kinds of intelligence

anonymous asked:

is it possible that plants have consciousness?

this is actually a small sub branch of botany thats been growing and gaining some recognition in the past 5 years or so called plant cognition! we’ve been thinking about if plants can possibly be intelligent to any degree for centuries, but the main paper that started up this huge discussion in the modern era was one called Experience Teaches Plants to Learn Faster and Forget Slower in Environments Where It Matters by Monica Gagliano, a plant researcher in Australia who specializes in it. because the results indicated that plants were possible of learning and retaining information in a kind of memory in response to environmental changes, it received a lot of backlash and denial- generally in science, that kind of intelligent reaction to an organism’s environment is a good indicator of cognitive behavior in the organism. it got rejected by 10 different journals before being published in 2014. 

the experiment worked like this. i’ve talked before about mimosa pudica, a tropical plant that curls its leaves back when touched (they go back to normal in a few minutes):

this is to help deter predators among other things. but in this experiment, Gagliano used it as an indicator of stimulus and to test cognitive function. It’s well known that pudica has a rudimentary nervous system that can even be temporarily inhibited using anesthetics (just like ours can!). she hooked up a ton of these plants in pots to identical rail systems that allowed them to be lightly dropped in an identical way, juuuuust heavy enough to trigger the stimulus so all the leaves drop down when they hit the bottom (a piece of foam so they wouldn’t actually hurt the plants). every time the plants would be dropped, they would close up. 

but after the plants were dropped about 60 times each, they stopped responding to the drop. 

they remembered that no harm was coming from this action and decided that it was against their best interests to keep expending energy closing their leaves. they 200% learned to stop. 

she decided to test it further. she put some of the plants in a shaker and let them receive a more jarring response; the plants closed up as usual. then, she put them back in the droppers and dropped them again. they didn’t close up. they had remembered that response. this dispels the obvious rebuttal to this experiment of the plants just being tired; they still closed up when stimulated differently.

they just chose not to close up when they hit a stimulus they remembered. 

it turns out that not only could they remember to keep their leaves open when dropped on the apparatus, but they remembered after 28 days when she kept testing it!! apparently by the end of the experiment, all the plants had decided to keep their leaves open when dropped!!!!

how do they do this?? we literally dont know. they have no central brain, only a basic nervous system. can other plants do this??? 

well, adding onto that, venus fly traps can count! like. they have three hairs inside their traps, and all three must be touched within 20 seconds for the trap to close. once closed, those three trigger hairs must continue to be stimulated by thrashing prey, or the trap will reopen. 

so yeah like. basically ‘are they sentient’: apparently to an extent???? we dont know exactly why or how but they are??? maybe???? sort of????? at least some of them are?? but they dont have a brain so everyones like????????????????????? maybe its through a signaling network????????????????? but like how would that even work?????????

plant consciousness is still new enough to be dismissed as crazy by a lot of biologists but like. the evidence is there. we don’t know a whole lot and its clearly a radically different kind of intelligence than we know in animals, but it’s there and we 200% dont know how it works yet or even the full extent of how plants use this intelligence (for example: does a redwood have the same intelligence as a venus fly trap?? how does it learn things and use that knowledge???) 

national geographic wrote an awesome article visualizing the experiment here if you want to read more!

You know I’m mad about the powerpuff girls reboot, but not because it was just shitty.

This used to be a story of three little girls who were capable of making critical decisions, portraying kindness, showing intelligence and expressing strength all while still remaining little girls. They were children who liked dolls and reading and mud, but they also weren’t just cartoony. They had depth, even while they were children. It was written by adults who respected kids–who wanted kids to feel important and capable.

The reboot flattens these girls. It turns them into stereotype of their characters. OriginalBlossom was smart and a little domineering, but she loved her sisters and always apologized for her mistakes. She believed in justice and equality and doing what was right. RebootBlossom is bossy, hateful, and is just mean to her sisters.

Originalbuttercup had flaws. She could go off the rails sometimes, overestimate her reactions, and act violently. But she always knew what was right and wrong. She never hurt an innocent, and when she did, she suffered from a guilty conscience. RebootButtercup is the Tomboy™. She’s cool™ and edgy™. She acts violently, but with stupidity and never learns from her mistakes.

