever felt enough distress about your sex or gender to the point where you wanted to change your body, guess what? “Gender dysphoria” was invented to talk about people like you. It’s part of the history of how gay people, especially gender non-conforming gay people, have been pathologized and medicalized. Fisk explicitly talks about how some homosexuals have gender dysphoria and goes on to to say that some seek out a transsexual diagnosis and want to change their sex due to social pressures and stigma. Lesbians today talking about how we’re dysphoric or how we took on a trans identity and transitioned due to misogyny, lesbophobia and other social pressures aren’t straying too far from the original thinking behind the term. In fact, we’re more faithful to the original conception of “gender dysphoria” than people who insist that only trans people have dysphoria and that it’s entirely rooted in biology.

Whether we should be content with this term is another issue. Do we want to use a term invented by a (presumably) straight male doctor to talk about people with “gender disorders”? It was developed to better classify those deemed abnormal in terms of how they relate to their physical sex and sex role. It’s been used to mark some women as disordered, as psychologically and perhaps even biological distinct from “normal” women. It was never meant to empower us. It certainly wasn’t created to help us move towards greater social and political liberation. 

Fisk created the term partially to legitimize operating on patients who didn’t fit the criteria for transsexualism. This included some patients he saw as gay people and transvestites. The thinking was if these patients could adjust well to living as the other sex and were committed to doing so, why not operate on them? It was easier to make the patient happier by changing their body than to change society to accept the person as they were. Do I really want to use a term invented by a man who could’ve approved me for surgery even if he thought I was a self-hating lesbian caving into social pressure?

I’m not telling anyone to stop using the term “dysphoria” to describe their experience. I still use it. It fills a void. We need some kind of language to talk about what “dysphoria” is presently used to describe. But it’s good to be aware of where that term comes from and the thinking behind it and it’s good to question whether we should work towards new language in the future. Uncovering our history makes us stronger and expands our perceptions. We need to understand how we came to this present situation where many women continue to be pathologized for not fitting the female sex role and end up pursuing transition for social reasons. The better we understand how we got here, the better equipped we’ll be to get beyond this mess and create a world where no woman is “dysphoric”. 


Source:

Fisk, Norman M: Gender dysphoria syndrome: The conceptualization that liberalizes indications for total gender reorientation and implies a broadly based multi-dimensional rehabilitative regime. Western Journal of Medicine 120:386-391, May 1974

Friendly feminist reminder

A woman invented horror and science fiction. (Mary Byshe Shelley: Frankenstein, 1818.)

A woman invented superheroes. (Baroness Emma Orczy: The Scarlet Pimpernel, 1905.)

THESE GENRES WERE INVENTED BY WOMEN. So don’t let anyone ever tell you that they’re ‘not for girls’.

anonymous asked:

I have this friend/acquaintance of less than a year who is Hispanic like me and doesn't believe in Black lives matter. She is an "all lives matter" person. Her argument is, why do black people have to exclude themselves? Native americans, muslims, and Hispanics are also discriminated against. My question is, do you think I should continue to talk some sense to her or should I just stop talking to her and being her friend altogether? I would really value your input.

Well, you are not responsible for your friend’s willful ignorance. And yes, it is willful. But if you want to help a sista out, I assume she can read and use google. That’s literally all it takes–0.65 fucking seconds.

What is it about BLM that offends people? Should marginalized people make no efforts to strive towards equality and fairness?? Historically, it’s effective to have groups that target civil rights protections of specific groups in addition to groups that broadly address everyone’s civil rights. The more, the merrier. 

For example, targeted representation, in no particular order:

  • League of United Latin American Citizens? National Council of La Raza? Hispanic lives matter.   
  • Asian American Justice Center? Asian American Institute? Asian lives matter.
  • Anti-Defamation League? American Jewish Committee? Jewish lives matter.  
  • American Arab Anti Discrimination Committee? Council on American Islamic Relations? Muslim lives matters.
  • American Indian Movement? Native American Rights Fund? Indigenous lives matter.
  • National Organization for Women? League of Women Voters? Women’s lives matter.
  • Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD)? Human Rights Campaign? Queer lives matter. 
  • Children’s Defense Fund? Children’s Advocacy Center? Kid’s lives matter.
  • International Organization for Migration? National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights? Immigrant lives matter.
  • American Disabled for Attendant Programs Today (ADAPT)? American Association of People with Disabilities? Disabled lives matter.

