king nebuchadnezzar ii

World History: Ishtar Gate

The Ishtar Gate was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon. It was constructed in about 575 BCE by order of King Nebuchadnezzar II on the north side of the city. Dedicated to the Babylonian goddess Ishtar, the gate was constructed using glazed brick with alternating rows of bas-relief mušḫuššu (dragons) and aurochs (bulls), symbolizing the gods Marduk and Adad respectively.It was excavated in the early 20th century and a reconstruction using original bricks is now shown in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. [x]


Esoteric Origins of Alchemy

Early alchemists Zosimus and Isis said alchemical knowledge came from fallen angels sexually attracted to human women. The early Christian church fathers believed them and claimed the angels had sinned against the orders of god. Who were these angels?
The Book of Enoch (Enoch 1), the Book of the Secrets of Enoch (Enoch 2) and the Book of Jubilees contain more details about the fallen angels referred to in Genesis. Enoch 2 was probably written by a Hellenistic Jew in the first century CE. Enoch 1 and the Book of Jubilees are Jewish works of the intertestamental period written down in the second century BCE. The information contained in them is much older than the date of these manuscripts.
Enoch was the great grandfather of Noah. Genesis 5: 22-24 says, “And E-noch walked with God after he begat Me-thu-se-lah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: And all the days of E-noch were three hundred sixty and five years: And E-noch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.” The Books of Enoch describe how he was taken to the heavens after a tour of the
earth: “The Lord spoke, ‘Have no fear, Enoch, good man and scribe of goodness. Come hear my voice. Go speak to the Watcher of Heaven, who have sent you to intercede for them. Tell them: You should intercede for men, and not men for you. Why did you leave lofty, holy Heaven to sleep with women, to defile yourselves with the daughters of men and take them as your wives…?’” After God’s rhetorical admonition against his lustful yet loving angels he said to Enoch, “As for the Watcher who sent you to intercede for them, tell them: ‘You were in Heaven but the mysteries were not revealed to you. You knew worthless ones, and in the hardness of your hearts you revealed these to women, and through these secrets women and men work much evil [on] earth.’ Say to them, ‘You have no peace.’" After his audience with God, angels including the archangel Uriel took Enoch on journeys through hell and heaven. From there the angel Raguel took him to the Seven Mountains in the Northwest and the Tree of Life. “Fragrant trees encircled the throne. Among them was a tree like no other. Its fragrance was beyond all fragrance, and its leaves and blooms and wood never withered….” Michael, the leader of the angels tells Enoch, “As for this fragrant tree, no mortal is permitted to touch it till the great judgment….” Enoch was instructed by the Lord to write down what had been revealed to him and to teach the people this wisdom. He did so in 366 books. Scholars believe the meaning of the name Enoch stems from a variant of the Hebrew root connoting “to train, to educate.” Scholars have been able to verify the general historical accuracy of the Old Testament by comparing the biblical episodes to much older parallel chronicles written in cuneiform characters on clay tablets from the ancient Mesopotamian kingdoms of Assyria and Babylonia. The oldest of all are from Sumer. Shumer is “land of the Watchers” in Akkadian, the root semitic language used by the Assyrians and Babylonians. The Sumerian King List records all the rulers of earth back over 400,000 years. This huge stretch of time coupled with reigns into the thousands of years has caused most historians to reject its accuracy. However all the early rulers were gods—immortals. The King List does record the reign of Enmeduranki whose name meant “ruler whose me connect Heaven and Earth.” A tablet described by W.G. Lambert tells a story similar to Enoch’s: “Enmeduranki [was] a prince in Sippar, beloved of Anu, Enlil and Ea. Shamash in the Bright Temple appointed him. Shamash and Adad [took him] to the assembly [of the gods]… They showed him how to observe oil on water, a secret of Anu, Enlil and Ea. They gave him the Divine Tablet, the kibdu secret of Heaven and Earth… They taught him how to make calculations with numbers.” Anu, Enlil, Ea, Shamash and Adad were Sumerian gods called Anunnaki meaning “those who from Heaven to Earth came.”
A tablet referred to as CBS 14061 describes an incident paralleling the Enochian marriage of an angel to a human woman. The tablet tells of a young god named Martu who fell in love with the daughter of the high priest of Nin-ab. Martu complained to his goddess mother, “In my city I have friends, they have taken wives. I have companions, they have taken wives. In my city, unlike my friends, I have not taken a wife; I have no wife, I have no children.” Martu’s mother asked him if the woman he desired “appreciated his gaze.” Then the goddess gave her consent to the marriage. Enlil the leader of the gods on Earth became increasingly upset over the pollution of Anunnaki blood by these marriages and over the young Anunnaki gods becoming more interested in freedom and idyllic life on earth than taking orders from Enlil. He said “I will destroy the Earthling whom I have created off the face of the Earth.” The peoples of ancient civilization, Sumerians, Egyptians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Hittites, Hebrews etc., in their sacred writings all describe gods that physically dwelt on Earth. This was aside from their writings on philosophy and mysticism. According to the Sumerians these gods came from the planet Nibiru, “planet of the crossing;” the Assyrians and Babylonians called it Marduk, after their chief god. The Sumerians never called the Anunnaki, “gods.” They were called din.gir, a two syllable word. Din meant “righteous, pure, bright;” gir was a term used to describe a sharp-edged object. As an epithet for the Anunnaki dingir meant “righteous ones of the bright pointed objects.” The Sumerian pictograph for the word looks like a two-staged rocket with a pointed capsule at the top. Sumerian texts break up history into two epochs divided by the great Deluge—the Biblical Flood. After the waters receded “‘the great Anunnaki who decree the fate’ decided that the gods ‘were too lofty for mankind.’ The term used—elu in Akkadian—means exactly that: ‘Lofty Ones;’ from it comes the Babylonian, Assyrian, Hebrew, and Ugaritic El—the term to which the Greeks gave the connotation ‘god.’” Returning to Genesis chapter six, after the sons of God took human wives, verse four continues: “There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became the mighty men which were of old, men of renown.” However the King James version erroneously translated the Hebrew term ne-filim as “giants,” and shem as “renown.” If the original words are used the verse reads: “The Nefilim were upon the Earth, in those days and thereafter too, when the sons of the gods cohabitated with the daughters of the Adam, and they bore children unto them. They were the mighty ones of Eternity—The People of the shem.” Nefilim stems from the Semitic root NFL, “to be cast down.” The first line of Genesis 6:4 means Those who were cast down were upon the Earth. They were the fallen angels!
They were also the People of the shem. “The Mesopotamian texts that refer to the inner enclosures of temples, or the heavenly journeys of the gods, or even to instances where mortals ascended to the heavens, employ the Sumerian term mu or its Semitic derivatives shu-mu (“that which is a mu”), sham, or shem. Because the term also connoted ‘that by which one is remembered,’ the word has come to be taken as meaning ‘name….’ Like most Sumerian syllabic words, mu had a primary meaning; in the case of mu, it was ‘that which rises straight.’ Its thirty-odd nuances encompassed the meanings heights, fire, command, a counted period…” After Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II had rebuilt Marduk’s sacred precinct within fortified walls made of fired brick and gleaming black marble, he recorded: “I raised the head of the boat ID.GE.UL the chariot of Marduk’s princeliness; The boat ZAG.MU.KU, whose approach is observed, the supreme traveler between Heaven and Earth, in the midst of the pavilion I enclosed, screening off its sides.” ID.GE.UL means high to heaven, bright at night. ZAG.MU.KU means bright mu which is for afar. The Mesopotamians believed the gods were immortal. The Sumerians said one year on planet Nibiru, a sar, was equivalent in time to 3600 earth years. They also said Anunnaki lifespans were 120 sars which is 120 x 3600 or 432,000 years. According to the King List 120 sars had passed from the time the Anunnaki arrived on Earth to the time of the Flood. However when the Lofty Ones came to Earth their lifespans began to sync with Earth’s faster orbit and they faced rapid aging compared to that on Nibiru. They discovered that by eating food from their home planet they could keep the aging process synced to the pace of Nibiru. The Sumerian god of wisdom Enki (Ea) was the leader of the first sons of Anu that came down to Earth. He played the pivotal role in saving humanity from the global Deluge. He defied the Anunnaki ruling council and told Ziusudra (the Sumerian Noah) how to build a ship on which to save humanity from the killing flood. Ea would have been over 120 sars old at that time, yet his relationship with humanity continued to be actively reported for thousands of years thereafter.
Within his sacred precinct “Mound of Creation” in Eridu, Enki unraveled the secrets of life and death. His emblem was two serpents entwined on a staff—the basis for the winged caduceus symbol used by modern Western medicine. Enki was the god who created the first humans: “In those days, in those years, The Wise One of Eridu, Ea, created him as a model of men.” His name was Adapa, Adam in the Old Testament: “Elohim created the Adam in His image—in the image of Elohim created He him.” Through Enki’s creative efforts “wide understanding he perfected for him…. Wisdom [he had given him]…. To him he had given Knowledge; Eternal Life he had not given him.” Anu wondered “why did Ea, to a worthless human the plan of Heaven disclose—rendering him distinguished, making a shem for him?” Enki “made him take the road to Heaven, and to Heaven he went up. When he had ascended to Heaven he approached the Gate of Anu.” Enki had told Adapa that if Anu offered him food, he was not to eat the Bread of Life nor drink the Water of Life because they were poison.
After Adapa answered Anu’s questions Anu said, “‘What can we do for him? Fetch him the bread of (eternal) life and let him eat!’
“They fetched him the bread of (eternal) life, but he would not eat. They fetched him the water of (eternal) life, but he would not drink…Anu watched him and laughed at him.
‘Come, Adapa, why didn’t you eat? Why didn’t you drink? Didn’t you want to be immortal? Alas for downtrodden people!’
“‘(But) Ea my lord told me: “You mustn’t eat! You mustn’t drink.”
“‘Take him and send him back to his earth.’” And so humanity missed out on immortality until the sons of the gods fell in love with the daughters of men, married them and had children by them. Then not wanting their lovers to die they taught them the secrets of immortality that Ea had discovered. Those secrets were the secrets of alchemy. Ea’s youngest son was Ningizzida, Lord of the Tree of Truth, in Mesopotamia. He was revered as Thoth in Egypt and Hermes in the West.
By the beginning of the current era philosophers had removed the physical existence of the gods to the abstract, implying their powers were aspects of spiritual phenomena coincident to the forces of Nature. The early alchemists of that time period still claimed like the ancient priests before them, that the knowledge they possessed was a gift from the gods, and their pursuit of immortality was in emulation of the gods’ pursuit of immortality.

