king james vi

the signs as real witches
  • Aries: Agnes Waterhouse// Had a deal with the Devil and wasn't afraid to say so. The Brave witch.
  • Taurus: Joan Wytte// Clairvoyant and healer who eventually became possessed by the Devil, getting involved in many fights.
  • Gemini: Marie Laveau// Voodoo Queen. Performed necromancy, mind control, telekinesis and pinning.
  • Cancer: Chedipe// Witch-vampire who rode on tigers in the moonlight, choosing houses to visit to cast spells on men.
  • Leo: Agnes Sampson// Tried to sink the ship of Queen Anne, wife of King James VI of England.
  • Virgo: Isobel Gowdie// Could control the weather and would often write poetry about witch practices. Allegedly marked by the Devil.
  • Libra: Circe// Transformed random sailors into wolves and lions and all kinds of animals.
  • Scorpio: Mother Shipton// Clairvoyant, sorceress. An outcast with a great talent.
  • Sagittarius: Maret Jonsdotter// Frequently tricked men. Attended witch sabbaths.
  • Capricorn: Alice Kyteler// Poisoned her rich husbands, disappeared the night before her execution.
  • Aquarius: Angele de la Barthe// Allegedly had sex with the Devil.
  • Pisces: Catherine La Voisin// Fortune Teller & Love Potions expert. Plotted to murder Louis XIV.
‘Celtic’ Witchcraft

I remember in my early days trying to find resources on historical Celtic witchcraft. I wanted to learn about the witchcraft from the places I descended from. So, I searched for answers. I read book after book on the supposed witch practices found in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland (Raymond Buckland never steered me so wrong, and that’s really saying something). However, I remember feeling…unsatisfied. It didn’t seem historical or based in any pre-Gardnerian lineage. It seemed like Wiccan influenced witchcraft based in Gaelic and Gallic mythology. However, the authors of the books were claiming that it was truly historical and traditional. Lo and behold, I was correct. So then came the question “What is historical ‘celtic’ witchcraft and where can I find it?” 

First of all, there is no one Celtic witchcraft. The word ‘Celtic’ applies to both Gaels and Gauls (though it’s said that Gauls aren’t included in that term at all, but for now, we’ll use it). There are six nations covered under ‘Celt’; Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Brittany, The Isle of Man, and Cornwall. Any witchcraft that originates from those lands can be considered ‘Celtic’, but the use of that term can create confusion and misinformation. Though they may look similar at times, and though they are all witchcraft, they are not the same. Methods changed from environment to environment. The witchery has always been based in the Land. 

I’ll briefly describe the practices and lore found in each land, but it is by no means exhaustive. 

Cornwall

In the circles of traditional witchcraft, Cornish witchery has been made very clear and accessible with much thanks to the wonderful Gemma Gary. Cornwall has perhaps one of the strongest histories of magical practice out of the Celtic Fringe. Not only witches, but Pellars (cunning folk), were a large part of the culture. Folk magic, the basis of both witch and pellar magic alike, ran rampant through Cornwall. The Pellars of Cornwall held a very strong likeness to witches, so much so that some folklorists consider them the same. The Pellars made it a point to have a wide range of services available to their customer. That meant that they would both curse and cure. The magic of Cornwall often came in the form of small spell bags filled with either powders, folded written charms, or other magical ingredient. These bags did a number of things, from love conjuring, curse breaking, and spirit banishing to healing, luck magic, and finding lost possessions. According to Cornish witch lore, a witch’s power fluctuates with the seasons, and it was in the spring that a witch’s power was renewed. The different pellars and witches of Cornwall would also clash through reputation of power. Though they clashed, the witches of Cornwall would also gather for their sabbats, which were a strange thing to behold to outsiders. Witches, both young and old, would dance with the Devil around fires, faster and closer to the flames with each pass, and never be singed. The ability to spontaneously disappear is spoken of (which may suggest flying). Black animals, especially black cats, are often spoke of in Cornish witch lore. The association with witch and toad is especially strong here, and it can be seen as a familiar, a shapeshifting witch, a charm, or an indicator of a witch. 

