king gojong

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October 8th 1895: Queen Min assassinated

On this day in 1895, Queen Min was assassinated in the Gyeongbokgung Palace in Seoul, Korea, aged forty-three. Born in 1851 into a noble family but orphaned at a young age, she married King Gojong of the Joseon dynasty when she was sixteen. Queen Min defied the traditional roles expected of female royalty, proving herself a keen intellect and reading widely in history, politics, philosophy, and science. Her advanced studies led her husband’s father - Yi Ha-eung, the Daewongun, who ruled Korea as regent - to turn against her and try to limit her power. Min’s influence only grew, and, after convincing her husband to oust his father and rule in his own right, wielded significant power in the Korean court. King Gojong, however, proved an ineffective ruler, causing a diplomatic rift with Japan which led to Korea signing an unequal treaty, surrendering control of key ports and granting Japanese citizens immunity to Korean laws. Queen Min desperately sought to preserve Korean sovereignty, seeking help from western powers and reorganising the military. Her reforms caused discontent in the ranks, and an 1882 rebellion ousted Gojong and Min in favour of the Daewongun. However, their Chinese allies sent troops to march on Seoul and arrest the Daewongun, allowing Min and Gojong to return to power. While they were restored to the throne and Min was able to enact a series of modernising reforms, Japanese influence in Korea continued grow, especially following their victory in the first Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese, concerned by Min’s resistance to their expansionist efforts and her alliance with Russia, planned to assassinate the queen. On the morning of October 8th 1895, fifty Japanese and Korean assassins infiltrated the palace, seizing King Gojong and locating Queen Min. They subjected the Queen and her attendants to brutal violence and sexual assault, killing Queen Min and burning her corpse in a nearby forest. Upon King Gojong’s return from exile, he ordered an extensive search for his late wife’s remains. While they only discovered a single finger bone, Gojong held a formal funeral to celebrate Queen Min, bestowing upon her the posthumous title of Empress Myeongseong. Queen Min has since been celebrated for her defiance of gender norms, and dedicated efforts to preserve Korean independence.

The King in Love (2017) - History

Historical background to help understand The King in Love (2017 MBC)

Yes, I did write it as I promised a few days ago. (LOL)

First of all, this drama’s protagonist Wang Won (왕원 王謜) / King Chungseon (충선왕 忠宣王, 1275~1325), is the first ever half-blood prince/king in the history of Korea. His maternal grandfather is Kublai Khan, the famous Mongol emperor and the founder of Yuan Dynasty of China.

Keep reading

Princess Deokhye || 5/6 women, history meme

Very bright and youthful, Princess Deokhye was born in 1912 as the youngest daughter of King Gojong. She was beloved by her beleaguered father and his people, but her life quickly became a prime example of suffering under colonial rule.

In an effort to keep her in Korea, her father tried to betroth her to a member of the Korean court, but soon after the powerless monarch and a number of others in Deokhye’s family (including her mother) died. She was not allowed to observe Korean mourning customs, and was sent to Japan under the guise of continuing her studies.  In Japan, the young princess was ostracized and ignored and - in the midst of bouts of severe mental illness - she was forcedly married to Count So Takeyuki, a minor member of Japanese aristocracy.

Scarred by years of solitude and homesickness, Deokhye had trouble adjusting to married life. Soon after giving birth, she was separated from her daughter, Jeong-hye, and hospitalized. In 1945, the liberation came and Japan’s imperial ambitions were shattered. Finally World War II was over, and Deokhye was able to gain a divorce from her husband. But even after ending her unhappy marriage, she still could gain no peace. Her grief exploded with the death of her only daughter, who disappeared leaving only a suicide note behind.

While trapped in mental hospitals for years, Deokhye became a forgotten woman nobody cared for or recognized, all the while yearning for her homeland. At last, in 1962, 37 years after leaving Korea, her childhood fiance, with help of her former lady-in-waiting, travelled to Japan to save her and bring her home, at the request of the Korean government. She cried for days when she arrived in her homeland, and despite her poor mental state and years in exile, she accurately remembered court manners. She lived in Changdeok Palace until she died, but the Korea she remembered was gone forever. Deokhye’s last recorded words were, “I missed my motherland even while I was in my country.”  She was the last princess of Joseon.