It needs to be understood that like Black Lives Matter, none of these groups is about exclusion. They’re about all of these marginalized groups right to INCLUSION, PROTECTION and EQUALITY. None would exist if the white male supremacy of the establishment hadn’t taken very deliberate actions across history to block our civil rights. 

Does your friend know literally anything about history? How about current events? Does she care to understand, contextualize and THEN form an EDUCATED opinion?

Examples of what these groups have fought/are fighting against:

And to reiterate:

Also, friendly reminder:

In America They Call Us Dykes: Notes On The Etymology And Usage Of "Dyke"

From Sinister Wisdom # 9 1979

By JR Roberts

The women-loving women
in America were called dykes
and some liked it
and some did not . ..
Judy Grahn, from “A History of Lesbianism”

In Sinister Wisdom 6, five Lesbians spoke intensely and articulately concerning the silences in our lives and how patriarchal language has been used
against us, how the fears of vulnerability and censure check our tongues,
rendering us powerless, isolated, and invisible . How the power to name is the
power to be. Lesbians have long been the object of vicious “name-calling”
designed to shut us up, make us shrivel and slink away. Dyke is one of the
words that has been negatively and violently flung at us for more than a
half century . In the Lesbian/Feminist 1970s, we broke the silence on this
tabooed word, reclaiming it for ourselves, assigning to it positive, political
values. The reclamation of dyke has also necessarily involved an historical/
etymological search for its origins. Our generation of Lesbians has been stymied, mystified, and intensely curious as to how and why we have come to
call ourselves dykes.

The term appears to have originated in the United States. Although dyke
is used in England, the terms lesbian, Sapphist, and butch have been traditional there (Partridge 1968). In the United States, dyke is a cross-cultural term found in both Anglo-American and African-American slang. In African-American slang, dyke, as it stands alone, does not seem to have been in widespread use as of 1970, but more commonly appeared in combination with bull to form bull-dyke, signifying an “aggressive female homosexual,” bull-dagger, boon-dagger, and bull-diker being variations. Bull was/is used in Black culture to indicate Lesbian (Major 1970; Berry ‘1972).(1)

The earliest known references using dyke or dike (an earlier? spelling no
longer in wide usage today) to describe “masculine” Lesbians, or Lesbians
generally, date to circa 1920s·1930s, indicating at least a half century of
usage.(2) Partridge indicates that dike denotes a “female homosexual” and that the term comes from the combination bull-dike (Partridge 1968), which
was used among Black people as early as circa 1920s-1930s (AC/DC Blues
1977). Godfrey Irwin, a compiler of tramp and underworld slang, likewise
supports this definition of bull-dike in a letter to Partridge dated September
18, 1937. During the thirties, bull-dike was also being used among prison
inmates at Sing Sing to indicate a woman who practiced oral sex on men
(Haragan 1935, as quoted by Partridge 1968). It is interesting that the homosexual bull-dike and the heterosexual bull-dike were both associated with
so-called “unnatural” and socially unapproved sexual behaviors . This is one
of many connections existing between homosexual slang, heterosexual slang,
and woman-hating slang.(3) By the 1940s we find dike or dyke listed in slang
dictionaries to indicate “masculine woman,” being synonymous with other
words signifying “Lesbian” (Berrey & Van Den Bark 1942 , 1947).

In the pre-Liberation forties, fifties , and sixties, “Lesbian slang” was often
role-related. Dyke/dike and butch were used to signify “masculine” Lesbians
who wore “men’s clothing” (Stanley , June 24 , 1977; Aldrich 1955 :54) .
“Feminine” Lesbians were femmes or fluffs (Vice Versa 1:6, November 1947).
Among Midwest Black Lesbians the words stud and fish were used respectively (Sawyer 1965). Special terms indicating varying degrees of “mannishness” were formed by adding prefixes, for example : bull-dyke, diesel dyke,
stompin ’ diesel dyke. As Lesbian linguist Julia Stanley indicates, dyke in our
own time, the Lesbian/Feminist seventies, has undergone a change in meaning from a once pejorative term to a politically charged definition. This has occurred within the liberation movements of Lesbians and gays. “To be a
dyke or a faggot,” writes Julia , “refers to one ’s political identity as a gay
activist . .. but redefining old terms that have been pejoratives for so long
is not an easy process, nor is it something that takes place overnight. Among
women, new definitions are being made among usages of old terms. As we
redefine the old pejorative labels making them our own, what we choose to
call ourselves also takes on political meaning, defining one’s political position”
(Stanley 1974:390-391).