Wales

Witchcraft that comes from Wales can be particularly tricky to find. The term ‘Welsh Witch’ has been popular since the early days of Stevie Nicks. This makes it notoriously difficult to find any historical references on actual Welsh witches. In actuality, there were two kinds of magical practitioner in Wales. The first was a wizard (known as a cunning man in England) and the second was a witch. Wizards were very popular and plenty in number in Wales. Their practice was based mainly in healing the ill and livestock. They also did favors, like giving love potions and undoing witch spells. One Welsh tale, however, tells about a conjuror who is unable to undo a witch’s spell on a butter churn, so the farmer must turn to another witch to reverse it. Welsh witches were thought to have great power. They were able to raise the dead, curse their enemies, and according to older legends, shape shift and fly. Observing the myth of a sorceress named Cerridwen and the legends of Morgan le Fey and Nimue, there comes a general idea of what a witch was in Wales and Welsh legend. The idea of someone brewing potions and poisons was most definitely associated with witches, but more broadly, elements of water and weather seem to have importance. Interaction with the fairies also holds a very strong importance in Welsh craft. Walking between worlds, particularly this world and the world of the Fairy (Avalon, anyone?), was a skill that many wizards, witches, and heroes of Welsh myth acquired. All in all, the witchcraft in Wales is quite similar to the witchcraft found in England, as is the interaction between Wizard (cunning folk or Wise Men and Women) and Witch. 

Brittany 

In Brittany, a very strong fear and dislike for witches is found that is unlike Wales. Witches in Brittany were thought to be many in number. The legends suggest that they targeted farmers especially, making sure always to turn milk sour and spoil butter. They were also accounted to be particularly dangerous and vicious. Any man who watched their Sabbat would either not be found, found dead, or found scared witless and unable to speak. The witches of Brittany, however, were also sought out by the townsfolk. Indeed, there were witch doctors to fix their issues, but the witches were sought out for love spells and favors. Witch-cats are also mentioned, which could be either a reference to familiars or shapeshifting. Most strangely, Breton witches are said to very rarely cast spells on their targets and instead cast spells on the animals and possessions of the target. Every village is said to have a local witch. Some villages are said to be completely filled with witches. Many of them carry cane-like sticks with which they cast their spells. They were also said to be skilled in spells to find things, like lost objects and buried treasure. The line between village conjuror/wizard and witch is difficult to draw here. They may choose to help or harm, depending on their inclinations. For that reason, they still hold a strong reputation in Brittany, despite it being a place noted for its skepticism. 

The Isle of Man

On the Isle of Man, both witches and magicians were an important part of the environment. The first thing you’ll find on the witches from the Isle is that they practiced much magic involving the weather and the sea. Magic was used to help the fishermen catch more fish, make sure the winds were good for travel, and settle storms at sea. A charm was made by a witch and given to a sailor that stored the winds inside. When he was at sea and in need of a gust, he would use the charm. Interestingly, the line between witch and cunning person seemed to blur here. Cunning folk were known as Charmers and Witch Doctors. Witches, however, were employed when needed. There was a perceived difference between the magic of different kinds of practitioners. Do not be mistaken, though. The fear and dislike of witches still existed. Many farmers feared the wrath of witches, especially when their crops failed and their cattle died. To reveal the witch responsible, they would burn whatever died. The person in pain the next day was thought responsible. As throughout all of Europe, witches were thought to have gained their power either through birth or through the Devil’s grace. However, witches were looked upon differently in the Isle than other places. Because of its long associations with magic, it had many kinds of magical practitioners and witches were not always considered to be the most powerful of them. Magicians, who practiced an art to compel and work with spirits and powers beyond other kinds of practitioners, were revered. They were usually compared to the image of Manannán Mac Lir, considered both a sea god and a powerful magician. The ability to fly and walk between worlds was also attributed to the witches and magicians of the Isle of Man, most likely due to the latter. 

Scotland

Witchcraft flourished in Scotland perhaps as much, if not more than, in Wales. Scotland’s witch trials are famous, and perhaps the most famous among them was Isobel Gowdie. In her free confession, she detailed a story that most labeled imaginary. She spoke of fairies, elf bolts, curses, shapeshifting, flying, and lewd activities with the Devil. When comparing it with the confession of Alison Pearson, another Scottish witch she had never met, a Scottish fairy tradition begins to appear. Alison also details stories of going under the hills to meet the fairies, as well as them making elf bolts. More trials begot more folklore and legends. Stories of witches working the weather to destroy crops, sink ships, and cause havoc spread. More tales of a Man in Black appearing to future-witches and witches alike began to run rampant. John Fian, a male witch, was famed for his botched love spell, teaching witchcraft, harshly bewitching people whom he didn’t like, and attempting to sink the fleet of King James VI with a storm. Much of Scotland’s witchcraft was influenced by Gaelic legend and myth. Scotland’s witchery was not Gaelic alone, however. Norse invaders came and brought their magic with them. In Orkney, a Scottish Isle filled with witch history, the Vikings came often. Their language and culture mingled with the Scots’. Soon, cunning women were referred to as Spae Wives. The word Spae comes from the Old Norse spá,which means ‘prophesize’These spae wives told fortunes, created charms, and protected against foul magical play. The witches of Scotland, however, proved a match for them. They killed cattle, cursed babies, and brought general havoc with them. 