“Paul Georg von Möllendorff 穆麟德 (17 February 1847 in Zehdenick, Prussia – 20 April 1901 in Ningbo, China) was a German linguist and diplomat. Möllendorff is mostly known for his service as an adviser to the Korean king Gojong in the late nineteenth century and for his contributions to Sinology. Möllendorff is also known for having created a system for romanizing the Manchu language.” - Wikipedia page

Six Flying Dragons Timeline

(Updated up to ep. 50 / March 28, 2016)


Queen Seondeok (2009, MBC) / Six Flying Dragons (2015, SBS)  / Tree with Deep Roots (2011, SBS) are all connected in the same dramatic universe, according to the writers’ interview.

Queen Seondeok (2009, MBC)

AD 647

660

668

  • Goguryeo kingdom was conquered by Silla’s General Kim Yu-Shin.
  • Silla’s unification of the three kingdoms.  

698

  • Balhae kingdom was founded in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Balhae was a successor state to Goguryeo.
  • The coexistence of Balhae (North) and Unified Silla (South) lasted for about 300 years. It is called North-South States Period (698~926).

892~936

918

926

  • Balhae kingdom was destroyed by the Kitans. Goryeo accepted the refugees from Balhae.

935

  • Silla kingdom surrendered to Goryeo. The last king of Shilla became Goryeo’s noble.

936

1170

  • A group of military officers launched a coup against civil offiers and succeeded to seize the power.
  • The military rule of Goryeo had begun. The age of warriors lasted for one hundred years. (1170~1270)

1231

  • The first invasion of Mongols.
  • The Mongol’s Great Kahns had sent their troops to Goryeo over 9 times for about 30 years (1231~1259), but failed to conquer it.  

1232

  • The military regime of Goryeo escaped Gaegyung with King Gojong and nobility and moved the capital to Ganghwa island.
  • While the fierce battles between Goryeo commoners and Mongol armies continued in the mainland, the nobility was enjoying their parties in the safe island. (ep. 16, Bang-Won’s comment)

1255

  • Yi Seong-Gye’s ancestor, Yi An-Sa, gave up fighting and surrendered to Mongols. He was appointed as a Darugachi, the high officer for the Mongol empire.

1259

  • King Gojong of Goryeo voluntarily sent his crown prince to Mongol's  Kublai Khan to negotiate a peace treaty. A truce between Goryeo and Mongols was concluded in 30 years.
  • Kublai welcomed Goryeo’s crown prince because he was fighting with his younger brother over who should be the next Mongol emperor. The peace treaty with Goryeo helped him beat his brother and rise to the throne.

1270

  • As the last leader of Goryeo’s military regime died, the war against Mongols was officially over.
  • Goryeo could keep autonomy, but every king of Goryeo had to marry a Mongolian princess and be subordinate to the Mongolian Khans. It lasted for about 80 years.

1335

1340

  • A Goryeo noble woman became the empress of the Yuan Dynasty of China (the Mongol Empire). She is known as Empress Ki.
  • As a result, her brothers also seized power in Goryeo court. But they had a bad reputaion for being corrupt officials.

1342

  • Jung Do-Jeon was born. (King Taejo’s adviser, the first prime minister of the Joseon dynasty)

1351

1355

  • In December, Yi Seong-Gye and his father Yi Ja-Choon met King Gongmin in Gaegyung (the capital city of Goryeo) and swore their loyalty to the king.

1356

  • In May, King Gongmin killed Empress Ki’s brothers and tried to remove the Mongolian influences from the Goryeo court.
  • In July, the king ordered Goryeo armies to recapture the northeast fortress occupied by Pro-Mongol forces. Yi Seong-Gye and his father secretly opened the fortress’ gate and helped Goryeo armies. (ep. 1)
  • The supreme commander of the fortress, Jo So-Saeng, fled away to the north. (In the drama, he was killed by his sworn brother Yi Seong-Gye, but it is a fiction. ep. 1)

1359

1360

  • In February, The defeated Red Turbans fled away to the north.
  • In October, Jung Mong-Joo passed the state exam and became a government official.