The personal is political. The personal is also historical. On many levels
we Lesbians today have experienced historical/political transformations.
Sometimes it is possible to recall an exact time and place where transformations occurred. Although I don’t ever recall having used the word dyke in the old pejorative sense, I do remember when I first began using dyke in a liberated sense. It was late 1973; I had just “come out” via the Lesbian/
Feminist Movement. During a conversation with an older Lesbian friend who
had come out years earlier without the aid of a movement, I referred to the
two of us as dykes . Her reaction was equivalent to “Hey, wait a minute!
Watch yer mouth!”, as if I had uttered some terrible obscenity . She then
proceeded to enlighten me as to the older, negative meaning . But, I said, I
don’t see it that way at all. To me dyke is positive; it means a strong, independent Lesbian who can take care of herself. As I continued with the movement, dyke took on even stronger political implications than “activist.” It
signified woman-identified culture, identity, pride and strength - women, alone and together, who live consciously and deliberately autonomous lives ,
no longer seeking definitions or approvals according to male values. Soon
my older friend also began identifying positively with the word dyke.

Exercising this new power of self-definition, we now have a variety of
names and definitions with which to describe our many political selves. Our
Lesbian lifestyle is very diverse, and our use of language and choice of names
and definitions reflect our many cultural, racial, ethnic, class, regional, and
political backgrounds, as well as our generational perspectives. Today the
straight world continues to use dyke in the old pejorative sense. There are a
number of Lesbians who do also, and are repulsed by it. These Lesbians may
not have been exposed to the current movement, or, being concerned with
their status and survival in the straight world, they may reject the term as
harmful. There is also a segment of the Lesbian population which grew up ,
came out , and participated in the earlier Lesbian culture before 1970 who
retain the negative definition they have always known . So the definition of
dyke has changed only for some Lesbians, not for all.

There are some questions to be wondered about. If dyke has different
definitions today, is it possible that there were different definitions in earlier
times? Did all Lesbians before the 1970s generally define dyke negatively?
Was it such a distasteful term, or were there those Lesbians who felt a sense
of pride at being labeled dyke? What did it mean to them? Where did the
American tradition of the “mannish” Lesbian as dike/dyke come from?
The term dike or dyke had probably been around to some extent before
the 1930s-1940s when it first began to be documented in slang dictionaries.
Slang terms often originate among special groups, some of which are “outcasts” of mainstream society whose members feel alienated from the values of the dominant culture. Such groupings may be based on age, race, ethnic, or class background. Among such groups have been the younger generation, Blacks, hoboes, criminals, street people, artists and writers, gays and Lesbians.

The creation of new words and new definitions for old words serves a social
and political purpose: it may constitute an act of power and rebellion for
those who feel and are powerless; or it may provide a sense of validation
and identity denied by the dominant culture, thus becoming a source of
social/cultural cohesion and pride - a language of one’s own. A new language
helps to articulate a new society. Some slang terms may even be adopted
by the dominant culture, eventually becoming “Standard English,” or they
may fall into disuse or remain the linguistic property of the special group.
Slang terms may be collected and listed in published lexicons, dictionaries ,
and thesauri. Definitions may change with time. These are slow, complicated
evolutions influenced by social, economic, political, and intellectual ideas
and events in the dominant culture and among those outcast groups.

Currently, there are several theories concerning the etymology of dyke or
dike, which are threaded together by the androgynous concept of the “manly-
woman.” Several have to do with ancient Greek legends. Poet Elsa Gidlow
raises the possibility that the word dyke may have had its origins in the
Greek word dike, that is Athene , the “manly-woman ” who is the principle
of total order (Stanley , June 24, 1977). There is also the related Flexner and
Wentworth (1975) hypothesis that dike probably came from hermaphrodite,the -dite being “clipped” off and later evolving into dike, due to a regional
(Coney Island??) mispronunciation. Cordova adds support to this hypothesis
when she reports conversations with older Lesbians who indicate the folk belief that the root word of dyke was once hermaphrodite, with its origins in
the Greek myth of Hermes and Aphrodite who join to create the androgynous
creature (Cordova 1974:22). Of the -dite to dike theory, Julia Stanley comments: “For reasons of my own, I’ve never bought the -dite to dike explanation, primarily because /t/ hardly ever becomes /k/ in natural languages. I’m not saying it’s impossible, especially in an unstressed syllable, where an alveolar might be heard as a velar, just that it’s unlikely” (Stanley, June 24, 1977).