Ireland

Historical Irish witchcraft is perhaps the most difficult to find out of all the Celtic regions, and this is for a few different reasons. The first being that many lineages of Wicca have taken Irish mythology and applied it to the Gardnerian influenced witchcraft that they have. Many times when the word ‘Celtic Witchcraft’ or “Celtic Wicca’ comes up, this is what is being referred to. The second reason that it’s difficult to find is because the witch trials in Ireland are few and far between. The trials barely touched Ireland, amounting to a whopping 4 trials. The generally accepted reason for this is that Ireland was extraordinarily lax with its witchcraft laws. Most times, using witchcraft against another person’s possessions or livestock resulted in prison time. Only by harming another magically would a witch be executed. Interestingly, many people took this as a sign that Irish witches were generally less severe than their other Celtic counterparts. Florence Newton, the famed witch of Youghal, put the assumption to rest. When a woman refused to give her any food, she kissed her on the street. The woman became extremely ill and began to see visions of Florence pricking her with pins and needles. Florence also kissed the hand of a man in jail. He became very ill, cried out her name, and died. In a Northern Ireland trial, eight women were accused of causing horrific visions and poltergeists in the home of a woman. The ability to create illusions is a trait attributed to fairies in Gaelic myth. Those fairies are said to have taught the witches their skills in both Ireland and Scotland. Irish witches were said to turn themselves into animals, especially hares and crows, to spy on their neighbors. They would also place spells on those whom they wish in their animal form. They were also said to have used bundles of yarrow and branches of elder to fly. These sticks they flew upon, before brooms, were known as ‘horses’. They were said to fly up out of the chimney of their own homes. A tale of witches using red caps to fly also appears in Irish lore. This is another example of their strong ties to the fairies. The similarity between Irish and Scottish witchery has been noted, as they both have strong ties to Gaelic lore.

Witchcraft from the Celtic lands is a complex and unique thing, changing between each of the six nations. To lump them under a single title would be to lose the subtleties and differences between each. Saying that Irish witchcraft and Welsh witchcraft are the same is a fool’s lie. Saying that they are similar is true. Shapeshifting, flying, fairies, storms, and charms are found in each. But they are different.
It isn’t a bad thing when the myths of these lands are paired with Wicca or Wiccan influenced witchcraft. However, the historical practices from those places mustn’t be overwritten. 

"Kings" ask game
  • Since so many people liked the “Queens” ask game, I decided to do the “Kings” ask game as well (yes, I know, I included emperors too).
  • Henry VIII.: most overrated ruler?
  • Alexander III of Russia: favorite historical person from your country?
  • Louis XIV: favorite crown jewels?
  • Frederick the Great: 3 things you love about your favorite ruler?
  • Philip II of Spain: favorite biography?
  • Richard III.: most interesting mystery in history?
  • Alexander the Great: favorite pharaoh?
  • Franz Joseph I. : favorite palace/castle?
  • Louis XVI: myth about your favorite ruler?
  • Gustav II Adolf: one question you would ask your favorite ruler?
  • Nicholas II of Russia: the most beautiful ruler?
  • James V of Scotland: favorite coat of arms?
  • Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor: favorite ruler with the same zodiac as you?
  • Frederick VI of Denmark: favorite era?
  • Maximilian I of Mexico: favorite royal house?
  • Genghis Khan: three facts about your favorite ruler?
  • George VI: favorite history blog on tumblr?
10

Cowane’s Hospital Stirling 


I’d never been inside here before and as I was nosing around saw some people go in so after I had taken a few shots decided to have a peek. I didn’t get far only into the meeting hall, it seems it was closed and some people were just dropping things off so only got a few from inside, the lady said they were just leaving but the building will be open to the public in April. 