And poor Bubbles. Original Bubbles could get scared, nervous, anxious, etc. She liked “girly” things, but was proud of it. She had to have a support doll to comfort her and the writers handled it excellently. She could cry, she could get her feelings hurt, and her sisters ALWAYS backed her up and comforted her. RebootBubbles is literal cancer. I’ve never seen writers spit on a child character as much as they have on this one. RebootBubbles is rude, hateful, a representation of the “easily offended teenager”. They wrote her as transphobic and selfish.

The reboot shits on kids. It made three protagonists that represent what the adult writers think of teens but conveyed them in the form of children. These writers don’t respect kids. They don’t like kids. If they did, they would have given them a show that they could actual watch and relate to.

One of the things that Daenerys haters who have read the books love to say to the show watchers (to convince them to join their ranks I guess?) is that the show version is an “ideolized version” of the character, that the show writers “whorship” her and that in the books she is much worse and it is utterly untrue

The show removed a lot of Daenerys’ kindness, her intelligence and political mind, as well as her emotions. The true Daenerys is softer, sweeter, brighter (without mentioning ten years younger) and her so called “questionable actions” are few in the novels. In fact, the only “questionable” thing I can think of is when she agreed to allow one of her advisors in Meereen to use torture on the only witness/suspect they had following the torture and slaughter of dozens of innocent people. But even that part - which is the darkest moment in Daenerys story - was made worse on the show, where she gave two Masters to be devoured to her dragons.

In the second novel, Daenerys never said the “when my dragons are grown we will lay waste to armies and burn cities to the ground” speech. She wasn’t insisting that the merchants of Qarth have to give her ships, she never locked up Doreah and Xaro Xhoan Daxos in a room to die of starvation, she didn’t plunder the city (not that I have a problem with show Daenerys about it, but she did not do that in the books). Doreah died in the Red Waste in Daenerys’ arms, and she gave her her last water although Doreah was dying and they were in a desert without provisions.

In the third novel, Daenerys didn’t enjoy the sack of Astapor and her quote was not “all men must die but we are not men” but “all men must die, but not for a long while, we may pray.” She really wanted to forgive Jorah despite his betrayal but his behavior towards her is what made her banish him (he was insisting that he did no wrong and that she had to forgive him, and that in front of others) - and even after he was gone, she thought a lot of him and wished for him to find happiness back on his Bear Island.

In the fifth novel, Daenerys is the one who is compromising and navigating in the very complex political situation of Meereen. She is the one trying to negotiate with the former slavers and slaves. She never ordered one of her followers to be decapitated, and she never let her dragons eat the Masters. It is not Drogon who rescued her from the Sons of the Harpy, but she who ran toward him to help him after Hizdahr’s men tried to kill him. She didn’t fly away leaving her friends behind in danger, she and Drogon were the only ones in direct danger and she needed to protect him from harm - besides it was the very first time she rode a dragon and did not know how to control him. 

Book Daenerys loves to hug children, kisses people on the cheeks, smiles and laughs and has a great sense of humor, doesn’t say things like “I am a Queen not a politician” and does not need men around her to restrain her from using dragonfire - it is actually the other way around. Everyone of her advisors in the fifth book wanted her to use dragons to burn her enemies but Daenerys was insisting to negotiate and build peace without using force. 

I love show Dany, but book Daenerys is amazing and anyone who tries to claim that the show version is “overhyped” or “whitewashed” or “idolized” compared to the real, canon version is a liar.

SIGN EVALUATION!!!

Aries:  arrogant, genius, charismatic, energetic, sex drives sky rocket, energetic, love themselves, talkative, LOUD

Taurus: emotionless, ignorant, loyal, BLUNT ASF, super silly, hardworking, fun person overall, quiet at first, introverts

Gemini:  indecisive, somewhat creative, smart, NOSYYY, talkative, unpredictable, fake by accident

Cancer: moody, SOOO SENSITIVE, caring, petty, finesse king/qUEEn, loving, super judgmental, always lookin’ cute

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Leo: AGGRESSIVE!!! confident, independent, conceited, loyal, holds grudges forever, inTEnSe, cocky, always sleepy, risk taker

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Virgo: emotionless as HELL, over protective, selfish, perfectionists, LOYAL, goOFy, always STRESSED, worries too damn MUCH


Libra:
sOOo kind, peaceful, calm, intelligence is boosting, fun friend, rLLy judgmental, headass, loves to collect sHIT, chill, outgoing