1361

  • Instead of his dead father, Yi Seong-Gye became the commander of the Northeast region.
  • In November, the second invasion of Red Turban Army broke out.
  • About 5 days after King Gongmin’s escape from Gaegyung, the Red Turbans occupied the capital city and set fire to the streets. Thousands of citizens were killed. (ep. 12, Bang-Won’s comment)

1362

  • In January, Goryeo armies led by 3 generals under supreme commander Jung Se-Woon defeated the Red Turbans and recaptured the capital.
  • But 3 days after the victory, the four war heroes got to be killed by the fake royal command forged by traitor Kim Yong. (ep. 10 and 27, Jung Do-Jeon’s flashbacks)

1363

  • In January, King Gongmin returned to the capital. He stayed in Heungwangsa temple which was used as a temporary palace in the capital.
  • In March, the rebellion of Heungwangsa temple broke out. Traitor Kim Yong sent about 50 assassins to kill the king, but Eunuch An Do-Chi, Princess Noguk, and General Choi Young stopped the assassination attempt.
  • Kim Yong tried to hide the truth that he was the mastermind of the assassins, but his plot was brought to light. He ended up being executed 20 days after the incidents.  (ep. 10, Jung Do-Jeon’s comment) 
  • In May, Yuan China (the Mongol empire ruled by Empress Ki) declared Prince Deokheung as the new Goryeo king. 
  • In December, Yuan troops were sent to Goyeo to depose King Gongmin.
  • Meanwhile, Jung Do-Jeon passed the state exam and became a government official.

1364

  • In January, General Choi Young and Yi Seong-Gye defeated the Yuan troops sent by Empress Ki.
  • During the battle against Yuan troops, Jurchen army attacked Hamju which was Yi Seong-Gye’s base camp. In February, Yi Seong-Gye returned to Hamju and defeated the Jurchens.
  • In September, Yuan China officially gave up deposing King Gongmin.
  • Jung Do-Jeon got promoted to the king’s secretary.

1365

  • In February, Princess Noguk died during her childbirth. 
  • King Gongmin almost went insane, being totally depressed about his beloved queen’s death.
  • In May, the king lost interests in politics and entrusted the state affairs to a mysterious Buddhist monk by the name of Shin Don. (* Shin Don was the last reformist politician in the Goryeo Dynasty.)
  • Jung Do-Jeon objected to the king’s order and resigned from the government.
  • General Choi Young was relegated to a local government office.
  • July 25, King Gongmin’s only son Monino (King U of Goryeo) was born by Prime Minister Shin Don’s slave girl Ban-Ya.
  • July 29, Lady Min (Yi Bang-Won’s wife, Queen Wongyeong) was born as Min Je’s second daughter.

1366

  • In April, Prime minister Shin Don’s reform policies on land and slave system were hugely welcomed by the people.
  • Meanwhile, Jung Do-Jeon’s parents died. During his 3-year mourning for dead parents, Jung Do-Jeon intensively read the works of Mencius which became the foundation of his revolutionary thoughts.  

1367  

  • May 16, Yi Bang-Won was born as General Yi Seong-Gye’s 5th son. (King Taejong, the 3rd king of the Joseon Dynasty)
  • In September, based on Shin Don’s reform policy for Confucian revival, Sungkyunkwan was restored as the highest educational institution of Confucianism.

1368

  • In September, Yuan Dynasty finally fled from the Chinese mainland to the northern region. (called “Northern Yuan” from then on).
  • Instead, Ming Dynasty of China was founded in the Chinese mainland by the leader of Red Turban army, Zhu Yuanzhang. (* Hongwu Emperor, the founder of Ming Dynasty)

1369

  • Empress Ki died.

1370

  • Jung Do-Jeon made his comeback to politics as a professor of Sungkyunkwan.

1371

  • In July, Shin Don was executed for treason by false charges.  
  • Jung Do-Jeon got promoted to a central government official.

