Illustration of Romanian Army uniforms, 1913. On the foreground (left to right) are: artillerist; light infantryman; militiaman; line infantryman. On the background are: hussar (red); hussar (black); gendarme; officer (holding the flag). The backmost figures on horseback is a general and general staff officer.
Hello! To start off your Ambassador work, can you tell us about any words in your native language that you think are pretty? Thank you! (If you would like a different question, let me know)!
Ah, the question is alright! I’ll gladly take it!
How about I speak of the language first, so we’d get you used to what the Romanian language is!~
To start off, the Romanian language (Limba română) is classified within the Romance family of languages (alongside French, Italian and Spanish) and it’s spoken by approximately 24-26 million people as a native tongue. It is also an official language of the EU as well as the Latin Union.
The earliest documented history regarding the roots of the Romanian language date back to the first centuries AD, during the settlement of Dacian peoples over present-day Romanian land.
Romanian is widely considered to be the closest Romance language to it’s root, Latin, as there are many words in modern Romanian that are closely akin to what Latin words sounded like, thanks to the influence of the Latin spoken by the military of the Roman Empire during the the conquest of Dacia.
After the withdrawal of the Romans, along came a flow of foreign influence from neighboring languages which affected Romanian in various ways: such as the influence of Finno-Ugric languages, like Hungarian, or the Slavic languages within the Middle Ages (Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian); and to some degree, there are traces of Greek and Turkic influence, too.
The only text which showed the oldest trace of early Romanian was a document named “The letter of Neacșu of Câmpulung” (Română: Scrisoarea lui Neacșu de la Câmpulung)
Written using Cyrillic, it was sent by Neacșu Lupu, a peasant from Dalgo Pole, Wallachia (now Câmpulung, Romania) to Johannes Benkner, the mayor of Brassó, Kingdom of Hungary (now Brașov, Romania), warning him about the imminent attack of the Ottoman Empire on Transylvania. The letter contains a phrase which comes from Old Church Slavonic, namely “I pak” which roughly translates to “And again”.
The Romanian language is mainly a phonetic language, meaning it is spelled the way it’s written, but there are a couple of letters which have a different pronunciation, thus having no exact equivalent in English:
ă , ț , ș , î , â . (I advise you to look up a spoken spelling of these letters, as I would have a hard time describing how they sound exactly!!)
Now, onto the actual subject matter of your inquiry! The most beautiful words in Romanian are prevalent in poems!~ They’re very pleasing for a Romanian speaker to hear, or at least that’s what I think.
Făptură - “fragile being” or “critter”
Văzduh - “forest breeze”
Ibovnic - “lover”
Oacheș - “swathy”
Dor - this word is unique to the Romanian language, as there’s no English translation to it at all! What it’s supposed to mean is the description of a feeling of melancholy and loneliness, akin to when you’re missing someone’s company!
Wearing her father’s necklace and looking radiant, Elizabeth made her entrance into the ancient abbey in a dress that had taken 3,000 clothes coupons and bore 10,000 pearls. Some 2,000 guests were waiting, among them one of the largest gatherings of royalty since the time of Queen Victoria. All eyes were on the silk-clad figure as she walked down the long nave. There was an awareness that history was being made; all the ritual of a royal wedding in this building so alive with past spectacle. Princess Marina, who had helped to facilitate the match with private meetings at Coppins between her young cousin, Prince Philip, and her niece, Princess Elizabeth, was delighted. The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester were waiting in some trepidation as Prince William was to hold the long train of her dress as a page. From across Europe they came drawn to this great royal reunion, like times of old. Many were direct descendants of Queen Victoria, such as King Michael of Romania, Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain and Queen Ingrid of Sweden; others were related by marriage, such as Uncle Charles.
The wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Prince Philip
The Krashovani (Romanian: Carașoveni, Croatian: Krašovani) are a South Slavic community inhabiting Carașova and Lupac in the Caraș-Severin County within Romanian Banat. They are regarded as and predominantly self-identify as Croats. They are Roman Catholic by faith and speak the Torlakian dialect Their dialect is regarded a sub-dialect of the Torlak dialect,a transitional dialect spoken in southeastern Serbia, westernmost Bulgaria and northeastern Macedonia.
Their ancestors first settled Carașova in the 13th and 14th centuries from northwestern Bosnia. They formed a community in the northern plateau of the Caraș river, in seven villages, the oldest, Carașova, being mentioned in the 13th and 14th centuries while the rest are first mentioned in the 17th century.S erbian ethnographer Jovan Cvijić concluded that the community was “very old settlers with origin in Crna Reka who were Catholicised”; Stanko Žuljić claims that their origin is in Turopolje, in Croatia. The Carașoveni were considered Bulgarians by some Bulgarian scientists in the first half of the 20th century (such as G. Cibrus, M. Mladenov, K. Telbizov, and T. Balkanski), partially based on their view that Torlakian-speakers are ethnically Bulgarians.According to the Austrian population census there were over 10,000 Carașoveni in Banat. In the 1847 census over 10,000 people declared as Carașoveni. In 1896 the Austro-Hungarian census around 7,500 Carașoveni were listed. The same was stated by the authorities of the Kingdom of Romania in 1940. Their number dropped to 2,775 in 1992. Ever since the Romanian Revolution, the government of Romania has awarded special minority status and privileges to its ethnic Serb citizens. The Democratic Union of Serbs and Krashovani of Romania (Uniunea Democratică a Sârbilor si Carașovenilor din România) was founded in 1992.