Scorpio:
intense, perfect best friend, rather super confrontational or super introverted, cute, stubbORN, stuck up, passionate, low key depressed

Sagittarius: FUNNIEST SIGN, anger issues, never srs, so clumsy, party ANiMal, speaks their mind too much, honest af, big time hoe, LITTT


Capricorn : strong, loyal, judgmental  super materialistic, scary side, smart mouth, sassy, controlling, HILARIOUS, SO FUCKING LOUD


Aquarius: independent, natural leader, shares opinions 24/7, smart, hottest sign, low key sensitive, high key conceited, ALWAYS STARVING!!! high key mean

Pisces: caring, impatient as FUCK, SOOOO EMOTIONAL, cries a lot, kinda stubborn tbh, sweet as hell, clingy, deserves the world, D.R.A.M.A.T.I.C.

Here’s to all the people who are suffering from mental illness, who never thought they could help someone else because they were barely holding on and found a bit of strength in Riley Blue. 

Here’s to all the LGBTQ+ Latinx who are constantly struggling with the foundations of their culture and who they love and found a hero in Lito Rodirguez. 

Here’s to all the abuse victims who have walls and walls built around their hearts but realized that not everyone will hurt them because of Wolfgang Bogdanow.

Here’s to all the Korean/Asian people who have felt the pressures of duty, who have felt as though they would always be alone and found a home in Bak Sun. 

Here’s to all the Desi/Asian people who found a role model in the continued kindness and intelligence of Kala Dandekar. 

Here’s to all the Trans people who saw that they are more then just that. That they can lead fulfilling lives where people accept them, where they saw their own bravery and why they should be unapologetic due to Nomi Marks. 

Here’s to all the people who constantly love others above themselves, who have fought to become the person they are still sometimes don’t feel adequate and found those same stories in Will Gorski. 

Here’s to all the Black people who saw Capheus depicted as the most kind hearted, sensitive, and positive spirit and when given the chance always rose to the occasion to help others. 

anonymous asked:

ok lol i'm not trying to be racist but i'm pretty sure BP's going to be a huge flop even though a lot of people are going to watch it. wakanda is such an unrealistic country and I cringe every time i saw something from the trailer. in what world does a tiny third world country be more technologically advanced than any other??? this movei is honestly just Marvel's attempt at trying to be progressive and capitalizing on the "diversity' putting a whole bunch of blacks in a movie will bring

If you have to put “I’m not trying to be racist” before a message, heads up…you’re probably being racist. 

You think that a country in Africa can’t be technologically superior because it’s small and has literally no outside influence? Wakanda is the largest source of vibranium there is, which makes the country very wealthy. Adding on to that, Wakanda has a young and brilliant princess who designs technology to rival or even beat Tony Stark’s. Wakanda has a king who is one of the eight smartest people on earth. This kind of intelligence and wealth can do anything. So yeah, I’d say they don’t need any help being more technologically advanced than any other country. 

If the idea of a successful African country, and the idea of black children having a black superhero represented on the big screen causes you pain, then yeah, you’re racist.

Also a side note: you’re talking about a universe where a man can turn into a giant green rage monster, so I would really reevaluate your idea of what’s “unrealistic.”

You shouldn’t be so hard on yourself; you’ve seen yourself through harsh eyes for too long. Maybe you should close those eyes for a while. Realize that your kindness and creativity and intelligence is more beautiful than anything you can see with your eyes.

7 good reasons to love ...

Also rising too

Aries

  1. They are warriors at heart
  2. They know what innovation means
  3. They are frank
  4. They are fulfilled by the action
  5. They are spontaneous and enthusiastic
  6. They have leadership qualities
  7. They are inflamed lovers

Taurus

  1. They are sturdy
  2. They have the builders instinct
  3. They are the kings of perseverance
  4. They are concrete and realistic
  5. They go slowly but surely
  6. They are sensual and gourmand
  7. They are charming lovers

Gemini

  1. They are extremely mobile
  2. They are the ‘intellos’ of the zodiac
  3. They are really good company
  4. They have extraordinary flexibility in life
  5. They are the kings of good tips
  6. They are never boring
  7. They love without taking the lead

Cancer

  1. They have inexhaustible emotional resources
  2. They are very persistent
  3. They take good care of others
  4. They are hyper-resilient
  5. They are full of delicacy
  6. They don’t discriminate
  7. In love, they carry you in their ‘bubble’