Cowane’s Hospital is a 17th century almshouse in the historic city of Stirling. It is also known as The Guildhall, as the Stirling Guildry have held their meetings here for several centuries.  

 Cowane’s is in the area known as Top o’ the Town, just below the castle and next to the Church of the Holy Rude where King James VI was crowned.

Sadly the building is in state of disrepair but the good news is work will start next year on restoring the build with help of donations and a lottery funded grant. 

Cowane’s Hospital was built by in 1637 by rich local merchant John Cowane, that’s him with the hat on the front of the building and in the stained glass window, it was an Almshouse for ‘decayed members of the Guild of Merchants’.

After its time acting as a Guildhall, Cowane’s served as a school and a hospital during epidemics.   

According to local myth, people say the statue of ‘Auld Staney Breeks’, as he was known,  comes to life on Hogmanay and does a jig.

I posted picture of his house earlier. 

Hamilton Starbucks orders
  • Alexander: grande 5 pump dirty chai at 160 degrees no water extra foam . Yes he knows it's complicated and obnoxious but he tips well to make up for it
  • Eliza: tall mint majesty tea with 2 honey packets. She waits patiently and let's mothers with screaming children go ahead of her. Always says "don't worry about it!" And asks how the barista's day has been
  • Philip: tall double chocolaty chip frappucino. Insists to Eliza he wants a grande and says he can finish it. She gets it for him once. He doesn't finish it.
  • Angelica: trenta cool lime refresher extra ice. Finishes it before leaving the store and comes back in line for a refill. She's never satisfied.
  • Burr: grande bold coffee with no room. Immediately goes around the corner dumps half of it out and replaces it with cream and sugar. Wants everyone to think he can drink black coffee. No one believes him.
  • Washington: venti americano no room 1 pump of vanilla. Waits patiently by the counter with his headphones in listening to a podcast about foreign affairs
  • Laurens: tall black and white mocha extra whip. Pays for the guy behind him cause he seems like he's having a rough day
  • Mulligan: venti blond pour over. Everyone laughs cause they think blond is weak. He tells them over and over its the one with the most caffeine. They don't listen.
  • Lafayette: venti caramel machiatto 2 extra shots with caramel inside and outside. Says his order really fast and grins at watching the barista scramble to write the cup
  • King George: venti London fog misto. Says he's gonna order something different every time. Never does.
  • Jefferson: grande latte machiatto, which is pretty much the exact same thing as a regular latte but the shot is poured over top instead of at the bottom. Swears it tastes different. Claims he learned it in France. Believes he can tell exactly how long the shots pulled (none of these are true)
  • Madison: whatever Jefferson is having

May 1st 1707  brought together Scotland and England under a united Parliament at Westminster.

In January a poorly attended Scottish Parliament voted to agree the Union of Scotland and England and on 16 January 1707 the Act of Union was signed. The Act came into effect on May 1st 1707; the Scottish Parliament was dissolved and England and Scotland became one country. 

From the Union of the Crowns in 1603, England and Scotland had one monarch but two Parliaments. While this worked most of the time, there were occasions when the two institutions parted company - such as when England Executed King Charles I (to the distress of many in Scotland) and became a republic, while at the same time Scotland’s governing body resolved to appoint King Charles II as their monarch. From the perspective of the leaders in London, such a situation had to be avoided in the future and the removal of the Scottish Parliament was seen as a way of achieving this.

Following the abdication of King James VII and the accession of William and Mary, the Scottish Parliament were in agreement and declared a few months later that James VII had forfeited the Scottish throne. But there were many in Scotland who still supported the deposed monarch. There were even uprisings in Scotland in support of James and the Jacobite cause was still bubbling away at the turn of the century.

There was still a large measure of religious intolerance in both England and Scotland and those in power were determined that there should never again be a Catholic monarch. But the deposed Stuart line (with their Catholic sympathies) really had a stronger claim on the throne and again there were more in Scotland who felt that this should count. When the English Parliament decided, without consultation with their Scottish counterparts, that the crown should go via the Electress of Hanover, the German granddaughter of King James VI and through her to her son (the future King George I), the Scots Parliament made plain their resentment.