1372

  • In October, King Gongmin established his royal bodyguards called Jajewi (자제위, 子弟衛) comprised of young and beautiful aristocrat warriors. (Hong Ryun in ep. 2, The plum blossom warrior in ep. 5)

1373

  • When the Northen Yuan sent their envoy to Goryeo, King Gongmin threatened to kill them, but Goryeo officials barely stopped the king.

Six Flying Dragons (2015~2016, SBS)

1374  

  • In September, King Gongmin was assassinated.
  • After losing his beloved wife Princess Noguk, the king’s madness had been aggravated. He forced his other consorts to sleep with his royal guards (Jajewi).
  • When he learned from Eunuch Choi Man-Saeng that Lady Han (one of his 4 consorts) was pregnant with Hong Ryun, he decided to kill Hong Ryun as well as those who knew the truth. He wanted to make the baby his own child, so he talked about his plan to seal their lips under the influence of alcohol and fell asleep.
  • Eunuch Choi Man-Saeng was afraid of being killed, so he let the royal guards know about it. As a result, Hong Ryun and Choi Man-Saeng killed the king sleeping in the bedroom, and gave false testimony that an assassin from outside killed the king.
  • Yi In-Im (the historical figure that Yi In-Gyeom is based on) investigated the assassination case and found out the real culprits. Hong Ryun and Eunuch Choi Man-Saeng were executed. (ep. 2, Yi In-Gyeom’s flashback)
  • In October, Yi In-Im enthroned the late king’s 11-year-old son Monino (King U) despite of the queen dowager’s objection. Three years ago, the little boy had been officially declared by King Gongmin as his son from palace maid Lady Han, not from Shin Don’s slave girl Ban-Ya. In fact, it is one of the biggest mystery of Korean history whether he was a real son of King Gongmin or not.
  • By crowning the boy as a puppet king, Dodang trio including Yi In-Im took over the reigns of the court.
  • In November, a Ming Chinese envoy was killed in Goryeo. The conflict between Ming China and Goryeo was turning ugly.

1375

  • As a result, the Dodang trio wanted to reestablish the ties with Northern Yuan (Mongols). They appointed Jung Do-Jeon as a greeter for the Mongol envoy.
  • Jung Do-Jeon rejected their order, claiming “It is against the late king’s will. If you appoint me as a greeter, I will either kill the Mongol envoy or sent him away to Ming China!” Therefore, Jung Do-Jeon was arrested by the raged nobles. (ep. 2, Jung Do-Jeon’s Jangpyeong Gate Uprising)
  • He spent 4 years in exile in Naju, Jeolla province, where he learned a lot about the impoverished conditions of Goryeo commoners and designed the concrete revolution plan.

1376

  • In March, Ban-Ya claimed in front of the Queen dowager’s palace that she was the current king’s real mother.
  • Yi In-Im ordered to kill her by throwing her away to the Imjin river.
  • In December, Dodang decided to kill the baby girl born from Lady Han with Hong Ryun, the cause of King Gongmin’s assasination.

1378

  • In April, Japanese pirates attacked the capital. General Choi Young and Yi Seong-Gye defeated them.

1380

  • In August, The naval battle of Jinpo against Japanese pirates. It was Goryeo’s first military use of gunpowder which was created by General Choi Mu-Seon. (ep 16, Yi Bang-Woo’s comment)
  • In September, in the battle of Hwangsan, General Yi Seong-Gye’s armies defeated Japanese pirates in Woonbong, Jeolla province. At that time, Jung Mong-Joo accompanied General Yi’s army as a civil offier. (ep. 8, Jung Do-Jeon’s flashback of fake Japanese pirates)

1382

  • Yi Bang-Won entered Sungkyunkwan.
  • Professor Min Je of Sungkyunkwan decided to make him his son-in-law.
  • Yi Bang-Won married Min Je’s second daughter. She was 2 years older than him. (ep. 15)
  • Hobaldo, the poweful Jurchen chief in alliance with Ming China, invaded the northeast region of Goryeo. (ep. 11)