Leo

  1. They are stable people
  2. They are faithful
  3. They are proud of their partner
  4. They are frank
  5. Giving up is not part of their habits
  6. They are independent
  7. They are extremely kind and attentive

Virgo

  1. They are intelligent and relevant
  2. They have the practical sense
  3. They like to be useful
  4. They combine simplicity and distinction
  5. They are precise and punctual
  6. They are independent
  7. They don’t take the big head

Libra

  1. They always find the right word for everyone
  2. They are honest
  3. They have the artistic fiber
  4. They possess grace
  5. They make excellent lawyers
  6. They sublime the duos
  7. They are balanced

Scorpio

  1. They have a crazy magnetism
  2. They possess a sharp intelligence
  3. They are deep and intense
  4. They have the power to ‘reborn from their ashes’
  5. They show a phenomenal determination
  6. They love like no one else
  7. They are rare

Sagittarius

  1. They are optimistic and enthusiastic
  2. They are tolerant and broad-minded
  3. They are generous and warm
  4. They are born adventurers
  5. They are good-living
  6. They are excellent pedagogues
  7. They are dynamic and enterprising

Capricorn

  1. They are of unfailing loyalty
  2. They are authentic and honest
  3. They are the ‘masters of time’
  4. They are wise and reasonable
  5. They are ultra lucid
  6. They are very resistant
  7. They are sentimental

Aquarius

  1. They are incorruptible
  2. They are open and broad-minded
  3. They are idealists
  4. They are independent
  5. They are bold avant-gardists.
  6. They are funny and surprising
  7. They make amazing friends

Pisces

  1. They are born artists
  2. They are connected to the collective psyche
  3. They are amazing ‘chameleons’
  4. They are hyper-empathic
  5. They are excellent at communication
  6. They know what love means
  7. They always get away
I want to see more big girls as the stars of mainstream films, and owning every single person in the movie with their “I don’t give a damn about what you think, I’m beautiful and I know it” attitude. More shows with leads that are transgender women showing us how incredible they are in what they endure from society and conduct themselves with such admirable pride and strength. More women of colour centric tv shows highlighting all the struggles they must survive growing up. More autistic girls being protagonists of movies and showing people that autism can also mean kindness, intelligence and beauty if you take the time to understand that it’s a different system. I want more differently abled girls becoming superstars in tv shows with their positive attitudes to life, their incredible spirit and their immense compassion. I want mainstream films and tv shows to start making them the heroes they deserve to be. We need to show our children that heroes come on all kinds of bodies, all kinds of minds and that is something we should love and respect as a society. We need to make tv shows and films as diverse as they can be so our children and their children can understand themselves, love themselves, and treat each other with empathy.
—  Nikita Gill, On TV Shows And Movies And True Female Inclusivity
Why I Actually Hate the Signs + 2 good traits to redeem this post
  • Aries: why r u so competitive!!!! chill for one second!!! also y'all impatient as fuck. worst tempers of all the signs like pls chill (courageous + passionate!!)
  • Taurus: So. Fucking. Stubborn. LITERALLY SO STUBBORN!!! and also? yall are lazy af. Probably the most boring sign EVER, don't feel bad tho bc every Taurus I've ever met gives great hugs. (dependable + down to earth!!)
  • Gemini: ok y'all are just mean but I'll cut u slack bc ur basically the most hated sign. Ur too superficial tho!! and u cant keep a secret for shit!! (adaptable + witty!!)
  • Cancer: where do I START y'all are too goddamn emotional n moody!! stop crying!! too worrisome too like chill for 1 sec!! also so needy omg (creative + loving!!)
  • Leo: ATTENTION SEEKING AF!! Not everything is about u!!! Ur egos are too goddamn fragile like stop taking every negative thing personally?? I'm pretty sure y'all would wilt like a mf flower without so much attention n adoration (loyal + generous!!)
  • Virgo: y'all are so critical...not everyone is a perfectionist like u omg. so needy too especially bc they're so self critical?? Y won't y'all accept that you're good enough CHRIST!! (kind + intelligent!!)
  • Libra: SO INDECISIVE!!! that's the main thing...ur all literally so indecisive omg. Yall are too dependent on others bc u have too much fear of being abandoned and alone lol (diplomatic + charming!!)
  • Scorpio: demons!!! all y'all!! Ur jealous, sarcastic, and vindictive and KNOW IT but u don't even try to better yourselves, y'all ARE ur negative traits. (ambitious + brave!!)
  • Sagittarius: Aloof, brutally honest, FEAR OF COMMITMENT, reckless. Stop just saying what's on ya goddamn mind!! Get a filter!!! And listen to the rules for once in ur life!!! (adventurous + funny!!)
  • Capricorn: SO. PESSIMISTIC. U guys literally never take risks?? also like half of y'all are complete workaholics...chill for 1 sec omg. the main thing is ur too cautious like take a risk for once. second most boring after taurus lol (hardworking + responsible!!)
  • Aquarius: TOO FUCKING UNPREDICTABLE!! y'all will literally rebel for the sake of rebelling?? stop?? also y'all have like no sense of identity...it's bc ur so nonconformist and rebellious LMAO (independent + humanitarian!!)
  • Pisces: hooooo boy. oh man oh man y'all are so self pitying. Not as sensitive as cancer but still so fucking sensitive??? Impressionable, naive, and gullible af. (easygoing + compassionate!!)
Better Latte than Never