51,000 fathers, brothers, sons, died a cruel death because they were fighters against the Fascist murder-regime.
51,000 mothers, and women, and hundreds of thousands of children accuse/denounce!
We left alive, we witnesses to the Nazi bestialities watched our comrades fall in impotent rage.
If there was one thing keeping us alive it was one thought:
The day of revenge will come!
Today we are free!
We thank the allied armies, the Americans, Englishmen, Soviets, and all armies of freedom that fought to give us and the entire world freedom and life.
We take this opportunity to thank the great friend of the Anti-Fascists in all countries, an organizer, and initiator of the fight for a new, democratic, peaceful world.
F. D. Roosevelt
Honor be to his legacy!
Russians, Frenchmen, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, and Germans, Spaniards, Italians, and Austrians, Belgians and Dutchmen, Englishmen, Luxembourgians, Romanians, Yugoslavs, and Hungarians
fought together against the SS, against the Nazi criminals, for our own liberation.
We carried one ideal:
Our cause is just! victory must be ours!
In many languages, we fought the same hard, merciless, costly fight and this fight is not yet over. Hitler’s flags still fly! The murderers of our comrades still live! Our sadistic torturers are still roaming freely! Thus we swear, in front of all the world, on this roll call square, this site of Fascist horror:
We shall only cease fighting when the very last guilty one stands before the judges of this earth!
The eradication of Nazism including its roots is our watchword. The construction of a new world of peace and freedom is our goal. That’s what we owe to our murdered comrades and their loved ones.
To show your readiness for this fight, raise your hand for the oath and repeat after me:
1. Austrian Empire: Crown of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor 2. German Empire: German State Crown 3. Russian Empire: Great Imperial Crown 4. Kingdom of Hungary: Holy Crown of Saint Stephen 5. German Empire: Crown of the German Empress 6. Kingdom of Bohemia: Crown of St. Wenceslas 7. Kingdom of Prussia: Crown of Wilhelm II 8. German Empire: Crown of the Crown Prince 9. Kingdom of Bavaria: Royal crown of Bavaria 10. United Kingdom: Crown of St. Edward 11. United Kingdom: Crown of Queen Victoria 12. Kingdom of Italy: Royal crown of Italy 13. Archduchy of Austria: Archducal coronet 14. Kingdom of Sweden: Crown of the Swedish Crown Prince 15. Kingdom of Romania: Steel Crown of Romania
So, Romania is a relatively young state. Before the founding of Romania the Romanians lived approximately in three official principalities: Moldavia, Transylvania and Wallachia. But as throughout Europe borders were constantly changing. Just look at this fascinating gif-map.
Here is a list of what some countries are called in Dutch:
United Kingdom - Verenigd Koninkrijk
United States - Verenigde Staten
Canada - Canada
Australlia - Australië
France – Frankrijk Germany – Duitsland (a bit like “Deutschland”) Austria - Oostenrijk Hungary - Hongarije Romania - Roemenië Bulgaria - Bulgarije Italy - Italië Spain - Spanje The Netherlands - Nederland Sweden - Zweden Norway - Noorwegen Iceland - IJsland Finland - Finland Denmark - Denemarken Poland - Polen Lithuania - Litouwen Estonia - Estland Latvia - Letland Russia - Rusland Belarus - Wit-Rusland (literally white Russia) Ukraine - Oekraïne China – China (pronounced like”she-na”) Japan - Japan North Korea & South Korea - Noord-Korea & Zuid-Korea Philippines - Filipijnen Brasil - Brazilië Argentina - Argentinië Chile - Chili Malaysia - Maleisië
Transylvanian Saxons- Throughout much of the Middle Ages, the Holy Roman Empire practiced Ostsiedlung or “east settling”, settling Germans from the more populated modern western Germany to the relatively less populated eastern Europe. In the case of the Transylvanian Saxons, they are the decendents of Teutonic Knights invited by King Andrew II of Hungary in 1211 to defend Transylvania, at the time the farthest eastern part of the Kingdom of Hungary. Along with the previously discussed Szeklers, Transylvanian Saxons had privileged status in Transylvania, one which they began to lose following the Austro-Hungarian Union. Following the end of World War I, many Transylvanian Saxons supported Transylvanian unification with the newly independent Kingdom of Romania, and were given full minority rights. However following the end of World War II, many Transylvanian Saxons were deported by the Soviet army to Ukraine, believing they were Nazi collaborators. Since German reunification and the fall of the Communist Romanian government, many Transylvanian Saxons have immigrated back to Germany. Today Transylvanian Saxons make up only 0.28% of the Romanian population. Despite this in 2014, Romania elected Transylvanian Saxon Klaus Iohannis, becoming the first Romanian president of an ethnic minority