My own recent research has turned up an interesting, but never before
cited, usage of dike dating from late nineteenth and early twentieth century
America, representing another possible, and perhaps more viable, origin, based in the social customs of the people rather than in classical allusion. Both
Schele de Vere (1871) and Clapin (1902) in their compilations of Americanisms indicate dike as denoting a man in full dress, or merely the set of male
clothing itself. Schele de Vere says this is a “peculiar American cant term,
as yet unexplained.” Clapin, however, indicates that dike likely resulted from
the corruption of the Old English dight (Anglo-Saxon origin). Dight meant
to dress, clothe; to adorn, deck oneself (Johnson, 2nd ed., 1827). In listing
dike, Mathews (1951) indicates a possible connection between dight and the
English dialect dick, both of which meant “to deck or adorn.” By 1856
dight was cited by Hall as being nearly obsolete in the United States, while
diked and diked out were in use. The word dike probably came to America
with the English at the time of colonization, but once in America other
usages may have developed . Both Clapin and Schele de Vere indicate that
dike was not only used as a verb, but also as a noun to describe a person of
either sex who was all dressed up. However, dike as a person or as a set of
clothing most often referred to the male sex.

There is growing evidence that during this same time period a number of
women in both the United States and Europe were adopting male attire, both
permanently and on occasion. Katz has called some of these women “Passing
Women” (Katz 1976: Ch. 3). These women dressed, lived, voted, worked -
literally “passed”-as men in the mainstream culture. Some were of the middle
and upper classes, or were artists. Others were independent, working class
women who took on the guise of men in order to survive in a world where
women had few options. As “men,” these women, some of whom were Lesbians, married other women and raised families. They could live and enjoy
their lives with women and still participate in the greater opportunities and privileges awarded to men. This choice was often based in explicit or covert
feminism. When discovered, however, these women were often punished by
society- arrested, fined, imprisoned, exposed, and forbidden to wear male
clothing. Sometimes the contemporary media picked up on the appearances
of these “she-men,” and a number of rather sensational articles appeared.
accompanied by photographs and drawings. Some of these graphics which
are reproduced in Katz indicate women dressed in a “full set of male clothing” - from hat to suit, to cane or umbrella, watch fobs and chains, to vests
and shoes. Lesbians and other radical women - such as the feminist Mary C. Walker, Harriet Hosmer, and Edmonia Lewis, the Black/Native American sculptor-were also dressing in much the same manner in the United States and Europe, not especially for the purpose of “passing” as men, but for the real and implied emotional, political, and social freedoms inherent in the male costume.
This radical expression of emancipation (which has centuries of tradition behind it) continued well into the twentieth century and included both women of color and white women.

It seems possible that in the American culture where the term dike denoted “the full set of male clothing” or “a man in full dress,” this term could also have been applied to women who dressed in such clothing. Possibly these early radical women, dressing and passing in male clothing, both permanently and on occasion, were in fact our first dike sisters in America.

Again, Julia Stanley, who feels that the above etymology for dyke is the
most viable she has heard, comments: “Your proposed etymology doesn’t
exclude the possibility that Wentworth and Flexner were correct in their
hypothesis. That is, you may have come up with the 'missing link’ in the
semantic development of the word dyke, since it is stretching it a bit to re-
late it to the Germanic ditch” (Stanley, June 24,1977).

If my hypothesis is correct, it could further be proposed that the meaning
of dike was changing during the time period from the late nineteenth century
to circa 1930s-1940s, that dike had begun passing from a predominantly
positive male and/or neutral meaning to a derogatory female slang term.
Linguistically, it may have gone through a process called “degeneration of
meaning.” By the 1930s dike, preceded by the equally tabooed bull, had
been assigned sexual and derogatory meanings which could be applied both
to Lesbians and to heterosexual women practicing tabooed sexual behaviors.
By the 1940s-1950s-1960s the pejorative term dike/dyke was almost exclusively applied to “masculine” Lesbians, with other meanings becoming more obscure, though not yet obsolete. Linguists have found that this “process of degeneration” is a pattern often occurring to words which make such a male
to female transition.