it’s my birthday!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! THE 21ST OF SEPTEMBER IS FINALLY HERE, and that means a fic!!! have a destiel coffee shop AU on me. <3

read it here on AO3!!

“What are you having?” Castiel asked with a smile, and Dean’s stomach flipped.

“Um. Regular latte,” he managed to say, and smiled.

“Regular latte,” Castiel repeated. “Coming right up.” He turned away, and began to prepare Dean’s drink, tanned hands picking up a plain white cup which he spun into position onto the coffee machine, glancing up to see whether Dean had noticed. Dean smiled, hoping it came across as ‘impressed’ and not ‘totally smitten’.

Shifting his weight from one foot to the other behind the cafe counter, Dean waited for his latte to be ready. He preferred espresso, if he was honest - but lattes took longer to drink, and just recently, Dean had found himself becoming a professional in the niche field of ‘reasons to take a long time over drinking a coffee in a small cafe’. He’d never even liked coffee that much - it had always been more of a necessary evil, utilized when he’d pushed his sleeping schedule beyond the reasonable limit - but that was something that he’d conveniently forgotten, just recently.

In fact, he could date this very specific amnesia to the exact moment that he’d walked through the door of this tiny cafe, tired in the middle of a long day at work and gasping for something to drink on his lunch break. That had been the first time he’d come, but there had been a second time, and a third… and now it was almost a whole month later, and Dean was still coming in every day.

He wished he could say that it was the coffee at Better Latte Than Never that kept him coming back. The coffee was good – or at least, Dean thought it was, though he was no expert - he hadn’t exactly sampled a whole lot of different brands. In fact, recently, he hadn’t even bothered buying his usual packet of filter coffee when he went grocery shopping. He spent so much time in Better Latte Than Never that he was starting to genuinely worry about the effects of overcaffeination.

After all, maybe those effects included giddiness, and butterflies in his stomach, and a heart rate through the roof, all of which Dean had been experiencing on a daily basis - but if he was honest, Dean didn’t think he could blame the coffee so much as the maker of the coffee for the symptoms.

Keep reading

I am tired of being ashamed of my body. I feel like my arms are as thick as tree trunks, and when I look at my stomach, I see unwanted rolling hills. I am so exhausted, constantly pinching and pulling at my body. Fat shouldn’t be the characterizing factor of a human being. Kindness should be. I want to be someone with a good heart. Intelligence should be. I want to inspire people with my thirst for knowledge. Love should be. Because what is life without love? Nothing. So if I am fat but I’m kind, intelligent, and loving, is that really so bad? There is so much more to humans than their physicality. Remember that being a good person is so much more important than forcing your body to conform to societal standards.

Beauty is internal. And you are so beautiful.

—  Excerpt from a book I’ll never write

kashikoikawaiisaschachen  asked:

How intelligent do you think Zack really is? I think half of his stupidity comes from the lack of education. He did have some moments of intelligence, like when he was trying to figure out the writing of Ray's name.

Actually I think Zack isn’t that dumb. 