Detail of a limestone lion attacking s bull from Palace H in Persepolis, attributed to the reign of king Artaxerxes III of Persia (358-338 BCE) and the first Pharaoh Egypt’s the 31st dynasty. Artaxerxes III ruled his vast Achaemenid Empire from Babylon. During his reign, the famous Palace of king Nebuchadnezzar II in Babylon was expanded. Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA. 

Photo by Babylon Chronicle



According to the Sumerians after the ‘great flood’ sent by the gods, the gods themselves founded the city of Kish, the first city to have a king since the catastrophe.

[The great gods, the Igigi] designed a city, [the Igigi] laid its foundations. [The Anunnaki] designed the city of Kish, [The Anunnaki] laid its foundation, the Igigi made its brickwork firm.”

“The Sebitti [seven warrior gods] barred the gates [of Kish] against armies. [The Anunnaki gods] barred them against [other] settled peoples. The Igigi [gods]would patrol the city.”

This is the mythical version but the historical information points towards a migration of east-Semitic people from the Levant (modern Palestine, Israel, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon) into non-Semitic Mesopotamia which contributed to the collapse of the Uruk period and produced the Kishite civilization as well as the later Akkadians and Assyrians. Another possible factor in the collapse of the Uruk period is the above mentioned wet and dry period known as the Piora Oscillation.

The city of Kish had great importance in Mesopotamia, holding said city would grant you to the title King of Kish (Lugal Kish) which would later take on greater context under the Akkadians with the title King of the World (alternatively “all, “the Universe”; šar kiššati). This designation effectively implied that you held sway over Akkad and Sumer but not complete control (hegemony, ‘dominance of a group over another’). The Kishite civilization encompassed much of the middle Mesopotamian region of Uri (later known as Akkad) and reached as far west as the city of Ebla (Tell Hariri in modern Syria).

It is believed that the modern location of Kish lies among a series of mounds, namely modern Tell Uhaimir, which means “the red”, named after the red-bricked ziggurat built by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II. Surrounding the Uhaimir mound are several others, most notably Tell Ingharra (ancient Hursagkalamma) which contains a royal palace that was later evacuated and then used as a cemetery where many “chariot burials” (or early war-carts) were found.

The two last rulers of the 1st Dynasty of Kish were Enmebaragesi and his son Aga, the latter reigned until “Kish was defeated [in battle by Gilgamesh of Uruk] and its kingship was carried off to [the temple] Eanna [in the city of Uruk]. According to mythology Gilgamesh defeated Kish and brought its supremacy to an end but according to archaeology and geology this can be attributed to a series of floods (c.3000-2800 BCE) and an even more powerful deluge that struck Sumer c.2600 BCE.

If there are any errors please privately inbox me so I can update it. As always, if you’d like to read or learn about any specific historical subjects just let me know what they are and I will take note of them.