There were a number of poor harvests in Scotland in the 1690s and Scotland’s economic position was then drastically worsened by the ill-fated Darien Scheme to create a Scottish colony in Panama. Scotland lost 25% of its liquid assets. The Act of Union undertook to pay 400,000 pounds in compensation to those who had incurred these losses. This was of course blatant bribery as the people who were to benefit from this compensation were amongst those who voted in favour of the Union.

Scotland relied on 50% of its exports going to England. In an act of blackmail in 1705, the English Parliament closed their market to Scottish cattle, coal and linen and declared that all Scots would be treated a aliens. It showed the vulnerability of Scotland to a trade war. In addition, Scotland was excluded from England’s colonial territories - indeed early moves towards a union of the parliaments stumbled in England as they were reluctant to allow open access. But the Act of Union in 1707 created the greatest free trade area in the world at that time.

Of course the ordinary people of Scotland were not happy with this, the church bells of St Giles in Edinburgh are said to have played the tune “Why am I so Sad on my Wedding Day” and there were riots in Edinburgh and Glasgow. 

Much has been written since then, I like Roberts Burns observation that we were “bought and sold for English Gold, Such a Parcel of Rogues in a Nation.”

A character in Sir Walter Scott’s Heart of Midlothian said “ when we had a king, and a chancellor, and parliament-men o’ our ain, we could aye peeble them wi’ stanes when they werena gude bairns - But naebody’s nails can reach the length o’ Lunnon.” 

The union was unpopular with many of the Highland clans. They wanted the return of the Stuarts to the throne in the hope that they would make Scotland a separate kingdom again. Uprisings in 1715 and of course the more famous ‘45 both ended in failure. 

To this day many of us believe this union should not have happened, a referendum in 2014 resulted in around a 55% voting to remain as part of the United Kingdom but the debate rumbles on. I believe that one day Scotland will be an Independent nation again, perhaps I wont live to see this, I do though think it inevitable. 

4

The Twelve Prodigies: Elementalism

Elementalism is the branch of Thaumaturgy that allows to manipulate or alter the elements of weather.

Magical and religious practices to control the weather are attested in a variety of cultures. In ancient India it is said that yajna or vedic rituals of chanting manthras and offering were performed to bring sudden bursts of rain fall in rain starved regions. Some American Indians like some Europeans had rituals to induce rain.

The Berwick witches of Scotland were found guilty of using black magic to summon storms to murder King James VI of Scotland by seeking to sink the ship upon which he travelled. In various towns of Navarre, prayers petitioned Saint Peter to grant rain in time of drought. If the rain was not forthcoming, the statue of St Peter was removed from the church and tossed into a river. Even today, we can find in Europe and Russia several cases of religious processions full of believers that pray for rain in times of drought.

As far as we know today, the grade of control over the weather may vary depending on the ability of the thaumaturge: there are cases of thaumaturges capable of consciously (and with huge concentration) cause little changes in the temperature and pressure of a room, and cases of thaumaturges that alter the weather of the surrounding areas without even knowing. 

As usually happens with the thaumaturgical abilities, the subconscious seems to have more capacity to alter reality than the conscious, and therefore it can become unstable.

Done in by the weather and paranoia.

In 1589, while King James VI was sailing back to Scotland from meeting his betrothed, the ship was beset by a storm.

It seemed to those on board that the King himself was tossed about more than anyone else.

The ship turned back and docked in Norway. But the captain of the vessel was convinced, and told the King (who was already studying the subject) that he believed witchcraft was the cause of the storm.

This lead to two things: first, James came to believe that a coven of witches had attempted to assassinate him with maleficium, and by use of the weather. And second, when a lower class woman practicing healing magic was found and accused of witchcraft, it set the stage for a wave of trials in Scotland.

It should be noted that those found guilty were not burned at the stake, but hanged by the neck until dead: they were seen as traitors to the crown.

irosetoohigh-lovedtoohard  asked:

Does a cup-bearer have to be at a certain age? From what I understood, it was a grown man position in medieval times. Yet, we see Tywin becoming a royal cup-bearer at 10 or 11. Also, did the Mistress of the Robes have to be unwed like the ladies-in-waiting?

Ah, this one I can answer!

So GRRM has somewhat fused the office of cup-bearer with the office of page (although it’s complicated by the fact that he also uses the term page), which is creating the confusion.