For this same period of possible linguistic change, there is growing evidence
indicating a general altering of attitudes toward women’s relationships with each other.(4) Increasingly more negative aspects were being assigned to such relationships in the twentieth century than had been assigned them in the
nineteenth century. Medical and psychiatric science was labeling such relationships “unnatural,” “degenerate,” and “sick.” All manner of “masculine”
characteristics of both a biological and psychological nature were attached
to Lesbian women, as well as to other women who “deviated” from traditional , “god-given,” (male-defined) “ female roles.” Speculating once again -
since words and their meanings are used to reinforce the values of a given
society, it may be that the linguistic change described above was related to
the social/political change concerning definitions of Lesbianism and female
sex roles. If a concept is assigned negative values, then the language used to
describe that concept will also assume negative meaning. The language becomes a vehicle by which the value is perpetuated. Thus dike, once used to
describe a well-dressed male, becomes a vulgar and hateful epithet to be
hurled at women who rebel against confining roles and dress styles.

It is interesting to note how our “new” radical definitions echo the “old” radical traditions as signified by the term dike/dyke. Betty Birdfish, a friend
in Chicago , wrote to me about a Lesbian dance to be held there, and how
"wimmin are talking about 'dyking themselves up’ for it.” In my next letter,
I asked Betty exactly what that meant-“dyking ourselves up.” She responded :

About 'dyking ourselves up’: I think it can mean a whole lot of things.
In general, dressing up so one feels most beautiful, most proud of herself. I’ve seen that take many forms in the dyke community, at events.
For example, Allison with her hair in corn rows and beads, wearing African garb. Or Jogie with a tuxedo and panama hat. Or Beverly looking like
a gypsy with loose-flowing clothes, jewelry, scarves and wearing scented
oil. Or wimmin with tailored blazers and slacks and vests. Or even wimmin
with long-flowing ankle length skirts or dresses. Many interpretations.
Many expressions. For me 'dyking myself up’ has been getting more definite in its expression lately . For the dance I wore a pair of high-waisted
black slacks, a white shirt with tie and pin, and a black satin, double-breasted, padded-shouldered, very tailored, old jacket. I felt very strong
and beautiful in it. Before the dance, I had 'practiced’ dyking myself up
in a more radical way: I put on a different long sleeve shirt with collar
and a silk tie that has wimmin together painted on it. I put my hair up in
a bun, very close to my head so that it looked short, and put on a 'mannish’ (I wish I had another word) straw hat. I looked like old-timey photos
of Lesbians who you know had longer hair, who put it up, dyked up in
suits, waistcoats, or tuxedos . I liked the way I looked, but wasn’t ready
to go 'out’ yet in full dyke array. So I modified it for the dance . For me,
'dyking up’ means the tailored suit: elegant, comfortable and strong. I
guess I don’t see this wear as just a 'masculine ’ privilege - but clothing that
wimmin/dykes can wear to feel good in. I think I’m no longer as afraid
of feeling 'butchy’: to work on my body , to develop muscles and strength,
to be more active physically (sports , karate, etc.), to move with more
force, strength, confidence. I’m realizing how stifled I’ve been by society
which condemns this development in wimmin . And I realize how our own dyke community continues to condemn it by labelling it 'butchy’ and
therefore 'male-identified’ and therefore wrong. I don’t care anymore
(in my head-but not yet in my gut) about all those condemnations-I want to grow in ways I know I’ve always wanted to.
(Betty Birdfish, August 4, 1977)

For the Lesbian of yesteryear, getting “diked up” may have had the same
exhilarating, liberating, and fearful effects it has for contemporary Lesbians,
but even more so since few women at that time wore pants. To wear “male
clothing” before the advent of trousers for women and the so-called “unisex”
fashions of today, was indeed radical and revolutionary. It signified a rebellion against male-defined roles for women, which “women’s clothing” symbolized and perpetuated by rendering women passive, dependent, confined, and vulnerable. Yet this autonomous act of rebellion also made women vulnerable to punishment, ridicule, and ostracism.(5)

Dike/dyke need not remain a vulgar epithet of self-hate, shame, and
negativism, a term signifying “masculine.” This is the definition which a
heterosexist, dyke-hating society has formulated and which many Lesbians
past and present have unquestioningly accepted. By defining some of us as
“men” and some of us as “women,” society has sought to divide us, to create
inequality based on heterosexual roles, thereby defusing the political power
of women loving women, reducing it to a pseudo-heterosexuality which,
according to their thinking, is both artificial and inferior to the “real thing.”
Dike/dyke still remains a word hidden in history. But this new etymology
suggests the possibility of some quite radical origins. Rather than wincing
at the word dyke, we might better remember and commemorate those early
Lesbians and feminists who refused “women’s clothing” and “women’s roles.”
They may have been our first dyke sisters.