See Also:


A brick from the Tower of Babel, c. 604-562 BC

In Neo Babylonian, 7 lines in cuneiform script blindprinted into the wet clay, within a lined rectangle, prior to baking. Part of the inscription says:

“Nebudchadnezzar, King of Babylon, Guardian of the Temples Esagila and Ezida, Firstborn Son of Nabopolassar, King of Babylon.”

Bricks with this inscription were found during the excavation of the great Ziggurat (aka Tower of Babel). It stands just north of Esagila, the temple of Marduk, also mentioned in the inscription. The ziggurat in Babylon was originally built around the time of Hammurabi c. 1792-1750 BC. The restoration and enlargement began under Nabopolassar, and was finished after 43 years of work under Nebuchadnezzar II, 604-562 BC. It has been calculated that at least 17 million bricks had to be made and fired. Babylon, along with the ziggurat was captured by Kyros in 538 BC, Dareios I in 519 BC, Xerxes ca. 483 BC, and entirely destroyed by Alexander I the Great in 331 BC.

It is this tall stepped temple tower which is referred to in Genesis 11:1-9, and became known as “The Tower of Babel.” The bricks are specifically mentioned in Genesis 11:3: “Come, let us make bricks and bake them in the fire. - For stone they used bricks and for mortar they used bitumen.” The black bitumen is still visible on the back of the present baked brick.

Nebuchadnezzar II was the founder of the New Babylonian Empire. He captured Jerusalem in 596 and 586 BC, burnt down the temple and all of Jerusalem, carried its treasures off to Babylon, and took the Jews into captivity (2 kings 24-25). Nebuchadnezzar II is the king who is named more than 90 times in the Old Testament. Daniel 1-4 is almost entirely devoted to the description of his greatness and reign, his rise and fall, and submission to God.

Have you seen one of the magnificent Babylonian lions in your town’s museum?

This is one of two Babylonian striding lions at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. The lions (now kept in several museums around the world) are made from polychrome glazed bricks, and used to decorate the walls of the Processional Street and the royal palaces of Babylon. These reliefs date back to the era of king Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon (605-562 BCE). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, NY.

Photo by Babylon Chronicle

January 8th, 2017 - 10th of Tevet, 5777

Yes, On the Tenth of Tevet, 588 BCE, the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II began the siege of Jerusalem that eventually culminated in the destruction of the First Temple.

In commemoration of this event, there is a fast observed by abstaining from food and drink between daybreak and nightfall.

The Tenth of Tevet is also observed by some as a general Kaddish/mourning day for victims of the Holocaust, especially for relatives of victims for whom the yahrtzeit (anniversary of death) is unknown.

William Blake, Nebuchadnezzar, 1795/c.1805, colour print, 54.3 x 72.5 cm, Tate Collection. Source

The story of King Nebuchadnezzar II is described in the Old Testament’s Book of Daniel. Legend has it the Babylonian king became so obsessed with his own image that he was punished by God for his extreme pride. Nebuchadnezzar eventually lost his mind, his behaviour comparable to that of a wild animal. This seems to be what Blake decided to focus on in his depiction of the king.


Georg Matthäus Seutter, Colossus Monarchic Statua Danielis (The Figure of Colossus), Pontificum Roma Norum Series Chronologica, Statua Regum Europæorum [Hand-coloured engraving]; Augsburg, c. 1730.

anonymous asked:

I am an ethnic Swedish person, born and raised in Sweden. I'm basically superswede. Is it racist for me to dress up as King Nebuchadnezzar II (634-562 BCE) of ancient Babylonia?

Only because I know this is just a complicated request for a brownface pass, u can fuck off.

Terracotta figure of an animal.

Neo-Babylonian dynasty, 700-500 BC.

From Mesopotamia.

This animal was probably sacred to a god or a goddess and was part of a larger statue or temple ornament. The sitting dog occurs first as a divine symbol in the Old Babylonian period and continues through to the Neo-Babylonian (550 BC). Inscriptions identify it as the symbol of Gula, goddess of healing. King Nebuchadnezzar II (reigned 604-562 BC) records the placing of gold, silver and bronze dogs as offerings in the gates of Gula’s temple at Babylon.

In the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Periods (1000-539 BC) the dog, sitting or standing, was also used as a magically protective figure, not attached specifically to any individual deity. Such models may have become increasingly important because it has been suggested that the disease of rabies was present in Mesopotamia by the beginning of the second millennium BC and more widespread during the first millennium BC.