From the ancient world through to early modern Europe, the office of cup-bearer was indeed an adult position of respect and influence. In order to prevent poisoning, monarchs appointed trusted men (or women, we have examples of female cupbearers in Beowulf as well as in the Bible) to serve them drinks and ensure they weren’t poisoned (sometimes doing double-duty as food/drink-tasters as well). Indeed, a sign of how important the position could be is that Sargon of Akkad, the founder of the Akkadian Empire, began his career as cup-bearer to the king of Kish, and that the King of Bohemia was given the office of Arch-Cupbearer to the Holy Roman Emperor during coronation rituals. Or for a less exalted but no less important version, you have the gentleman below, Sir David Murray, cup-bearer to King James VI of Scotland and future Lord Scone and Viscount Stormont.

By contrast, the office of page was an age-gated one, which sons of the nobility would likely occupy from age 7-14 before they graduated to be squires and then knights. Pages did odd jobs for their knight or lord - carrying messages, cleaning stuff, helping to arm and dress their master, etc. and for the purposes of this post, fetching food and drink for their master especially at table. In return, pages would be given room, board, livery, and education in the fundamentals of horse-riding and associated sports, combat, basic literacy, music and other pastimes, and above all, manners. 

As for the Mistress of the Robes, no she didn’t have to be unmarried: see Harriet Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, Duchess of Sutherland, Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria, who held the post before and after her marriage. However, ladies-in-waiting don’t have to be unmarried either; there were in fact different titles used to describe married vs. unmarried ladies in waiting, so that in England an umarried lady-in-waiting would be called a “Maid of Honour”; in France it would be “dammes” vs. “damoiselles”; in Germany it would be ”staatsdame” vs. “ hoffräulein,” and so on. 

dd189816  asked:

In response to what witch persecutions. The conversion of pagan Ireland to Christianity. Genocide.

(Referring to this ask.)

But there wasn’t a genocide of witches or pagans in Ireland.  There were only a handful, if that, of executions based on witchcraft in the 13/1400s. Besides, Ireland’s conversion to Catholicism began happening in the late 400s, centuries before the height of the witch hunts, and for the most part, the conversion in St. Patrick’s Time and afterwards was peaceful.

“It is clear that the pagan Irish would not have tolerated the behavior of the mythical Saint Patrick. There was no way Patrick could use coercion or the threat of force as part of his strategy to convert the pagans. E. A. Thompson writes that “the pagans were far too powerful and menacing … . And he was doubtlessly aware that if he gave any sign of trying to impose his views on the Irish pagans against their will, his mission would come to an abrupt and bloody end” (90).“ (Da Silva, 2009). [x]

As for the classic medieval witch hunting, Witchcraft and Magic in Ireland gives us:

Witchcraft prosecution remained low in Ireland because the Catholic majority did not make formal accusations of malefic witchcraft, and Protestants did so late in the century, when sceptical [sic] judiciaries were unwilling to prosecute…fragmentary evidence suggests that its ecclesiastical courts…did not handle many witchcraft cases, or make an effort to punish them. [x]

From Witchcraft in the British Isles and New England: New Perspectives on Witchcraft, Magic, and Demonology:

The political conditions that so preoccupied English judges on the Irish bench are likewise directly relevant to understanding why the historical record for early modern Ireland reveals no instances of witchcraft prosecutions triggered by Gaelic Irish accusations. [x]

This essay goes on to say that the native Irish simply didn’t refer accusations to the courts, but that was more due to politics than anything else, and the few cases of executed “witches” that did occur were primarily because the British were suspicious assholes of the much-hated, much-derided Irish and imported their own paranoia.

From the contemporary Irish Witchcraft from an Irish Witch by Lora O’Brien, a scholar in her own right:

The most startling thing on first examination is that there don’t seem to have been too many Witches brought to prosecution in Ireland…It should be noted that the penalty of death was not passed for being a Witch or being involved in Witchcraft, only for causing death Witchcraft… We [Irish] generally escaped the notice of the keen Witch hunters across the water [in Britain and continental Europe], including that most vociferous of monarchs King James the VI and I, and didn’t breed any of our own. [x]

These three sources admit that it’s possible that the hunts did indeed occur on a greater scale and no record survived, but if the hunts really were on the edge of a genocide, and because no reference in diaries, letters, or pamphlets have been found, that seems seriously unlikely.  Honestly, I think everyone was too busy with the British being such incredible oppressors to worry about that uppity lady in the next parish over, and again, the few cases that made it to court seem to have been instigated by colonists, not the native Irish, and I would assume there’s an element of political maneuvering and xenophobia in there.