Notes

(1)Bull was a tabooed word circa early twentieth century, not to be used in mixed company, signifying “the male of the species,” Less offensive terms like “top cow” were often substituted. Bull bitch was a rural term applied to “masculine” women (Wentworth 1944; Wentworth and Flexner 1975).

(2) Earlier, at the turn of the century, dyke was one of many slang terms denoting the vulva (Farmer and Henley 1890-1904 : 338).

(3)See “Sexist Slang and the Gay Community: Are You One, Too?” by Julia Stanley and Susan W. Robbin s. Available from 1. Stanley , Department of English, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln , Nebraska 68588.

(4) See Carroll Smith Rosenberg , “Th e Female World of Love and Ritual : Relations between Women in Nineteenth Century America,” Signs I : I (Autumn 1975) : 1-19 ; AIice Echols, “The Demise of Female Intimacy in the Nineteenth Century or There wasn’t a Dyke in the Land,’” unpublished paper, n .d .. 34 pp.

(5) It should be noted that these vulnerabilities were not experienced by women only in nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. As late as 1968, Lesbians were being arrested in Dallas and Houston, Texas for wearing “men’s clothing.” See: “Special Release to the Ladder.” The Ladder 13: ½ (October/November 1968):4041; “Who Can Tell Boys from Girls.” The Ladder 13: ½ (October/November 1968) :41-42

SOURCES
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Berrey, Lester V. and Van den Bark, Melvin. American Thesaurus of Slang. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1942, 1947.

Berry, Leonard J.Prison. N.p.: Subsistence Press, 1972.

Betty Birdfish (Alwin). Letter to JR Roberts. Chicago, Illinois (August 4,1977). Collection of JR Roberts.

Clapin, Sylva. A New Dictionary of Americanisms. New York: Louis Weiss, 1902.

Cordova, Jeanne. “What’s in a Name?” Lesbian Tide (June 1974):21-22 .

Farmer, 1.S. and Henley , W.E. Slang and Its Analogues (J890-1904) . Reprinted ed. , New York: Arno Press, 1970.

Hall, Benjamin H. A Collection of College Words and Customs. 2nd ed. Cambridge: John Bartlett, 1856 (1851). Reprinted ed ., Detroit: Gale Research, 1968.

Hargan, James. “The Psychology of Prison Language.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 30 (1935):359-365. (Note: the “more unprintable expressions” such as bull-dike were omitted from the published list, but were available upon request to those who were “especially interested in the subject.”)

Johnson , Samuel. A Dictionary of the English Language. 3 vols. 2nd ed. London: Longman , Rees, Orne, Brown, and Green et al., 1827.

Katz, Jonathan. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A . New York:Thomas Y. Crowell, 1976. Pb., Avon, 1978.

Major, Clarence. Dictionary of Afro·American Slang. New York : International Publishers,1970.

Mathews, Mitford. A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles. 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Partridge, Eric. A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. 7th ed. 1967; Supplement 1970. New York: MacMillan, 1970.

Partridge, Eric. A Dictionary of the Underworld. 3rd ed. London : Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., 1968.

Schele de Vere, Maximillian. Americanisms: The English of the New World. New York: Charles Scribner and Co., 1872.

Stanley, Julia P. Letter to JR Roberts. Lincoln, Nebraska (June 24, 1977). Collection of JR Roberts.

Stanley, Julia P. “When We Say 'Out of the Closets!’” College English (November 1974): 385-39l.

Sawyer, Ethel. “Study of a Public Lesbian Community.” Masters Thesis, Washington University. St. Louis, Missouri. 1965 .

Vice Versa 1:6 (November 1947) . (Includes discussion of role-related slang; examined by Elizabeth Bouvier at the Homosexual Information Center Library, Hollywood, Calif.)

Wentworth, Harold. American Dialect Dictionary. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1944.