1383

  • Jung Do-Jeon went to Hamju and met General Yi Seong-Gye for the first time. They became close friends. (ep. 7~8)
  • In April, Yi Bang-Won passed the civil service exam and became a government official.
  • In August, Yi Seong-Gye defeated Hobaldo and submitted the border stabilization plan to Dodang. (ep. 9~12)
  • In September, Yi Seong-Gye returned to Gaegyung and entered into politics. (ep. 12)

1384

  • Jung Do-Jeon made his comeback to politics by the help of Yi Seong-Gye. (ep. 17)
  • In July, Jung Mong-Joo and Jung Do-Jeon were sent to Ming China as envoys.

1387

  • In August, Yi In-Im (“Yi In-Gyeom” in SFD) resigned from politics because of his old age. (ep. 13)

1388  

  • In January, Jo Ban’s rebellion broke out. It was fabricated by Yeom Heung-Bang (”Hong In-Bang” in SFD). (ep 15~16)
  • General Choi Young joined forces with Yi Seong-Gye and drove out the corrupt Dodang trio.
  • Yeom Heung-Bang (Hong In-Bang) and Yim Gyeon-Mi (Gil Tae-Mi) were arrested and executed. Thousands of their relatives were killed, too.
  • Yi In-Im (Yi In-Gyeom) was not killed. He was exiled to his hometown because he was good friends with Choi Young. (ep. 19)
  • As a result, Choi Young and Yi Seong-Gye became the top 2 leaders of the Goryeo court.
  • In March, King U married Choi Young’s daughter to maintain his power. (ep. 19)
  • Around the same time, Ming China demanded the return of Goryeo‘s Northern territory.  It was the land that the former king (King Gongmin) had ordered General Choi Young to retrieve from pro-Mongol forces in 1356. Yi Seong-Gye and his father also had helped it. (ep. 1) 
  • It had been a national project for Goryeo to retrieve the lost territory of ancient Goguryeo kingdom. Therefore, Ming’s demand made the diplomatic ties between the two countries significantly damaged. (ep 19~20)
  • In April, King U and General Choi Young drafted soldiers in the name of a hunt. They ordered General Yi Seong-Gye to carry out a preemptive strike against the Ming Chinese base in the Liaodong peninsula. (ep 19)
  • Yi Seong-Gye suggested 4 reasons why they should not go to war, but his opinion was dismissed by Choi Young. (ep 20)
  • In April, Yi Seong-Gye and Jo Min-Soo were sent to the Liaodong Conquest. Choi Young was supposed to lead the expedition, but King U’s desperate request made his mind weaken and he decided to stay with the king at the last moment.
  • In May, Yi Seong-Gye’s army was stranded on Wihwa island, the northern border on the Apnok river between Goryeo and Ming China, due to increased water from heavy rain. Hundreds of soldiers dying in the process of driving a stake in the river to put a floating bridge.
  • Despite of Yi Seong-Gye’s desperate messages, Choi Young constantly urged them to cross the river.
  • Yi Seong-Gye arrested Choi Young’s messenger Kim Wan, and finally decided to stage a military coup.
  • May 22, Yi Seong-Gye and Jo Min-Soo started to retreat from Wihwa island. (* Wihwa island Retreat.  ep. 20)
  • Yi Seong-Gye’s eldest sons, Yi Bang-Woo and Yi Bang-Gwa, escaped the king’s camp and moved to his father. His 5th son Yi Bang-Won evacuated the general’s family to Hamju. (ep. 21)
  • In June, After the street battle in Gaegyung, the palace was taken by Yi Seong-Gye’s army. General Choi Young was arrested and sent into exile. (ep. 22)
  • Yi Seong-Gye and Jo Min-Soo became top 2 supreme power of the court.
  • King U led 80 armed eunuchs to kill the generals but his plan ended in failure. The king was deposed and confined in Ganghwa island.
  • Jo Min-Soo betrayed Yi Seong-Gye and joined forces with Yi Saek to enthrone King U’s 8-year-old son, King Chang. (ep. 22)
  • Jo Min-Soo tried to reinstate Yi In-Im to prime minister, but found out Yi In-Im was already dead while in exile. (ep. 23)
  • In July, Jo Joon submitted a petition for land reforms, and it became a big issue in the court. Jo Min-Soo objected to it. (ep. 23~24)
  • Jo Min-Soo was impeached by Jo Joon’s accusation of land plundering and corruption. (ep. 25~26 The bloody banquet)
  • In August, Jo Min-Soo was released from the exile on a special amnesty given on King Chang’s birthday.
  • In December, General Choi Young was executed.