The horrific genocide that was the Great Famine of the mid-1800s, long after the height of the European witch paranoia and causing the death of over a million people despite producing more food than ever for tyrannical British interests, is a true genocide.

Edit: The way I wrote this implies that Patrick was the one to bring Christianity to Ireland.  He wasn’t.  It’d been there for a good number of decades beforehand.  Patrick wasn’t actually a very effective missionary, but was the most vocal about it.

- mountain hound

before asking | faq+tags | resource blog

Daemonologie - with original illustrations Paperback by King James I of England (Author)

In 1590 three hundred Scottish ‘witches’ were tried for plotting the murder of their King, James VI of Scotland (soon to be James I of England). 

James is known to have suffered from a morbid fear of violent death, and the trial heightened his anxiety over this apparently treasonous 'un-Christian’ sect, and stimulated him to study the whole subject of witchcraft.

 'Daemonologie’ is the result of this royal research, detailing his opinions on the topic in the form of a Socratic dialogue between the sceptic Philomathes and witch-averse Epistemon, who reveals many aspects of witch-craft. The book consists of three sections, on magic, on sorcery and witchcraft, and on spirits and ghosts, and ends with a lurid account of the North Berwick witch trials, based on the evidence of Dr John Fian, the alleged head of the coven, whose 'confession’ was obtained with the aid of thumbscrews, the Boot, and by the ripping out of his fingernails.

10

Blacklist Rewatch - T. Earl King VI

Just look what happens when the heart of the show once again becomes the focus of the show. A lovely entertaining episode that, besides Luther Braxton, is the best of season two. And as much as I love what is spoken between Red and Lizzie after the auction (take the boy and go) and in the car (I care about you etc) I really love the unspoken. The body language and little glances during the auction. How Red warns her the Kings are on to her just by the tilt of his head and how she understands perfectly. That scene is magic. Add to that the “Lizzie” and I was dying all over again. (But I’ll ignore skinhead Tom if it’s all the same to you)


So no new Blacklist but this is a great substitute
10

Let me take you a few centuries back to the time of knights and noble ladies. This time the magic place I’d like to share is the town of Stirling in Scotland - the key to the Highlands. It’s one of the most important places in Scottish history, where Mary Queen of Scots raised her son James (future King of Scotland James VI and King of England and  Ireland James I). 

The famous Stirling Castle and the Church of the Holy Rude by its side witnessed several generations of the Stewart dynasty, as well as the famous Battle on the Stirling Bridge, in which general William Wallace tricked and defeated the English (Edward I’s) army. William Wallace Monument is still there to remind of the glory of those days.

This is the place that opens up the doors to the Highlands and let’s you embrace the greatness of that upper Scotland from above. It carries lots of legends and secrets, and even has an imitation of the King Arthur’s Round Table - the King’s Knot. The trick to find it is to go up…

The beast of Stirling is a wolf. According to the legend, when Vikings were about to attack the city, a wolf howled, alerting the townspeople in time to save the town. Now that very wolf sits still by the path to the castle silently howling to the sky…

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Dryhope Tower, Scotland

Dryhope Tower was a peel tower or a watchtower along the borders of Scotland and England. It defended the north-eastern end of St Mary’s Loch. The site itself was protected on two sides, to the east by the Dryhope Burn and to the west by the Kirkstead Burn.

The 16th century castle belonged to the Scotts of Dryhope, and a daughter of the House, Mary Scott was known as the “Flower of Yarrow” and was also an ancestor of Sir Walter Scott. Mary was given in marriage to Wat Scott of Kirkhope, a notorious Border Reiver. The property passed to Wat Scott’s family, the Scotts of Harden, and Scott took possession of Dryhope following his marriage. However, in 1592, Wat Scott fell out of favor with King James VI due to his association with Francis Stewart, 1st Earl of Bothwell. King James levied an army and proceeded through the forest and slighted many houses of his opponents. Wat Scott did not get off lightly and Dryhope was amongst Scott of Harden’s fortalices that were slighted. The tower seems to have been rebuilt by 1613. The castle fell into terminal decay in the latter part of the 17th century and was acquired by the senior branch of the Scotts, the Dukes of Buccleuch.

Today the ruins belong to the Philiphaugh Estate. It is located in the valley of the Yarrow Water, in the historic county of Selkirkshire, now part of the Scottish Borders.