You’re right, half of his stupidity probably comes from his lack of education and when he tries, he can do it. He read Ray’s name, but at Eddie’s floor, he also thought of going to the other room with a crack on the wall because he deduced himself that it was connected to the room where Ray currently was. He deduced himself as well that the rock in front of Ray’s tomb was his tomb. He thought of asking Ray to get a lighter weapon for him in Episode 3 after he was hurt. He can wrap and unwrap his bandages himself. Once Ray told him that the cell bars were made of steel and he tested it once, he knew not to hit the bars again. In the game, he himself thinks of the vent as a place where Ray hasn’t searched yet in the poison room. He has survived alone during all this time without ever getting caught by the police. 

Also, the syringe’s room: he plans things out, there. If Ray dies, then he’s basically done for. However, if he dies, then Ray will have a problem, and as Cathy said, the syringe’s serum is not deadly. He think about that and that’s why he takes the two syringes. Knowing his vitality and strength, plus maybe the effect of the vitamins, he had good chances of surviving. Zack taking the two syringes was actually the best decision to get out of this dilemma. 

So yeah, he’s not an idiot. If he had received a proper education, went to school, etc. he would probably be way smarter. 

But as his resumes says, thinking is not his forte and he’s poor at planning. He just doesn’t think things through. That’s not how he works. He’s someone who acts a lot on instinct: act first and think after. He doesn’t take his time to think: when he has an idea, he goes for it.

That can be really stupid (aka breaking the card in the poison room, thinking that Ray could have gone through a locked door at B6) but that can also be really useful (aka throwing Ray into the vent) because he doesn’t ask himself too many questions.

He doesn’t hesitate often. That’s not how he works. He does things and if it doesn’t work, well fuck it. Planning is not his thing. 

That could come from his childhood, with survival instinct BUT SURVIVAL INSTINCT SHOULD HAVE PREVENTED YOU FROM SITTING IN A SUSPICIOUS LOOKING CHAIR IN THE MIDDLE OF AN EXECUTION ROOM, ZACK.

So I would say that Zack is naturally not a thinking person like Ray - he wouldn’t be a top grade student for example - and his lack of education doesn’t help. However, he’s far from being a complete moron: he has an instinctive kind of intelligence and can be quite clever. 

Jake English is the most intelligent character in Homestuck. And he hides it deliberately.

For a given value of “intelligence”, anyway. I don’t hold that much truck with the concept in general–there are different kinds of intelligence that run the gamut of human skills, and reducing that to a single concept is reductive, to say the least.

However, it’s hard to deny that there are real cultural forces in our society that do treat intelligence as a monolithic descriptor of skill and worth, and it’s a cultural idea as pervasive in reality as it is in Jake’s character arc.

For that reason alone, I’ll be using “intelligence” as a term referring to Jake’s awareness of and competence at identifying and solving problems throughout this sequence. The term as I am using it here is only relevant in the context of the themes and language Homestuck sets up. 

Intelligence, competence, and awareness are key parts of Jake’s relationship with the people around him, and particularly with the way he is dehumanized, taken for granted, and abused. 

In fact, almost every character Jake is close to in canon questions his intelligence at some point:

And this dynamic isn’t just present in the characters. It’s in the fandom as well. 
Fandom perception of Jake English often considers him comically unaware of his surroundings and reality, dense and slow or even straight up unable to pick up on ideas that come naturally to many of the other characters.

This is true across the board of opinions of his character: Some consider Jake a self-absorbed, thoughtless asshole, others still consider him a helpless victim who isn’t quite quick enough on the uptake to keep up with how he’s manipulated by others.

It’s hard for us–the fandom, I mean–to be sure of just how much Jake understood about how badly Lil Hal treated him (and by association, Dirk, in much of the fandom’s eyes). Or that Jane liked him. Among other things. It’s part of the general air of helplessness and incompetence that surrounds Pages, I guess, and air set up around Jake for quite a lot of his narrative:

(Note: This is Brain Ghost Dirk specifically questioning Jake’s intelligence.  
I hope you’ve got some good note taking pens, because this is going to be important later.)


It’s pretty much accepted that the degree and reach of Jake’s intelligence is, at the very least, a matter of debate. I am here to say that it is not. At all. And I can prove it. By allowing ourselves to doubt Jake’s intelligence, we–the fandom– have performed the equivalent of deciding Dave’s cool guy act is the real deal. 

We have fallen for Jake’s bluff. I’ll explain. 