1389

  • In November, Kim Jeo’s rebellion
  • After meeting King U in exile, Kim Jeo and Jung Deuk-Hoo conspired to kill Yi Seong-Gye on the Palgwanhoe (팔관회) festival day for the restoration of King U. But their accomplice Gwak Chung-Bo informed Yi Seong-Gye of their assassination plot in advance. (ep. 28)
  • Jung Deuk-Hoo killed himself. Kim Jeo was arrested and confessed that Yi Saek’s party conspired together. Even though it was unclear whether it was true or not, all of those involved in the plot were ousted and exiled.
  • King Chang was also deposed under the accusation of communicating secretly with his father, King U.
  • Yi Seong-Gye enthroned Prince Jeongchang, the descendent of Goryeo’s 20th ruler King Shinjong. (* King Gongyang, the last king of Goryeo Dynasty)
  • In December, King U and his son King Chang were executed by beheading.

1390

  • Jo Min-Soo was executed.
  • In September, Jo Joon’s land reforms had finally been carried out. The land registers of corrupt nobles, being piled mountain-high in the street of Gaegyung, had been burnt for about 7 days. People watching this scene shed tears of joy.
  • As a result, the conservative privileged nobles lost their economic power and collapsed. Meanwhile, the reformist Sadaebu scholars gained new economic foundation. The age of Sadaebu scholars had begun.

1391

  • In September, Jung Do-Jeon was impeached by Jung Mong-Joo’s party. King Gongyang didn’t kill him and exiled to Naju.
  • The power struggle between Yi Seong-Gye’s party (revolutionists to found Joseon) and Jung Mong-Ju’s party (reformists to maintain Goryeo) became a tinderbox.

1392

  • March 15, Yi Seong-Gye was injured from falling off a horse.
  • April 1, Yi Seong-Gye’s followers such as Jo Joon, Nam Eun, Jung Do-Joeon were ousted and exiled by Jung Mong-Joo’s faction. 
  • April 2~3, Yi Seong-Gye came back to the capital in the middle of the night by the help of his 5th son, Yi Bang-Won.
  • April 4, Jung Mong-Joo visited Yi Seong-Gye’s house. The last guardian of Goryeo Dynasty was killed on Seonji bridge by Yi Bang-Won‘s men on his way home.
  • April 6, Yi Seong-Gye’s faction was released from exile and came back to the government posts.
  • June 2, Jung Do-Jeon and Nam Eun returned from the exile.
  • June 8, Yi Seong-Gye’s faction took over the military forces all over the country.
  • July 1, King Gongyang proposed the alliance of sovereign and subject, but it was rejected by Yi Seong-Gye..
  • July 12, King Gongyang was deposed. (* The fall of Goryeo Dynasty)
  • July 17, Yi Seong-Gye ascended the throne. (King Taejo, the founder of the Joseon Dynasty)
  • August 20, Yi Bang-Seok (Yi Seong-Gye’s 8th son by his second wife Queen Shindeok) was installed as Crown prince at the age of 10.
  • On the same day, the names of Yi Bang-Won and other princes were excluded from the list of founding contributors.
  • October 25, Jung Do-Jeon was sent to Ming China as an envoy to announce the establishment of the new Dynasty.