Wentworth, Harold and Flexner, Stuart B. Dictionary of American Slang. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1975.

What has happened with the anons on Jenny’s blog (@jennyboom21) is absurd; it’s clear that most of the users here don’t know even recent history never mind 4-5 years ago.

 I can’t claim this chart to be complete - it’s just the beginning - but it shows that this is a small and intertwined network.

 I am posting this as a basis for further questions and conversations.


Africans, and their descendants, were America’s first cowboys. Originally a cowboy was an African who worked with cattle, just as a ‘houseboy’ worked in The Big House. As you may recognize the term 'boy’ at the end which was invariably used disrespectful by White men towards Blacks. Most people are not conscious of the number of cowboys of the American West that were Black, contrary to how the film industry and the media have portrayed them. Only recently have we begun to recognize the African roots of cowboy culture. Many details of cowboy life, work, and even material culture can be traced to the Fulani, America’s first cowboys.

Just Madison Things™ that Eric Bittle does

Because of these posts and my non-existant self control

  • the nearest real city is Athens and if you think Bitty isn’t there every weekend there’s football you’re wrong
  • should win the Slowest Walker award. its more an amble or a stroll
  • would never ever pass anyone on the street and even more so never on the stairs. it’s bad luck.
  • dirt roads mean washing his truck more than should be humanly possible, but also driving fast down a dirt road so you don’t feel every bump when it’s all washborded out
  • more on roads- what in the ever loving hell is a snowplow???
  • even more on roads- why the hell would you ever jaywalk? to where???? the garbage can so you can throw away some stranger’s litter? (Bless their sweet little darlin’ heart!)
  • is in denial that the Atlanta Thrashers ever left. They’re just on a long off season.
  • stops to talk to anyone at any time. Had a class together once freshman year before you dropped it three days in? Bitty is gonna ask about your momma and your dog because “Lord honey, that’s just how you do things”
  • going to Murder Stop n Shop means ‘going into town’ 
  • is frankly apalled at the lack of farm stands on the side of the road
  • Thank The Lord there aren’t half a dozen of those awful ‘southern charm’ boutiques on the square- probably because there’s no square
  • complains that there are no antebellum homes to decorate at Christmas and make the cold less awful
  • making friends with history nerds read: Jack Zimmermann and informing him that Madison was the only city spared on Sherman’s March to the Sea because it’s the only Georgia history he knows

whatdoesthistellyou  asked:

thanks for your tags on the gwen araujo post. i know the history of gay/trans panic but i hadn't connected it to how it's used in (many many) fandoms, that is a very good point, thank you

Thanks, @whatdoesthistellyou. “Gay panic” gets so, so terribly misused in fandom. Even as many times as I’ve seen it used to mean “someone is panicking about realizing that they’re not straight,” it’s not something I’ve gotten used to. 

To review (bc this is something I never feel like we can say too much):

“Gay panic” and “trans panic” are the names of legal defenses that have been used to excuse people who murder, rape, and/or assault LGBTQ people.

The principle behind the defense is that learning that someone is gay or trans, and particularly men realizing that they might be attracted to a man or transwoman, is so very horrific that murder is an understandable and acceptable reaction.

“Gay panic” and “trans panic” are about as deeply homophobic, transphobic, cissexist, and horrific as it gets. They are the legal embodiment of the idea that gay and trans people’s lives don’t matter. They are the legal embodiment of the idea that being LBGTQ is repulsive and disgusting - so much so that someone might be legally justified in stamping out the existence of gay and trans people.

When people use the terms “gay panic” or “trans panic” in shipping lgbtq characters to refer to a moment of difficult realization, they are, in fact, evoking a horrific history of homophobic abuse of LGBTQ people.

If you can know what “gay panic” and “trans panic” mean, what they are, what they do, and still use them for your lighthearted shipping fun, it is perhaps time for a long, hard look in the mirror.

Where is the lie???? LMBO this post gave me so much life.

 Revelation 1:14-15 (KJV)

14 His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.

Without Big Time Rush, there would be no One Direction or 5 seconds of Summer.

Without The Cheetah Girls, there would be no 5th Harmony or Little Mix.

These 2 iconic groups ushered in the modern boyband/girl group era and their impact & legacy in both the music AND television industries is the reason that these other “groups” have even had a chance to succeed. Know your history and put some respect on their names.Without their contributions these groups would be NOTHING