Plenty of people are aware that Knights, as a class, tend to act out personas that reflect ideas about how they think they should act. 
For Dave, that’s the stoic Cool Guy archetype, which he eventually grows out of:

For Karkat, it’s his ideas of being a Ruthless Big Shot Leader, which he also outgrows by the end: 

And Latula has the thing about being a R4D SK4T3R G4M3G1RL!!! I don’t really think we need a quote to establish that–Dave and Karkat prove my point well enough, and this is pretty much common fandom knowledge. 

What I don’t think is common fandom knowledge is that Pages do the same thing, but for a different purpose. Pages and Knights both set up Personas that they project into the outside world. And both of them do it to control how other people perceive them. But for different reasons.

Knights do it because they want to be perceived as capable, in control, and unflappable, basically. Karkat wants everyone to rely on his executive ability as a Leader. Dave wants to be admired and validated by his friends, or. Well. Anyone. In essence, Knights want to be relied on by others. 

Pages, on the other hand, develop this fabricated identity for themselves. At this point, I should mention I’ve come to agree with Tex Talk’s view that Knights are a passive class and Pages are an active one. 

Knights use their aspect to benefit others. Pages use it to benefit themselves.

Horrus develops a strangely blank persona, so conspicuously fake it is hard to tell if he even reacts to input–so it’s easy for him to just pretend he didn’t hear it when Rufioh tells him he wants to break up–again, I don’t really feel like going through all of Openbound to get all the screencaps and I don’t think they warrant that much space on this post. 

Tavros does the same thing, enveloping himself in his games and fantasy so much that he veers away from almost any responsibility in the session, and does only what he wants to…unless Vriska is stealing that ability from him. However, even through her abuse,  Tavros manages through sheer presentation of his person to encourage the other trolls to help take care of him. 

Specifically, by giving him increased mobility–mobility and freedom of movement being concepts closely related to Breath. It’s worth mentioning Tavros is able to inspire this care not just in Kanaya, but in Equius, who looks down upon lowbloods and whose culture would have encouraged him to KILL Tavros for his weakness rather than help him. 

But because of Vriska’s exploitative and cruel influence on him, I’m not sure to what extent he really lives up to his full potential. That said, he DOES manage to completely live out his own personal fantasy, coming to embody both his childhood image of Peter Pan…

BUT ALSO being the only one of the Alternian trolls to accomplish his original childhood goal: Becoming a Cavalreaper.

Get it? He’s literally cavalry. Ha ha. Is this kind of a fucked up victory? Maybe, yeah. But it’s fitting that the character obsessed with the Peter Pan fantasy of leading a troupe of “Lost Boys” never really grows up with the goals he sets for himself. Maybe it says something about Tavros, or about the nature of Ghosts–either way, it definitely seems intentional. 

Anyway, the Ghosts are another essay for another time. Time to talk about the kid I actually want to talk about:

Jake English has a fabricated persona, too. For Horuss, it’s nothingness. For Tavros, it’s endless childhood and Peter Pan. But Jake’s persona is a contrast to Dirk’s (and Dave’s) Cool Guy persona. Personas that, for each of them, sit at the dead opposite end of the spectrum from who all three characters actually are. 

And for Jake’s constructed persona is that of the Hot-Headed Hero.

And like Horrus and Tavros, Jake indulges this fantasy version of himself even when he actively knows it makes no sense to do so, simply because it’s the fantasy about his life he wants to live out. 


But like Dave and Dirk’s presentation of themselves as cool guys unphased by anything, this persona is a complete lie.

Jake is demonstrably extremely nerdy…

He collects pointless minutiae about his favorite movies and comic books. He looks up to comic book heroines so much he wants to dress up like them. 

And also intelligent, curious, and good at evaluating the potential consequences of his actions–traits he literally willfuly holds himself back from. 


His Modus is by far the most complex of all the kids. He uses a Puzzle Modus that allows him to fit any amount of items he wants in it’s storage space…so long as he can successfully spatially fit every single object within a finite space. 

And Jake captchalogues a LOT of shit. Meaning he has to keep all of this inventory and know how to spatially navigate it to fit everything he wants at all times. And he does this casually, as a part of his daily interactions with the world around him. 