1393

  • March 20, Jung Do-Jeon returned from Ming China. The name of the country was officially changed into Joseon.
  • May 23, Hongwu Emperor of Ming China blamed Joseon for appeasing about 500 Jurchens and naturalizing them as Joseon citizens. Many of them had been soldiers working for Ming China, but they were originally Goryeo refugees living with Jurchens. Joseon was forced to deport them to Liaodong. 
  • July 5, Jung Do-Jeon was appointed as a military commander of Northeast region. He visited Jurchen tribes there and made connections with their chiefs for the future Liadong expedition.
  • In October, Jung Do-Jeon composed formal court music by himself and played the songs in front of King Taejo.
  • In November, Jung Do-Jeon created various battle formations. King Taejo ordered to use them for military training.
  • December 13, Yi Bang-Woo (Yi Seong-Gye’s eldest son) died of illness. He refused to become the Crown Prince and secluded himself in a mountain hermitage. His anger at his father made him drink too much that he got sick and died.

1394

  • In April, King Gongyang of Goryeo and his 2 sons were executed.
  • Around the same time, not only Goryeo’s royal family but also their collateral blood relatives with a sirname of Wang were all killed or buried at the sea of Samcheok, Ganghwa island, Geoje island. (* The massacre of Wang clan)
  • May 30, Jung Do-Jeon wrote a book titled Joseon Gyeonguk-jeon and offered it to the King. It was the first constitutional law of Joseon. 
  • In June, Yi Bang-Won volunteered to go to Ming China as an envoy (a.k.a. hostage) to solve the deteriorated diplomatic relationships between Joseon and Ming China.
  • In July, Crown Prince Yi Bang-Seok married Shim Hyo-Saeng’s daughter. Shim Hyo-Saeng was Jung Do-Jeon’s close colleague. 
  • October 28, the capital city was moved from Gaegyung to Hanyang (Today’s Seoul, the current capital city of South Korea).
  • In November, Yi Bang-Won returned from Ming China.
  • Yi Bang-Won’s first son, Yi Je / Prince Yangnyeng, was born.

1395

  • January 9, Jo Young-Gyu died of an illness.
  • January 25, Jung Do-Jeon and Jung Chong co-wrote 37 volumes of Goryeosa (‘The history of Goryeo’) and offered it to the King.
  • October 7, King Taejo ordered Jung Do-Jeon to name every buildings of the new palace, Gyeongbokgung. It was also designed by Jung Do-Jeon.
  • December 11, Yi Bang-Won’s 2nd son, Yi Bo / Prince Hyoryeong, was born.

1396

  • June 11, Hongwu Emperor of Ming China demanded the extradition of Jung Do-Jeon who was in charge of the diplomatic letter sent to the Emperor. 
  • August 13, Queen Shindeok (Yi Seong-Gye’s second wife) died of an illness.
  • Yi Saek died.

1397

  • April 10, Yi Bang-Won’s 3rd son, Yi Do / Prince Chungnyeong / King Sejong the Great, was born.
  • April 17, Hongwu Emperor of Ming China blamed Jung Do-Jeon for the root of calamity, and threatened to go to war against Joseon unless Jung Do-Jeon stop the Liadong expedition plan.
  • June 14, Jung Do-Jeon and Nam Eun tried to raise the army toward the northern border, but Jo Joon vehemently opposed their military actions.. 

1398

  • June 24, Hongwu Emperor of Ming China died. His grandson Jianwen Emperor ascended the throne. Joseon court didn’t know about it yet.
  • July 11, Jung Do-Jeon’s Liadong expedition plan brought him into severe conflict with Jo Joon. 
  • August 2, Ha Ryun was demoted to a local officer by Jung Do-Jeon. He secretly advised Yi Bang-Won to raise the army during his farewell party.
  • July to August, Yi Seong-Gye laid in his sickbed several times.
  • August 26, The first strife of Princes.
  • Yi Bang-Won killed Prime minister Jung Do-Jeon, his colleague Nam Eun, and Crown prince Yi Bang-Seok.
  • In September, King Taejo handed over the crown to his second son Yi Bang-Gwa (King Jeongjong, the 2nd king of the Joseon Dynasty), but the actual power was in Yi Bang-Won’s hand.
  • October 3, Hongwu Emperor’s death was delivered to the Joseon court.  