But perhaps more telling than that is how Brain Ghost Dirk describes his own creation: 

Brain Ghost Dirk implies that he is a Dirk splinter, but specifically a Dirk splinter that exists entirely through the ideas Jake has about Dirk. 

In other words, Jake knows and understands Dirk so well that he can pretty much perfectly remember his body, movements and mannerisms on command. Again, not even actively, it’s just kind of how Jake English rolls-thinking about Dirk all the time is the status quo. 

And Brain Ghost Dirk claims to be Jake’s literal brain, talking back to him.

Which means when Brain Ghost Dirk calls Jake out on something, he is forcibly communicating important information to Jake that Jake is actively choosing to ignore. It’s Jake talking to himself, not Dirk giving Jake information he doesn’t have by talking to him through Brain Ghost Dirk.

We have reason to believe the Ghost about this, since Dirk never expresses having any awareness of Brain Ghost Dirk’s existence. 

So what important information does Jake willingly ignore? Well, earlier we saw him justify beating up a random alien girl even though a part of his brain knew she wasn’t actually Sea Hitler, and he kind of just wanted to play the part. But surely we can do better than that. How about everything about his friends’ feelings about him that makes him uncomfortable?

Callmearcturus wrote this brilliant thesis outlining why she thinks Jake deliberately manipulated Jane into failing to confess to him
, but I’m gonna run over it real quick to ground it in this context and sell you on the idea that this is, in fact, not a theory and explicit canon.

Because we don’t need to guess at this by reverse-engineering Jake’s well-established feelings for Dirk. Roxy literally tells him Jane has these feelings before Jane herself does:

Jake recognizes what Roxy is saying, and guesses what she was alluding to on her own. Roxy doesn’t deny it by any measure, and when she asks Jake to drop the issue, Jake says he understands the dilemma this puts her in with Jane. 

To stress: He received this information in confidence and knows it for a fact. And he trusts the information he receives so much that he then ACTS on it. After talking to Roxy, Jake messages Jane himself, OPENING by mentioning Roxy told him Jane was going to be contacting him.

And then he himself broaches the subject of their romantic feelings for each other:

But when Jane outright asks him if he has something he wants to say to her, Jake expertly dodges the question, keeping his options open while putting the onus of taking the first step and revealing her feelings on Jane again. 

And then, once he’s got her trying to answer…

He KEEPS asking her, interrupting her several times while she starts to try sorting out her thoughts. He puts Jane under a LOT of pressure here, which…considering Jake literally KNOWS the answer, is a pretty shitty thing to do! Even if Roxy hadn’t LITERALLY TOLD HIM mere minutes ago, Jane’s reactions here would have confirmed Jake’s suspicions beyond a reasonable shadow of a doubt. 

Unless, of course, one has a reputation for not thinking things through or being aware of their surroundings. 

Once Jake has his answer, he doubles back, making sure to ask her AGAIN while she’s off balance….

And he then shuts her down when she tries to take the initiative on taking it back and being honest, quickly following up by IMMEDIATELY letting her know he’s relieved about this–signaling his disinterest BEFORE she has a chance to reveal she actually does have a stake in the matter.

He then uses his goofy, unaware, trusting persona to set up a status quo where Jane continually helps him by acting as a sounding board for all his thoughts about Dirk–essentially, putting Jane inside a gender-flipped version of the laughable stereotype of The Friend Zone.

But wait a minute. Jane is one thing. But if Jake is actually this smart, aware, and capable–then it kind of has ramifications across all of his character interactions. What else changes if we read Jake this way? I know I said my next post would be on Roxy, but, uh…yeah. This one kind of got away from me. 

In our next entry, we’re going to talk about Why Jake does what he does, and Why he seems so genuinely confused about it later into his narrative. We’re also going to look at some of the other consequences his Jake’s approach to his friendships has for his friends. 

We’ll also make a case for Why exactly Jake ultimately falls in love with Dirk Strider, how and when Jake demonstrates and acts on that love, and if I can manage to squeeze it in–maybe even uncover the way the Heart aspects’ two different themes of  Souls and Romance/Shipping are conceptually connected.

And on that note, it’s worth pointing out that there’s one notable exception to the list of people fooled by Jake’s presented persona. One character who not only never talks Jake’s intelligence down…

But instead talks Jake’s intelligence UP when he talks badly about himself. 

Dirk Strider.

See you again soon, everyone. 

Until then, Keep Rising.