1399

  • In March, King Jeongjong moved the capital back to Gaegyung.
  • Auguts 8, the civil war between the Jianwen Emperor and his uncle Zhu Di (Prince of Yan) broke out in Ming China. It lasted for about 4 years. (* Jingnan Rebellion 1399~1402)

1400

  • January 28, The second strife of Princes.
  • Yi Bang-Gan (King Taejo’s 4th son) rebelled against his younger brother Yi Bang-Won but his coup ended in failure.
  • Yi Bang-Gan was exiled. Yi Bang-Won refused to execute his elder brother, so Bang-Gan had lived comfortably until he died of an illness in 1421. 
  • February 1, King Jeongjong accepted Ha Ryun’s petition and named Yi Bang-Won as his successor. 
  • In November, King Jeongjong abdicated and Yi Bang-Won finally ascended the throne. (King Taejong, the 3rd king of the Joseon Dynasty).

1401

  • Jo Mal-Saeng passed the civil service exam, and became a government officer.

1402

  • April 9, Yi Ji-Ran died.
  • Jo Sa-Eu’s rebellion : King Taejo (Yi Seong-Gye) incited his queen’s relative Jo Sa-Eu to raise an army in Hamju to avenge King Taejong (Yi Bang-Won) but it ended in a huge defeat. 
  • Zhu Di defeated his nephew and ascended the throne. (* Yongle Emperor,  the 3rd Emperor of Ming China)

1405

  • In October, The capital city was moved back to Hanyang (Seoul) again.
  • Jo Joon died.

1406

  • Queen Wongyeong (Lady Min)’s two brothers (Min Moo-Gu and Min Moo-Jil) were exiled.

1408  

  • Yi Seong-Gye (King Taejo, the founder of Joseon dynasty) died of old age.
  • Min Je (Yi Bang-Won’s father-in-law) died of an illness.

1410

  • In March, Queen Wongyeong (Lady Min)’s two brothers (Min Moo-Gu and Min Moo-Jil) were forced to commit suicide in their exile places.

1415

  • In December, King Taejong tried to depose his lawful wife Queen Wongyeong, but withdrew his decision because of his elder brother King Jeongjong (Bang-Gwa)’s dissuasion.

1416

  • King Taejong ordered Min Moo-Hwae and Min Moo-Hyul to commit suicide in their exile places.
  • November 24, Ha Ryun died of old age.

Tree with Deep Roots (2011, SBS)

1418  

  • In August, King Taejong (Yi Bang-Won) abdicated the throne to his 3rd son King Sejong the Great (Yi Do). But he continued to rule with an iron fist. 
  • In December, Shim On, the father-in-law of King Sejong, was executed by former King Taejong’s political machinations. <- Tree with Deep Roots (2011) begins here!

1419

  • In June, the Tsushima expedition. General Yi Jong-Moo eliminated Japanese pirates’ bases on Tsushima island, which brought peace to Joseon for over 100 years.
  • September 25, King Jeongjong (Yi Bang-Gwa) died.

1420

  • March 26, King Sejong established the Hall of Worthies (집현전, 集賢殿), a group of elite scholars selected by the king which participated in various scholarly endeavors.
  • July 10, Queen Wongyeong (King Taejong’s wife, Lady Min) died.

1421

  • March 9, Yi Bang-Gan died of an illness.

1422

  • May 10, King Taejong (Yi Bang-Won) died.

1443

1446

  • September 29, King Sejong officially proclaimed the creation of Hangul.

1447

1450

  • February 17, King Sejong the Great died of an illness. His first son King Munjong ascended the throne.

1452

  • May 14, King Munjong died of a malignant tumor. His 12-year-old son ascended the throne. (* King Danjong)

1453

  • October 10, Grand Prince Suyang who was King Sejong’s 2nd son and King Danjong’s uncle staged a coup by the help of Han Myung-Hoi. (* He is Mr. Han of Milbon in TWDR)

1455

  • In June, Grand Prince Suyang usurped the throne. (* King Sejo)

1456

  • In June, Seong Sam-mun and Pak Paeng-nyeon were executed after being implicated in a plot to dethrone King Sejo and restore his predecessor King Danjong.